In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2009 (Patten, J., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eucalyptus phylacis |
|Species author||L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill|
|Reference||Telopea 4(4) (1992) 591.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
The current conservation status of the Meelup Mallee, Eucalyptus phylacis, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:
National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.
Scientific name: Eucalyptus phylacis
Common name: Meelup Mallee
The Meelup Mallee is a small mallee or tree that grows to 5 m tall with distinctive coarse, non-fibrous, loose, rough bark overlying thick, light grey-brown corky bark. The outer branches are smooth (Hill & Johnson 1992; Western Australian Herbarium 2007). The juvenile leaves are almost round and entire. Adult leaves are the same colour throughout, faintly glossy and blue-grey green. The inflorescence is axillary, with white flowers (Brown et al. 1998).
The Meelup Mallee is known only from a single population in the Cape Naturaliste area of south-west Western Australia (Hill & Johnson 1992).
The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are calculated to be approximately 0.0009 km² (or 0.09ha) which is based on on-ground estimates during population monitoring. There is some data to suggest that the extent of occurrence may have been slightly larger, as an unknown number of ramets were cleared during construction of a road and scenic lookout. (A ramet is an individual member of a clone.) There is no data to indicate future declines in extent of occurrence (Patten 2004; WA DEC 2007).
Meelup Mallee material was collected by Botanic Garden and Parks Authority (BGPA) in 1996, 1999 and 2001 for tissue culture. In vitro establishment of vegetative material (shoot and node material) has proved difficult. Analysis of this material by BGPA has revealed that it contains higher levels of phenolic compounds in the stems and leaves compared to other eucalypt species. This may be hampering the establishment of in vitro cultures.
Nevertheless, this problem has recently been overcome and young shoot material has been produced. In 2001, attempts at propagation were successful with a number of shoots growing on material collected. There are currently three plants which are approximately 12 cm high growing in pots at BGPA. The BGPA is maintaining current tissue cultures and continuing to propagate new cultures of Meelup Mallee (Patten 2004).
The species distribution is highly restricted, though not severely fragmented (WA DEC 2007).
Meelup Mallee was originally discovered by a researcher from the Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management's (CALM) Western Australian Herbarium in 1981. The original collection was then made by K.H. Rechinger in 1982. Further collections have since been made, all from the same location (Patten 2004).
Due to past road and parking area maintenance activities the population is split into four to five fairly distinct groups (three to four on the eastern side of the road and a single plant on the western side). Originally the population was larger, but prior to its discovery road construction, subsequent realignment and the development of a scenic lookout parking area fragmented the population and destroyed an unknown number of ramets. Since the significance of the species has become known, the lookout has been moved and the original site rehabilitated (Robinson & Spencer 2004). The subpopulations below are classified by land tenure (Patten 2004).
|Subpopulation||Survey History||Number of Plants Recorded*||Area|
18 (includes 1b)
10 (includes 1b)
10 (includes 1b)
18 (includes 1b)
1500m² (includes 1b)
3000m² (includes 1b)
The total population size of the Meelup Mallee is 25 mature plants, all of which are genetically identical clones or ramets (WA DEC 2007).
Meelup Mallee is known from one location which is considered to be a single population. DEC uses land tenure to further subdivide and differentiate between the known locations (WA DEC 2007).
It is possible that this is a hybrid plant which may be 6660 years old, and that one of the original parents is now extinct. Thus there may have been other similar hybrid plants which are now also extinct. The estimate of age is based on the distance between the mallee ramets, with greater distances representing more time for the plant to grow, and hence an older plant (Rossetto et al. 1999).
The population trend appears to be stable at present. The number of ramets has probably varied over the life of the plants, but in the more recent past (last 20 years) the number of ramets probably declined initially as a result of clearing for the lookout carpark. Within the last seven years the number of ramets has increased as a result of a coppicing event in 2001; however, in the timescale of this plant this is not significant (WA DEC 2007).
The known population is critical to the species long-term survival (WA DEC 2007), being the only known surviving population of this species and, therefore, the only wild source for future propagation.
The known plant of Meelup Mallee is possibly a hybrid with Redheart (Eucalyptus decipiens) and another species which may now be extinct. It is not known to hybridise with any other species (Patten 2004; WA DEC 2007).
Subpopulation 1b occurs in Meelup Regional Park, an 'A Class' Nature Reserve which is managed for the conservation of flora and fauna, but not specifically for Meelup Mallee. Subpopulation 1a occurs in the adjacent Shire road reserve (WA DEC 2007).
Meelup Mallee is found on the crest of a loamy granite ridge overlooking the coast, growing in loamy granitic and lateritic soils (Brown et al. 1998; Kelly et al. 1995). The associated habitat consists of open low woodland of E. calophylla and E. marginata over low scrub of Acacia extensa, Xanthorrhoea preissii, X. gracilis, Hakea lissocarpha, Melaleuca sp. and Allocasuarina humilis (Patten 2004).
There are no other known threatened flora or communities in the habitat of Meelup Mallee (Patten 2004). However, the threatened Dunsborough Spider-orchid (Caladenia viridescens) occurs nearby.
Meelup Mallee is thought to be a hybrid, of which one of the parent species is thought to be Redheart (E. decipiens). Extensive searches throughout the region have, however, failed to find a second species that may be the other parent. It is possible that the other parent species is now extinct. No genotypic differences were detected in a sample of 20 Meelup Mallee ramets studied. This suggests that they are all from the same clone (Patten 2004).
Until recently it appeared that the Meelup Mallee did not produce much viable seed, despite prolific flowering from February to March (Kelly et al. 1995). However in September 2003, a small number of fruits and six seeds were collected. Three of these seeds have since germinated. The morphology and genetics of these plants will be investigated as the plants develop (Patten 2004).
The distance between the mallee ramets suggests that the plant is very old, possibly more than 6380 years (Rossetto et al. 1999), and as old as 6660 years (Scott 2003). This indicates that it is potentially one of the oldest eucalypts on record (Patten 2004).
Meelup Mallee is closely related to Redheart but differs in having smaller buds and fruit, broadly conical opercula (the conical cap on the bud) and in not having emarginate (a small notch at the leaf tip) juvenile leaves (CALM 1999; Brooker & Kleineg 1990).
Meelup Mallee is best searched for while it is in flower from February to March (although seeds or flowers can be used for a positive identification) (WA DEC 2007).
|Subpopulation Number||Current Condition||Past||Present||Potential Future|
|1a||Moderate-Poor||Clearing for development of a scenic lookout, fuel reduction burn, insect damage, aerial canker||Competition, trampling||Fire, poor genetic diversity, poor regeneration, road maintenance activities|
|1b||Moderate||Clearing for development of a scenic lookout, fuel reduction burn, insect damage, aerial canker||Competition, trampling||Fire, poor genetic diversity, poor regeneration.|
The main threats to Meelup Mallee are competition, trampling and fire (WA DEC 2007c). Road maintenance activities, poor genetic diversity, and poor regeneration are minor threats to the population (Patten 2004).
In the past, insect damage and aerial canker have been threats but appear to have been resolved (WA DEC 2007c). Meelup Mallee has also been damaged by roadworks and the development of the scenic lookout (which has since been moved and the area rehabilitated) (Hill & Johnson 1992; WA DEC 2007).
On 18 April 2005, a fuel reduction burn by the Shire of Busselton escaped and burnt the entire population of Meelup Mallee. All but one of the ramets existing at that time was completely defoliated. By June 2005, the first signs of coppicing were observed and by the end of 2006, 25 ramets had associated coppice growth. Of these, 20 were basal re-sprouters and five were basal and crown re-sprouters. One of the new coppices did not originate from a ramet that was extant prior to the fire. Three ramets which were alive prior to the fire had not recovered by the end of 2006. Recovery has been steady and healthy, with some of the coppice more than 2.5 metres in height by the end of 2006 (WA DEC 2007c).
Since the fire, competition with Running Postman (Kennedia prostrata) and Kennedia coccinea has been noted to occur. These species recover quickly post-fire and out-compete other recovering vegetation, including coppice growth from Meelup Mallee. Hand pruning was undertaken in 2006. Monitoring was also conducted for grazing and trampling as the species is in close proximity to the car park. There has been no significant impact from these threats to date.
The Interim Recovery Plan (Patten 2004) describes the following threats:
Insect damage caused by Phoracantha sp. (Cerambycidae) (Longicorn or Longhorn beetles) and borers have caused stress damage to Meelup Mallee stems in the past. All stems are affected on some trees, while only one or two stems are affected on others. The beetle larvae damage has caused extensive fissures in the bark that has introduced a secondary fungal pathogen.
Aerial canker has been a major threat to the Meelup Mallee population. Stem death has occurred in the past, and Cytospora eucalylocoda, Botryosphaeria sp., Endotheilla, and Ravostrama aerial canker fungi have been isolated from cankers. Dieback disease is present in the park in which the species occurs, but it has not been determined if the habitat of Meelup Mallee or the plants themselves are infected with the disease. Since the fire in 1995, monitoring has not shown any signs of insect or pathogen damage. It has been concluded that as the fire intensity was high, the canker inoculum on the plants and in the surrounding vegetation has been destroyed. Monitoring is on-going (WA DEC 2007c).
Poor genetic diversity is indicated, as all known wild and micropropagated plants originate from the one clone. The genetics and adult morphology of the most recent plants germinated from seed in 2003 are unknown. Limited genetic diversity would restrict the species' capacity to adapt to changes in its environment.
Poor regeneration, probably due to lack of fertile propagules, and/or appropriate disturbance, threatens the population as very little regeneration of Meelup Mallee has been observed. Bark splits and limb deaths are common, and the plants are old and senescing. The species is suspected to be a hybrid and to date has produced few viable seeds. The main method of regeneration of the Meelup Mallee is through re-sprouting. Lack of other regeneration threatens the health and resilience of the species.
Road maintenance activities may threaten the Meelup Mallee plants along the road verge. Threats include actions such as grading of road reserves and access tracks, spraying of chemicals, constructing drainage channels and slashing or completely removing the roadside vegetation to improve visibility. These disturbance events also often encourage weed invasion into adjacent habitat, as well as causing damage to actual plants.
Other impacts include rubbish dumping, soil compaction by vehicles, inappropriate fire regimes, and illegal seed collection (Kershaw et al. 1996f).
The Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Interim Recovery Plan 20042009 (Patten 2004) describes the following existing and proposed recovery actions:
Existing recovery actions
The Shire of Busselton has been formally notified of the presence and threatened nature of the population of Meelup Mallee on and adjacent to land that they manage. The notification details the Declared Rare status of the species and the associated legal responsibilities.
Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at subpopulation 1a. These alert workers to the presence of threatened flora and help to prevent accidental damage during maintenance operations. An awareness of the markers is being promoted to relevant bodies such as Shires through dashboard stickers and posters. These illustrate DRF markers, inform of their purpose and provide a contact telephone number if such a marker is encountered.
An A4 sized poster, that provides a description of the species and information about threats and recovery actions, has been developed for Meelup Mallee. It is hoped that the information provided in the poster will result in the discovery of new populations.
In January 1996, Meelup Mallee trees were injected with an insecticide, dimethylate, in an attempt to control borers. An inspection of the trees was carried out in June 1997 and all appeared healthy except for the death of an old heavily borer-damaged stem.
In February 1996, the car park adjacent to the population of Meelup Mallee was removed by ripping. In June 1997, rehabilitation was undertaken by the Meelup Regional Park Management Committee (MRPMC) on the old car park site. Debris accumulated under the trees and from the road verge was raked out and spread over the site, and weeds were controlled using the commercial herbicide Roundup.
In 1996 samples of Meelup Mallee were tested for fungus by CALM's Science Division Vegetation Health Service, and Botryosphaeria and Cytospora cankers were identified.
Meelup Mallee material was collected by BGPA in 1996, 1999 and 2001 for tissue culture. In 2001, attempts at propagation were successful with a number of shoots growing from material collected. There are currently three plants which are approximately 12 cm high growing in pots at BGPA. The BGPA is maintaining current tissue cultures and continuing to propagate new cultures of Meelup Mallee.
An experiment designed to simulate regeneration following fire was undertaken by CALM staff in June 2001 in response to increased canker activity causing tree limb death and decline of foliage health. The worst affected ramet (individual group of stems) was coppiced and the cut surfaces sealed to prevent fungal infection. The stems were analysed for canker and other organisms, and age dated by counting growth rings. Residual material was burnt off site, and distributed around the stump. The coppiced plant was then fenced to prevent grazing during regeneration.
A monitoring program has been devised to measure health and growth of Meelup Mallee. Eight ramets with approximately seven stems each have been tagged and data including stem diameter at a height of 1.3 m off the ground, the number, size and state of splits or lesions in the bark at various heights, any insect activity, and stem and leaf health are recorded twice a year. This is done in January or February and in August by volunteers from the MRPMC.
A fire response strategy for the area containing Meelup Mallee has been prepared and incorporated into the Blackwood District's Fire Control Working Plan.
Staff from DEC's Blackwood District office regularly monitor the population.
Future recovery actions
The following future recovery actions, as described by Patten (2004), will be monitored by the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) through the South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (SWRTFCRT) and the BGPA.
Coordinate recovery actions
The South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (SWRTFCRT) will continue to coordinate the implementation of recovery actions for the Meelup Mallee.
Map critical habitat
It is a requirement of the EPBC Act that spatial data relating to critical habitat be determined. The areas of habitat described have not yet been mapped and that will be redressed under this action. If any additional populations are located, then critical habitat will also be determined and mapped for these locations.
Develop and implement a coppice treatment strategy
The future of the known Meelup Mallee population depends on rejuvenating the health and vigor of the stand. A program of gradual coppice treatment, where one or two individuals are coppiced in spring as plant health and conditions determine, will be developed in consultation with stakeholders and land managers.
Develop and implement a strategy to control insect borers and canker pathogens
A strategy will be developed and implemented to treat insect borers and cankers. Application of insecticides and fungicides will be trialed and monitored to determine effectiveness.
Develop and implement an Emergency Response Plan
Fire or techniques that simulate fire appear to stimulate a regeneration response in the Meelup Mallee. However, too frequent fire is likely to deplete the mallee root storage, and lead to habitat degradation including an increase in weed invasion. A Fire Control Working Plan has been developed for the Blackwood District but an Emergency Response Plan is required for Meelup Mallee. Other fire fighting agencies will be informed of appropriate responses to fire threatening this site. Firebreaks will continue to be maintained.
Due to the germination of three seeds collected in 2003, the collection of seed will be resumed.
Undertake genetic testing of seedlings
Morphological and genetic testing of the three seedlings produced in 2003, as well as any future seedlings produced, will help determine whether the seed was produced from Meelup Mallee self pollinating, or if the seed was produced from outcrossing with another species.
Develop a cryostorage protocol for long term storage of tissue cultured shoot apices
BGPA is currently maintaining tissue cultures of Meelup Mallee and developing a cryostorage protocol for long term storage of tissue cultured shoot apices. This will ensure that viable genetic material is maintained regardless of the fate of the parent stock in the wild.
Test for Phytophthora spp. resistance
Testing to determine the resistance of Meelup Mallee to Phytophthora spp. will be carried out on some of the clones held by BGPA or on material that is cultured in future.
Implement disease hygiene measures
Dieback is present in the park in which the species occurs, but it is not known if the site that contains Meelup Mallee or the plants themselves are infected with the disease. Many flora species in the plant community are presumed susceptible to this disease and it is necessary to maintain disease hygiene measures to reduce the likelihood of introducing or amplifying the impacts of disease. Dieback hygiene will therefore be adhered to for activities such as installation and maintenance of firebreaks, and walking into the population in wet soil conditions. If the Meelup Mallee is shown to be susceptible to Phytophthora, the entire population will be fenced to prevent the transfer of infected soils.
Monitoring of factors such as insect and canker damage, weed invasion, habitat degradation, population health and stability (expansion or decline), pollinator activity, seed production, recruitment, and longevity is essential. The population will be inspected annually.
Liaise with relevant land managers
The Shire of Busselton has been officially notified of the occurrence of the species. Staff from DEC's Blackwood District will continue to liaise with the current land managers, including the Meelup Regional Park Management Committee, to help ensure continued awareness of the population, and that it is not damaged or destroyed accidentally. Input and involvement will also be sought from any indigenous groups that have an active interest in areas that are habitat for Meelup Mallee.
Obtain biological and ecological information
Increased knowledge of the biology and ecology of the species will provide a scientific basis for management of Meelup Mallee in the wild. Investigations will include:
- A study of the effect of disturbance (such as coppicing and fire), competition, rainfall and grazing on stem production.
- Determining reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth.
- Determining time when flowering first occurs following disturbance, and the age at which stem splitting and senescence is reached.
The importance of biodiversity conservation and the need for the long-term protection of Meelup Mallee in the wild will be promoted to the public through the local print, electronic media and poster displays. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will continue to be encouraged.
Due to the potential susceptibility of the habitat of this species to dieback caused by Phytophthora spp., the need for the application of dieback hygiene procedures will be included in information provided to visitors to the site. This will stress the need to restrict the movement of soil into the habitat of the population.
Conduct further surveys
No new populations of Meelup Mallee have been located in surveys of the Leeuwin/Naturaliste Ridge and surrounding areas of remnant vegetation. However, it is speculated that Meelup Mallee is a hybrid of Redheart. Therefore areas that contain Redheart provide likely search areas. Interested groups such as the Meelup Regional Park Management Committee, Wildflower Society members and Naturaliste's Clubs will be encouraged to be involved in further surveys supervised by DEC's staff. These will be conducted during the species' flowering period (February to March) (Patten 2004).
Meelup Mallee taxonomy was described by Hill and Johnson (1992).
Rossetto and colleagues (1999) studied conservation genetics and clonality of this species.
Scott (2003) undertook an Honours project on identification of the causal organism associated with stem canker disease in the Meelup Mallee.
Robinson and Spencer (2004) undertook work on the impact of coppice treatments.
The Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Interim Recovery Plan No. 155 2004� and the Declared rare and poorly known flora in the Central Forest Region, Wildlife Management program No. 33 provide guides to the threat abatement and management of the Meelup Mallee (Patten 2004; Williams et al. 2001).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Aerial Canker disease||Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2009 (Patten, J., 2004) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Negative impacts caused by insects||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease||Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects||Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2009 (Patten, J., 2004) [Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||
Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2009 (Patten, J., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low fecundity, reproductive rate and/or poor recruitment||Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2009 (Patten, J., 2004) [Recovery Plan].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Brooker, M.I.H. & D.A. Kleinig (1990). Field guide to Eucalypts: Volume 2, Southwestern and southern Australia. Melbourne: Inkata Press.
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
CALM (1999). Meelup Mallee. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/tec/posters/10melmal.pdf.
Hill, K.D. & L.A.S. Johnson (1992). Systematic studies in the eucalypts. 5. New taxa and combinations in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Western Australia. Telopea. 4(4):561-634. Sydney: Royal Botanic Gardens.
Kelly, A.E., A.C. Napier, & S.D. Hopper (1995). Survey of rare and poorly known eucalypts of Western Australia. CALM Science. Suppl. 2. Waneroo Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM).
Kershaw, K., Holland, E. & Brown, A. (1996f). Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Interim Recovery Plan 1996-1999. Wanneroo: WA CALM.
Patten, J. (2004). Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2009. [Online]. Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/e-phylacis/index.html.
Robinson, R.M. & M. Spencer (2004). Coppice treatment gives hope to rare and endangered mallee eucalypt in the south-west of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 87:109-114.
Rossetto, M., G. Jezierski, S.D. Hopper & K.W. Dixon (1999). Conservation genetics and clonality in two critically endangered eucalypts from the highly endemic south-western Australian flora. Biological Conservation. 88:321-331.
Scott, P. (2003). The analysis and identification of possible causal agents of canker formation in Eucalyptus phylacis (Meelup Mallee) from Cape Naturaliste in the south west of Western Australia. Hons. Thesis. Western Australia: Murdoch University.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.
Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007c). Meelup Mallee (Eucalyptus phylacis) Annual Report 2006. Unpublished report by the Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth.
Western Australian Herbarium (2007). FloraBase: The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/. [Accessed: 05-Apr-2007].
Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.naturebase.net/content/view/283/1213/.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus phylacis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 8 Mar 2014 12:28:16 +1100.