Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Hoary Sunray Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor (Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2010i) [Recovery Plan] as Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species Notesheet - Leucochrysum albicans ssp. albicans var. tricolor (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE), 2003a) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor (Hoary Sunray, Grassland Paper-daisy): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014de) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list) as Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): May 2014 list) as Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor [56204]
Family Asteraceae:Asterales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author (DC.) Paul G.Wilson
Reference Wilson, Paul. G. (1992) The Classification of Australian species currently included in Helipterum and related genera (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae): Part 2: Leucochrysum. Nuytsia 8(3): 443 N [comb. nov.]
Other names Roccardia albicans f. bicolorum [29962]
Helichrysum incanum [35782]
Helipterum albicans f. grampianum [32813]
Helipterum albicans f. incanum [32826]
Helipterum albicans f. purpureo-album [32832]
Helipterum bicolorum [32892]
Helipterum incanum var. purpureo-album [39507]
Helipterum incanum var. tricolor [39519]
Helipterum albicans var. incanum [5001]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor

Common name: Hoary Sunray

Other common names: Grassland Paper Daisy, Straw Daisy

The Hoary Sunray is conventionally accepted as Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor (CHAH 2010), although some authors define it as Leucochrysum albicans subsp. albicans var. tricolor (Ross & Walsh 2003; Wilson 1992a). It was previously known as Helipterum incanum var. tricolor.

This taxon constitutes part of a variable, polymorphic species (i.e. Leucochrysum albicans) which is divided into a number of subspecific taxa. There has been ongoing taxonomic revision of this subspecific group (Cooke 1986; Hooker 1856; Willis 1973; Wilson 1960, 1992a) and further work may occur (Sinclair 2010).

The Hoary Sunray is a low tufted to mounding perennial straw daisy. It grows to 15 cm tall and flowers in spring and summer (Sinclair 2010). After flowering it dries out to rootstock (Sinclair 2010). The flowerheads are 2–5 cm in diameter and surrounded by numerous white overlapping ovate-oblong bracts, with the outer layer often tinged purple or brown (Sinclair 2010).

The stems are branched and woody near the base or can be erect with the older stems spreading horizontally. The young stems are white with woolly hairs. The stems grow 10–40 cm long (Curtis 1963; Tas. DPIPWE 2003a). The leaves are stalkless, between 4–12 cm long and arranged alternately on the stem. They are crowded near the base of the stem and threadlike to almost flat with margins that are bent backwards. Both surfaces are covered in soft cotton like hairs that are white. The older leaves are persistent at the base of the stems (Curtis 1963; Tas. DPIPWE 2003a).

The flower heads are solitary and at the ends of long stalks that bear a few small, scattered bracts (leaf-like structures). The outer phyllaries (bracts of the flower) are shorter than the inner ones, oblong shaped and very thin and clear. The inner phyllaries are between 18–20 mm long and have narrow-oval thin blades, which are white or tipped with reddish purple. The florets contain both sexes. The second whorl of floral leaves is greenish-yellow and shorter than the phyllaries. Flowering occurs in November–January (Curtis 1963; Tas. DPIPWE 2003a).

The fruits are brown, ovoid, 2–3 mm long, with 14–20 pappus bristles (Wilson 1992a). The fruit is a small, dry structure with leathery walls. The fruit is hairless and the pappus (ring of scales or hairs found at the top of the fruit) is not joined at the base, rather it is slightly thickened towards the tip and feather-like (Curtis 1963; Tas. DPIPWE 2003a).

The Hoary Sunray occurs from Queensland to Victoria and in Tasmania. Records from Queensland are historic, and the species most current northern occurrence is Goulburn, NSW (Sinclair 2010).

Tasmania

The Hoary Sunray is scattered across the midlands, particularly around Ross, Turnbridge and Campbelltown. It also occurs in the north of the State and in several locations in the Great Western Tiers. The species is known from the Tasmanian South East, Tasmanian Northern Midlands, Tasmanian Central Highlands and King IBRA bioregions (Sinclair 2010). Records indicate that it once occurred in southern Tasmania, between Buckland and Oatlands, on the north coast near Wynyard, and in some areas of western Tasmania (Sinclair 2010). 

Victoria

The Hoary Sunray occurs in a small area between Colac, Inverleigh, Ballarat, Ararat and Hamilton, in the Victorian Volcanic Plain Bioregion (Sinclair 2010). Herbarium records show that the taxon was once more widespread in south-west Victoria, with records at the National Herbarium of Victoria from Port Fairy, Macarthur, Creswick and Mt Cole (Sinclair 2010). In 2010, under EPBC 2010/5328, a large population of Hoary Sunray was located in Victorian grassland roadside located on the Ararat-Mortlake Road reserve between Lake Bolac and Ross Bridge in western Victoria.

NSW and ACT

The Hoary Sunray occurs at relatively high elevations in woodland and open forest communities, in an area roughly bounded by Goulburn, Albury and Bega (Sinclair 2010). The species has been recorded in the Yass Valley, Tumut, Upper Lachlan, Snowy River and Galong (ACT Commissioner for the Environment 2004; Umwelt 2009). The species is known from the South Eastern Highlands, Australian Alps and Sydney Basin bioregions (Sinclair 2010). Herbarium records indicate that the taxa once occurred more widely in inland NSW, near Cobar, Dubbo, Lithgow, Moss Vale and Delegate (Sinclair 2010).

Accurate population data does not exist for the Hoary Sunray. However, estimates suggest that there are presently 400 000–1 000 000 plants remaining in several hundred wild subpopulations (100 000–175 000 plants in Tasmania, <40 000 in Victoria, >100 000 in NSW and >100 000 in the ACT) (Sinclair 2010).

The total number of subpopulations is unknown. However, according to Sinclair (2010) there are probably many hundreds in total. There are 53 'patches' known in Victoria, sometimes growing close together on roadsides, forming about 20 subpopulations (when nearby patches on the same roadside are grouped together) (Sinclair 2010). There are about 20 subpopulations in Tasmania (Sinclair 2010). There are no specific data available on subpopulations for the ACT or NSW.

The following table presents Hoary Sunray population information (Sinclair 2010):

Location Number of plants Manager
Tasmania   
Vale of Belvoir (Conservation Area and private property) >30 000 Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE)/Tasmanian Land Conservancy (conservation covenant and managed for conservation value)
Ross >10 000 private
Middlesex Plain >10 000 private
The Nut State Reserve ~6000 DPIPWE
Township Lagoon Nature Reserve (NR) ~1000 DPIPWE
Victoria 
Glenelg Highway, Streatham ~4800 VicRoads
Ararat-Glenthompson Road, Willaura ~4700 Ararat Rural City
Bolac Plains Road, Woorndoo ~4600 Moyne Shire
Hamilton Highway, Cressy ~3900 Corangamite Shire
Rokewood Cemetery and roadsides ~2000 Golden Plains Shire
Wickliffe-Willaura Road, Wickliffe ~2000 Ararat Rural City
Lismore-Scarsdale Road, Wallinduc ~1900 Golden Plains Shire
NSW 
Snowy Mountains Highway and adjacent lands, Adaminaby >5000 Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA)
Cuumbeun NR, Queanbeyan 'several thousand' Office of the Environment and Heritage (OEH)
Queanbeyan NR, Queanbeyan 'several hundred' OEH
Kuma NR, Cooma ~100 OEH
Brooks Hill Reserve, Bungendore 'several hundred' unknown
Gale Crown Reserve, Queanbeyan 'several thousand' unknown
Gundary Travelling Stock Route (TSR), Goulburn 'several hundred' Livestock Health and Pest Authorities (LHPA)
Top Hut TSR, Adaminaby 'several thousand' LHPA
John French VC rest area unknown RTA
Cowpers Creek unknown private
Dewsburys Lane unknown private
'Lark Hill' unknown private
'Milbang' unknown private
'Mount Pleasant' unknown private
Old Cooma Common Reserve, Cooma 'several hundred' unknown (crown land under grazing lease)
ACT
CSIRO Limestone Avenue unknown Commonwealth of Australia
Campbell Park unknown Department of Defence (DoD)
Majura Field Firing Range unknown DoD
Campbell Park offices unknown DoD
Ainslie Majura NR unknown ACT Government
Ainslie Canberra Nature Park (CNP) unknown ACT Government
Hackett horse paddocks unknown ACT Government
Kowen Forest unknown ACT Government
Kowen slope unknown ACT Government
Rob Roy Foothills unknown ACT Government
Tuggeranong Hill NR unknown ACT Government
Wanniassa Hills CNP unknown ACT Government
Majura slope unknown ACT Government
Mt Ainslie unknown ACT Government
Mulligan's Flat NR unknown ACT Government
ACT Conder 9 unknown private lease
Newline North unknown private lease

The Hoary Sunray is known from Cuumbeun NR, The Nut State Reserve, Township Lagoon NR, Queanbeyan NR, Kuma NR, Ainslie Majura NR, Tuggeranong Hill NR and Mulligan's Flat NR (Sinclair 2010).

Habitat characteristics

The Hoary Sunray occurs in a wide variety of grassland, woodland and forest habitats, generally on relatively heavy soils (Sinclair 2010). Plants can be found in natural or semi-natural vegetation and grazed or ungrazed habitat. Bare ground is required for germination. The unpalatability of this species is likely to protect it in heavily grazed areas where patches of bare ground are likely to develop, favouring recruitment (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994d, 1994e).

Tasmania

In Tasmania, the Hoary Sunray has a broad climatic and ecological range, occurring in temperate grassy habitats on clay loam soils (Gilfedder 1991a; Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994d, 1994e). Sites range from 60–1160 m altitude, with annual rainfall varying from 450 mm in the midlands to 2000 mm (occasionally 3000 mm) in the north-west (Sinclair 2010). There is a considerable area of potentially suitable habitat for Hoary Sunray in Tasmania (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994d). The species occurs in eight of the grassland and grassy woodland communities described for Tasmania (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994d).

The largest populations of Hoary Sunray occur on gentle slopes on fertile clay-loam soils associated with limestone. It is absent from the low fertility soils derived from quartzite and conglomerate that are widespread in western Tasmania (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994d).

ACT

In NSW and ACT, Hoary Sunray occurs in grasslands, grassy areas in woodlands and dry open forests, and modified habitats, on a variety of soil types including clays, clay loams, stony and gravely soil (Sinclair 2010).

Victoria

In Victoria, the Hoary Sunray occurs almost exclusively on acidic clay soils derived from basalt, occasionally on nearby sandy-clay soils derived from sedimentary material (Costin 1999; Costin et al. 2001).

Vegetation associations

The following table presents Hoary Sunray vegetation associations (Sinclair 2010):

State Landform Vegetation structure Over storey Mid storey Under storey Notes
Tasmania Lowland Grassy woodland Manna Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis), Swamp Gum (Eucalyptus ovata) and/or Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora) Bossiaea spp. and Hibbertia hirsuta Themeda triandra, Austrostipa spp. and Long-hair Plume-grass (Dichelachne crinita). Herbs include Convolvulus sp., Pussy Tails (Ptilotus spathulatus), Common Woodruff (Asperula conferta), Vittadinia muelleri and Soft Crane’s-bill (Geranium potentilloides). In lowland areas, the most common habitat type for the Hoary Sunray.
Grassy-heathy woodland Manna Gum or Black Peppermint (Eucalyptus amygdalina)   Bracken (Pteridium esculentum), Honey Pots (Acrotriche serrulata), Hibbertia spp., Common Flat-pea (Platylobium obtusangulum), (Hovea heterophylla), Common Beard-heath (Leucopogon virgatus), Themeda trianrda, Poa hookeri and Hemarthria uncinata  
Grassland   White Correa (Correa alba), Pomaderris apetala, Sweet Bursaria (Bursaria spinosa), Prickly Moses (Acacia verticillata), Swamp Paperbark (Melaleuca ericifolia) and weeds Poa labillardierei Most of these areas have been substantially modified by a long history of grazing 
Montane Shrubby grassland   Coprosma pumila, Gaultheria tasmanica, Alpine Grevillea (Grevillea australis), Leucopogon spp., Thyme Mitrewort (Mitrasacme serpyllifolia), Carpet Heath (Pentachondra pumilla), Richea acerosa, Alpine Daisy-bush (Pimelea pygmea) and Tetratheca procumbens Poa spp., Dichelachne rara, Bristle-grass (Trisetum spicatum), Deyeuxia spp., Yorkshire Fog (Holcus lanatus), Sweet Vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) and Creeping Bent (Agrostis stolenifera). Herbs includes Brachyscome spp., Colobanthus apetalus, Alpine Cotula (Cotula alpina), Euphrasia spp., Microseris sp., Silver Carraway (Oreomyrrhis argentea), Australian Carraway (Oreomyrrhis eriopoda), Showy Podolepis (Podolepis jaceoides), Rhodanthe anthemoides, Scaly Buttons (Leptorhynchos squamatus), Viola cunninghamii and Wahlenbergia spp. Weeds include Acetosella vulgaris, Cirsium arvense, Trifolium spp. and Cat’s Ear (Hypochaeris radicata).  
Victoria   Grassland     Themeda triandra, Dichelachne crinita, Austrostipa spp., Austrodanthonia spp., Common Bog-rush (Schoenus apogon), Juncus spp., Blue Devil (Eryngium ovinum), Lemon Beauty-heads (Calocephalus citreus), Sheep’s Burr (Acaena echinata) and Leptorhynchos squamatus  
NSW and ACT   Grassland and grassy woodland Yellow Box (Eucalyptus melliodora), Blakely’s Red Gum (Eucalyptus blakelyi), Red Box (Eucalyptus polyanthemos), Brittle Gum (Eucalyptus mannifera) or Snow Gum Beyeria viscosa, Pultenaea spp., Acacia rubida, Acacia genistifolia, Cassinia longifolia, Allocasuarina spp. and Kunzea parvifolia Themeda triandra and Austrodanthonia spp.  

Associated threatened species and ecological communities

The Hoary Sunray occurs in the Natural Temperate Grassland of the Southern Tablelands of NSW and the Australian Capital Territory, White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland, and the Natural Temperate Grassland of the Victorian Volcanic Plain, which are threatened EPBC Act ecological communities (Sinclair 2010).

The Hoary Sunray occurs at sites supporting other EPBC Act listed species, including Button Winklewort (Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides), Fragrant Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum suaveolens), Monaro Golden Daisy (Rutidosis leiolepis) and Plains Rice-flower (Pimelea spinescens subsp. spinescens) (Sinclair 2010).

The Hoary Sunray flowers from spring to summer (Harden 1992). Seeds are wind dispersed and the species does not rely on long lived soil seed banks for germination (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994e). The species produces many small, short-lived seeds that are dependent on the presence of bare ground, or inter-tussock spaces, free from heavy competition (particularly from grasses such as Kangaroo Grass Themeda triandra) for germination and establishment (Sinclair 2010). In some areas at least, some disturbance is required for successful establishment, and seedlings often appear on areas that have been scraped or burnt (Sinclair 2010). Adult plants live for 5–7 years (Sinclair 2010).

The Hoary Sunray is an obligate out-breeder that is entirely dependant on the transfer of pollen between individuals for successful reproduction. Pollination is by many different insects, including bees (Apidae) and flies (Tephritidae) (Berechree 2003). Seed can probably disperse over many kilometres, will germinate fairly rapidly under a wide range of conditions, and can remain viable in the soil for at least a few months, although probably not for long periods (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994c, 1994d, 1994e). There are, however, differences between the germination and growth of plants from different environments within Tasmania (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994c) and between Tasmanian plants and mainland plants, with Victorian plants germinating more rapidly than Tasmanian plants (Morgan 1998).

In studies on the genealogical variation in the germination requirements of the taxa (Gilfedder 1994c), seed was collected from at least 50 plants from four localities between February and March 1988. Test results revealed that peak germination occurred at 20 °C for all areas, with a marked decline in germination success at lower temperatures. Lowland localities had higher germination rates than mountain localities. The germination of lowland seed peaked earlier than that of the seed from mountain areas (Gilfedder 1994c).

Leucochrysum albicans subsp. alpinum, which occurs in the alpine regions of Victoria, NSW and ACT, has white bracts (base of the flower) but broad, obovate to oblanceolate leaves (Sinclair 2010), whereas the the Hoary Sunray has linear-oblanceolate (lance-shaped with broad end at the top) (Ross & Walsh 2003; Wilson 1992a). Both Leucochrysum albicans subsp. albicans var. buffaloensis, which only occurs on Mt. Buffalo, and Leucochrysum albicans subsp. albicans var. albicans, which is widespread for Victoria to Queensland, have yellow involucral bracts (ring of leaves beneath the flower) (Sinclair 2010), whereas the Hoary Sunray has white involucral bracts (Wilson 1992a).

Although the Hoary Sunray is still relatively widely distributed and can be locally common in some locations, it has suffered a substantial decline in range (and almost certainly abundance) since European settlement (Sinclair 2010). The taxon has declined from much of its former range in NSW, with remaining records confined to the south-east of the State (Sinclair 2010). In Victoria, it has declined or disappeared from many sites on the basalt plains (Sinclair 2010). In Tasmania, Hoary Sunray was once fairly common, but has also declined across much of its range there (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994d).

Habitat destruction and degradation due to agriculture has been the biggest cause of historical decline (Sinclair 2010). In Victoria, native grasslands once covered about 2 million ha, but have been reduced to only 0.5% of their original extent, with most of the remnants small, isolated and degraded (Costin et al. 2001). Most remaining populations occur in more or less degraded linear roadside remnants in an agricultural landscape (Sinclair 2010).

The following table presents known threats to the Hoary Sunray (Sinclair 2010):

Threat Risk  Detail
Habitat destruction and clearing High  Although bare ground exposure is important for Hoary Sunray regeneration, heavy soil disturbance can destroy adult plants. Disturbance has caused the decline (and probably local extinction) of many populations (Sinclair 2010). The restriction of many populations, especially to roadside remnants, places the taxon at high risk from road and utilities construction and maintenance (Sinclair 2010). Populations on private land are at risk, especially where land use might change such as from grazing to cropping (Sinclair 2010). 
Weed invasion High The Hoary Sunray is restricted to small (usually narrow and linear) remnants, which are often susceptible to weed invasion (Hobbs & Yates 2003). It does not tolerate heavy competition. Weeds currently threatening the taxon include Cat's Ear (Hypochaeris radicata), clover (Trifolium spp.), Toowoomba Canary-grass (Phalaris aquatica), Brown-top Bent (Agrostis capillaris), Paspalum (Paspalum dilatatum), Cocksfoot (Dactylus glomerata) and Onion-grass (Romulea rosea) (Sinclair 2010). 
Poor reservation status  High  The Hoary Sunray survives largely outside the reserve system (Gilfedder 1991a).
Lack of appropriate biomass reduction Low to high  The Hoary Sunray requires bare ground to persist. Seedlings have poor survival when they grow close to grass tussocks, but fare better when they establish on bare ground, or areas dominated by herbs (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994e). Similarly, this may explain the species’ persistence and spread in some areas of lightly grazed agricultural land (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994d, 1994e), where bare soil is constantly exposed. Whilst lack of disturbance can lead to exclusion by grass/weed species, regular mowing/slashing of roadsides can encourage grass growth and reduce bare ground over time (Sinclair 2010).
Inappropriate fire regimes Moderate Little is known of the fire response of Hoary Sunray. Its transient seed bank may place it at risk from inappropriate fire (Sinclair 2010). 
Grazing Low to high The tolerance of Hoary Sunray to grazing varies markedly between areas. It appears that grazing is a direct threat in Victoria, and possibly in NSW and the ACT but that it is not necessarily a threat in Tasmania, where grazing has played an important role in biomass reduction and encouraging recruitment (Sinclair 2010).
Small population size Moderate to high  The Hoary Sunray occurs as many small, isolated populations that are subject to the effects of fragmentation and at risk of localised extinction (Sinclair 2010).

Draft recovery plan

The Draft Recovery Plan for the Hoary Sunray (Sinclair 2010) includes a number of recovery actions. The overall objective of the plan (Sinclair 2010) is to minimise the probability of extinction of the Hoary Sunray in the wild and to increase the probability of important populations becoming self-sustaining in the long term. Objectives of the draft plan include: 

  • determine distribution, abundance and population structure
  • determine habitat requirements
  • ensure that key populations and their habitat are protected and managed appropriately
  • manage threats to populations
  • identify key biological functions
  • determine growth rates and viability of populations
  • build community support for conservation.

Actions undertaken

A number of initiatives are already in place to conserve the Hoary Sunray. In Victoria, Hoary Sunray has been the subject of substantial genetic and demographic research, including studies aimed at determining whether smaller and/or more isolated populations suffered reduced fitness (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1994; Costin 1999; Costin et al. 2001; Berechree 2003). A Public Authority Management Agreement is in place with the Rokewood Cemetery in Victoria to manage the area for its conservation values (Sinclair 2010). The population at the Vale of Belvoir in Tasmania is covered by a conservation covenant, and management prescriptions to manage the area for its conservation values have been prepared (Sinclair 2010).

The Gundaroo Common Trust (NSW) received $900 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2000-01, part of which was for education of the local community about the threatened Hoary Sunray through erection of signs, management of sites through grass slashing, and annual on-site stakeholder liaison.

Major Studies on the Hoary Sunray include:

  • demography and ecology of the taxa (Gilfedder 1991a)
  • effects of smaller/isolated populations on the taxa's fitness (Berechree 2003; Costin 1999).

Management documents relevant to the Hoary Sunray include:

  • Draft Recovery Plan for the Hoary Sunray (Sinclair 2010).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phalaris aquatica (Phalaris) Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolorin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006pd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Paspalum dilatatum (Paspalum) Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolorin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006pd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Romulea rosea var. communis (Common Onion-grass) Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolorin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006pd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolorin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006pd) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolorin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006pd) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolorin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006pd) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Species Disturbance:Inappropriate disturbance regime Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolorin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006pd) [Internet].

ACT Commissioner for the Environment (2004). 2004 State of Environment Report for the Australian Capital Region.

Berechree, M. (2003). Effects of habitat fragmentation on the genetics and demography of the grassland daisy, Leucochrysum albicans subsp. albicans var. tricolor. Hons. Thesis. Victoria: Department of Botany, LaTrobe University.

Cooke, D.A. (1986). Compositae (Asteraceae). In: Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. Flora of South Australia, Part III: Polemoniaceae-Compositae. 4th Edition. Adelaide: South Australian Government Printing Division.

Costin, B.J. (1999). Effects of habitat fragmentation on the seed set of Leucochrysum albicans ssp. albicans var. tricolor (Asteraceae). Hons. Thesis. Bundoora Vic: La Trobe University, Botany Dept.

Costin, B.J., J.W. Morgan & A.G. Young (2001). Reproductive success does not decline in fragmented populations of Leucochrysum albicans subsp. albicans var. tricolor (Asteraceae). Biological Conservation. 98:273-284.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Curtis, W.M. (1963). The Student's flora of Tasmania. Part 2. Angiospermae: Lythraceae to Epacridaceae. Hobart: Government Printer.

EPBC Referral (2010a). EPBC Referral 2010/5328 Ararat-Mortlake Road Grassland Restoration Project.

Gilfedder, L. (1991a). Aspects of the conservation biology of Helipterum albicans (Hook.) P. G. Wilson. M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Tasmania.

Gilfedder, L. & J.B. Kirkpatrick (1994c). Genecological Variation in the Germination, Growth and Morphology of Four Populations of a Tasmanian Endangered Perennial Daisy, Leucochrysum albicans. Australian Journal of Botany. 42(4):431-440.

Gilfedder, L. & J.B. Kirkpatrick (1994d). Culturally Induced Rarity? The Past and Present Distributions of Leucochrysum albicans in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Botany. 42(4):405-416.

Gilfedder, L. & J.B. Kirkpatrick (1994e). Climate, Grazing and Disturbance, and the Population Dynamics of Leucochrysum albicans at Ross, Tasmania. Austalian Journal of Botany. 42(4):417-430.

Harden, G.J. (Ed.) (1992). Flora of New South Wales Volume 3. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Hobbs R.J. & C.J. Yates (2003). Turner Review No. 7: Impacts of ecosystem fragmentation on plant populations: generalising the idiosyncratic. Australian Journal of Botany. 51:471-488.

Hooker, J.D. (1856). Flora of Tasmania: Part 1. London: Lovell Reed.

Ross, J.H. & N.G. Walsh (2003). A census of the vascular plants of Victoria. 7th Edition. Melbourne, Victoria: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Sinclair, S.J. (2010). Draft Recovery Plan for the Hoary Sunray (Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor). Heidelberg, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE) (2003a). Threatened Species Notesheet - Leucochrysum albicans ssp. albicans var. tricolor. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/SSKA-7568MZ/$FILE/Leucochrysum%20albicans%20ssp.%20albicans%20var.%20tricolor.pdf.

Umwelt (Australia) (Umwelt) (2009). Ulan Coal - Continued operations, Ecological Assessment. Vol 3, Appendix 8. Toronto, NSW: Ulan Coal Mines Limited.

Willis, J.H. (1973). A handbook to plants in Victoria, vol. 2, Dicotyledons. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Wilson, P.G. (1960). A consideration of the species previously included within Helipterum albicans (A. Cunn.) DC. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 83:164-177.

Wilson, P.G. (1992a). The classification of some Australian species currently included in Helipterum (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae): Part 2 Leucochrysum. Nuytsia. 8(3):439-446.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 21 Sep 2014 05:54:34 +1000.