Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Flora Schedules: Recommendations to the Scientific Committee: Final Summary Report December 2002 (Hogbin, P., 2002) [Report].
NSW:Persoonia mollis subsp. Maxima - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005iq) [Internet].
NSW:Threatened Species Information: Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1999x) [Internet].
NSW:Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines - Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2000aj) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
Scientific name Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima [56075]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author S.Krauss & L.A.S.Johnson
Reference Krauss, S.L. & Johnson, L.A.S. (1991) A revision of the complex species of Persoonia mollis (Proteaceae). Telopea 4(2): 189; fig. 1 (map) [tax. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/pdfs/tsprofile_persoonia_mollis_ssp_maxima.pdf

Long-lived, fire sensitive erect shrub 2-5 m tall, flowers yellow (Krauss & Johnson 1991; Weston 1995b; Krauss 1998).

P. mollis subsp. maxima occurs in the Cowan to Hornsby area N of Sydney, NSW, and is geographically disjunct and isolated from all other known subspecies of P. mollis (NSW NPWS 2000l; Harden 1991).

This subspecies is known from three populations, with a total number of individuals of c. 550 adult plants and 380 juveniles/seedlings as at February 2000 (NSW NPWS 2000l).

It occurs in three separate catchments (Calna Creek - 73%, Cockle Creek - 14.5%, Berowra Creek - 12.5% of total population) over an approx. north-south range of 5.75 km and approx. east-west range of 7.5 km. All known records are located in the Hornsby Heights - Mt Colah - Mt Kuring-gai area in the Central Coast Botanical Division of NSW. See map in recovery plan (NSW NPWS 2000l).

Studies of geographical variation in the subspecies of P. mollis support the recognition of nine sub-species; there is surprising homogeneity within each subspecies (Krauss 1996).

P. mollis subsp. maxima occurs in the steep, dissected gullies of the Hornsby Plateau and Hawkesbury (NSW NPWS 2000l). It is typically found at altitudes of c. sea-level (Weston 1995b) to 190 m elevation (NSW NPWS 2000l), that is, along the creek lines to the first escarpment bench. Individual plants occurring along creeklines are therefore subject to occasional severe flooding events (P. Kubiak pers. comm. in NSW NPWS 2000l).

It grows on Hawkesbury and Narrabeen sandstones (Harden 1991) in shallow sandy soils which are highly permeable and low in fertility (Krauss & Johnson 1991; NSW NPWS 2000l). The soils are generally strongly to moderately acidic with colour varying from brownish-black (when there is abundant organic matter) to dull yellowy-orange (NSW NPWS 2000l).

Recorded slopes are generally high, but vary from approximately 10-15° on the dry upper-hillsides (low population densities) to 30-60° in the steep gullies (higher population densities). The habitat is characterised by steep sideslopes, rocky benches and broken scarps, with creeks fed by small streams and intermittent drainage depressions (NSW NPWS 1999x, 2000l). It is usually observed in highest densities at the bottom of these gullies from the creek-line to the first escarpment bench (to 100 m), or adjacent to moist drainage depressions which feed the main creek. It shows a preference for sites with sheltered southerly aspects which support relatively moist vegetation communities (NSW NPWS 2000l).

The vegetation communities in which this subspecies occurs are widespread but restricted to the steep gullies of the Hornsby Plateau and Hawkesbury Sandstone. This vegetation has been described by Benson & Howell (1994) as the Sydney Sandstone Complex (Map Units 10ag &10ar) on the Sydney 1:100,000 map sheet. These communities are generally associated with sheltered hillsides and moist gullies (10ag) and dry plateaux and ridges (10ar), and often intergrade with each other (NSW NPWS 2000l).

This subspecies is usually observed in highest densities at the bottom of these gullies from the creek-line to the first escarpment bench, or adjacent to moist drainage depressions which feed the main creek. Vegetation structure is generally tall forest communities with a diverse understorey, sometimes with mesic influences (NSW NPWS 2000l).

Smith & Smith (1990) mapped this vegetation community in the Berowra Valley Regional Park as Eucalyptus piperita-Angophora costata open forest. The most common canopy species were Angophora costata, Corymbia gummifera and Eucalyptus piperita, with Syncarpia glomulifera, E. pilularis and Allocasuarina littoralis occurring in more fertile sites, and E. punctata occurring on the upper slopes and drier aspects. Warm temperate rainforest stands dominated by Ceratopetalum apelatum, Callicoma serratifolia and Syncarpia glomulifera often occurred adjacent to this community in the most sheltered aspects and particularly along creek lines. The understorey species vary considerably with changes in the aspect, soil moisture, and possibly differences in the fire regimes (NSW NPWS 1999x, 2000l).

Flowers chiefly from Dec. to Apr. (Krauss & Johnson 1991; Weston 1995b). It is a fire-sensitive species with post-fire survival totally reliant upon seed regeneration. The age of individual plants can be guessed by counting whorls of branches, which may roughly equate with years. Most plants attain reproductive maturity at eight whorls. This suggests that subpopulations of this subspecies which are aged less than eight years are unlikely to have deveoped a seedbank and therefore are extremely vulnerable to extinction following disturbance which kills those individuals. Active seed predation by large parrots may delay the rate at which the seed bank is replenished, and intervals between fires longer than those inferred from time of reproductive maturity may be required (NSW NPWS 2000l).

There has been no investigation into the pollinators of this subspecies. However, research by Bernhardt and Weston (1996) concluded that the Persoonia species of eastern Australia have a specialised system of pollination, recruiting relatively few of the many genera of native bees as true pollinators [NSW NPWS 2000l].

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Reduced rainfall caused by climate change Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina riparia (Mistflower, Mist Flower, Creeping Croftonweed, River Eupatorium, Spreading Mistflower) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Andropogon virginicus (Whisky Grass, Broomsedge) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina adenophora (Crofton Weed, Catweed, Hemp Agrimony, Mexican Devil, Sticky Agrimony, Sticky Eupatorium) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Tradescantia albiflora (Wandering Jew, Wandering Trad, Trad, Creeping Christian, Wandering Tradescantia, Water Spiderwort, Wandering Willie, Wandering Creeper) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cortaderia selloana (Pampas Grass, Common Pampas-grass) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ligustrum lucidum (Broad-leaved Privet, Tree Privet, Large Leaf Privet, Glossy Privet, Ligustrum, Wax Leaf Privet) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ligustrum sinense (Chinese Privet, Narrow-leaved Privet. Small-leaved Privet, Privet, Hedge Privet, Narrow-leaf Privet, Chinese Ligustrum, Ligustrum) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ludwigia peruviana (Ludwigia, Water Primrose, Primrose Willow, Peruvian Primrose, Willow Primrose) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor Laurel, Camphor Tree, Gum Camphor, True Camphor, Japanese Camphor, Formosa Camphor, Shiu Leaf) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Psittacine Circoviral Disease Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:unspecified Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qs) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2000l) [Recovery Plan].

Benson, D. & J. Howell (1994). The natural vegetation of the Sydney 1:100 000 map sheet. Cunninghamia. 3(4):677-729.

Bernhardt, P. & P.H. Weston (1996). The pollination ecology of Persoonia in eastern Australia. Telopea. 6(4):775-804.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Krauss, S.L. (1996). A multivariate analysis of geographical variation in morphology in Persoonia mollis (Proteaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 202:65-86. Springer-Verlag, Austria.

Krauss, S.L. (1998). A Phylogenetic analysis of Allozyme Variation among populations of Persoonia mollis (Proteaceae). Australian Journal of Botany. 46:571-582. CSIRO.

Krauss, S.L., & L.A.S.Johnson (1991). A revision of the complex species Persoonia mollis (Proteaceae). Telopea. 4(2):185-199. National Herbarium of New South Wales, Sydney.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (1999x). Threatened Species Information: Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/pdfs/tsprofile_persoonia_mollis_ssp_maxima.pdf.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (2000l). Persoonia mollis subspecies maxima Recovery Plan. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/p-mollis/index.html.

Smith, P. & J. Smith (1990). Vegetation and Fauna of Berowra Valley Bushland. Report prepared for Hornsby Shire Council.

Weston, P.H. (1995b). Subfam. 1. Persoonioideae. In: Flora of Australia. 16:47-125. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Apr 2014 00:54:59 +1000.