In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eucalyptus strzeleckii |
|Reference||Muelleria 7(4) (1991) 497.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Eucalyptus strzeleckii is a member of the swamp gum group, probably most closely related to Eucalyptus ovata and E. brookeriana (Rule 1992). It is a medium to tall forest tree growing to approximately 30 m high, identifiable from the glaucous (waxy) new growth evident at the outside of crown that gives a blue-grey colouring to the crown. The species has small ovoid buds, and fruit that is broader than it is long. The species has loose, rough bark at the base of a whitish-grey, with red mottling, trunk (Carter 2006o; Ecology Australia 2006; Rule 1992; Walsh & Entwistle 1996). Adult leaves (15x25 mm in size) are lancolate or ovate, asymmetrical, dark green and glossy (Carter 2006o; Ecology Australia 2006).
Immature trees may have copious fibrous grey-brown bark on the trunk, and alternate, glossy green leaves (that vary from ovate to elliptical) that are darker on one side than the other (Carter 2006o; Ecology Australia 2006).
The species is endemic to the Strzelecki Ranges, in the Gippsland area of Victoria and extends north to Neerim South and south to the Foster area, east to the Woodside-Yarram area, and west to Western Port Bay-Bass River area (Carter 2006o; MEL undated; Rule 1992; VIC DSE 2008j).
In 1999, the species was found just south of Hillend, Victoria, and also on the Moonlight Head track, within the Otway Ranges National Park. These occurrences may be naturalized populations from forestry activities (Victorian Workshop 2000, pers. comm.).
Eucalyptus strzeleckii also occurs on private property at Darham and south-east of Morwell (Carr 2000, pers. comm.).
The species distribution is severely fragmented, with most populations now being found in small, isolated pockets in road reserves or private property, with little recruitment being noted (VIC DSE 2008j).
The national recovery plan (Carter 2006o) indicated that numbers were between 3322–4517, though small occurrences of the species throughout its range may increase the population to 5000–15 000. Herbarium records indicated that the species was 'locally common' at some sites (MEL undated). Rule noted in 1992 that 'it remains a relatively common and widespread, although sporadic, species in southwest Gippsland. In areas such as Korumburra and Poowong only individuals or small groups of trees dot the landscape and remain as monuments to past, apparently extensive populations' (Rule 1992).
Approximately 50 populations are known, though many more single paddock trees or small stands in road reserves are also known (Carter 2006o).
Important populations of E. strzeleckii as identified in Carter (2006o) include:
|Roadside||Bena North - Bass Valley Road (1145 individuals)||Important|
|Roadside||Hawkey Rd (501-1000 individuals including 100 suckers or immature individuals)||Important|
|Roadside||Koonwarra-Tarwin River Crossing (115 individuals, including 42 suckers or immature individuals)||Important|
|Private property||Coal Creek hillside (200-300 individuals in 2002)||Important|
|Private property||Horseshoe Gully (~50 individuals). Some revegetation with Eucalyptus strzeleckii is planned in an area of this gully, to be carried out by Camp Hill Landcare Group||Important|
|Rail reserve||Boolarra Rail Trail. This is probably the most weed-free, structurally intact patch of vegetation containing E. strzeleckii, although the population size is not known||Important|
|Private property||Bena East - Sullivan's Rd|
|Private property||West Bena - Odger's Block|
|Private property||North Ranceby - McKinnon Block|
|Council (riverside)||Koonwarra - Tarwin River Crossing|
|Roadside||Labertouche Rd Crossing - Tarago River|
|Roadside||Trafalgar - Sunny Creek Rd|
|Roadside||Berry Creek - Fosters Rd|
|Roadside and private land||Bena North - Bass Valley Road|
|Roadside and private land||Bena East / Korumburra - Whitelaws Rd|
|Roadside and private land||Kardella South - Stephen's Rd|
|Roadside and private land||Port Franklin - Franklin River Bridge East|
|Roadside and private land||Mirboo North to Berry Creek Rd - Boorool Rd intersection|
|Roadside and private land||Mirboo North to Berry Creek Rd - Moirs Bridge|
|Roadside and private land||Mirboo - Mirboo Bridge|
|Roadside and private land||Cypress Grove - South Gippsland Highway|
|Roadside and private land||Mirboo North - Berry Creek Rd "A"|
|Roadside and private land||Wooreen South - Wilkur Creek Bridge - Leongatha to Yarragon Rd|
|Roadside and private land||Wooreen South - Leongatha to Yarragon Rd - Bruce's block|
|Railway and private land||Ruby - South Gippsland Highway|
|Railway and private land||Roadside, Riverside and Private Property|
|Railway and private land||Yarragon - Moe River Rd|
|Private and council||Berry Creek - Curtis Block|
Two populations of unidentified size are known in reserves:
- the 15 ha Koonwarra Fish Bed Geological Reserve, approximately 3 km southeast from Koonwarra township,
- the 11 ha Wonwron Flora Reserve, approximately 5 km southwest from Woodside. This population represents the westernmost known occurrence of the species (MEL undated).
Eucalyptus strzeleckii favours a range of sites including ridges, slopes and along the banks of streams, but particluarly foothills and flats (Schinagl et al. 2014). Its preferred soils are grey, deep, fertile loams which are seasonally waterlogged. In a few cases it occurs on undulating or flat terrain close to creeks on the periphery of the ranges (Rule 1992). Herbarium specimens indicate an association with heavy clay loam and alluvial soils (MEL undated). Associated eucalypts include E. viminalis, E. ovata, E. obliqua, E. globulus, E. radiata,and E. regnans. Other commonly associated species include Melaleuca ericifolia, Lepidosperma elatius and Poa labillardierei, particularly on moist flats (Anon 1995).
The Strzelecki Ranges a a cretaceous sandstone formation of rolling hills fanning out from two central ridges, with annual rainfall in excess of 1000 mm over much of the area.
Eualyptus strzeleckii flowers in spring and ripe fruit has been collected in November (Rule 1992).
Many of the existing populations are dominated by mature, senescing trees in highly degraded habitats and recruitment of the species is rarely observed (Schinagl et al. 2014). In one study of stands with recruitement occurring, areas that had been recently burnt (within the past 5 years) had 15 times the number of Strzelecki Gum recruits. Disturbance by flooding may also be positively associated with recruitment. Litter cover, habitat quality and density of intermediate-sized Strzelecki Gums were all strong positive predictors for the density of Strzelecki Gum recruits (Schinagl et al. 2014).
Habitat loss is and has been the greatest threat to Eucalyptus strzeleckii (Carter 2006o; Rule 1992). The habitat favoured by the species includes deep rich fertile soils that are also favoured for agriculture such as grazing. In many sites, generally only large remnant trees remain, and seedling recruitment is uncommon (Anon 1995). David and Paget (1994) surveyed the flora of the Tarwin River catchment, that was suggested from data in Rule (1992), was the stronghold of E. strzeleckii. They regarded the species as 'rare and endangered' and noted that as a plant community, it may be locally extinct.
The exotic environmental weeds Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp. agg.), English Ivy (Hedera helix) and Cape Ivy (Delairea odorata) are capable of invading and drastically altering the understorey of areas where E. strzeleckii is dominant (Anon 1995). Competition from pasture weed species such as White Clover (Trifolium repens), Toowoomba Canary-grass (Phalaris aquatica), Brome (Bromus sp.), and Spear Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) also affect retention and recruitment of the species (Carter 2006o; VIC DSE 2008j). A study by Moxham and Dorrough (2008) found that, even with the removal of grazing, seedling recruitment into stands of E. strzeleckii was reliant on control of competing vegetation such as weeds.
Damage to trees in paddocks by rubbing, trampling root systems and trampling and eating of seedlings by grazing stock is a threatening process for this species (Carter 2006o).
Fire, tree removal for firewood or road works, changes to hydrology, increased nutrient levels, loss of genetic diversity due to small isolated populations, and climate change are all identified as potential threats (Carter 2006o; VIC DSE 2008j).
The National recovery plan for the Strzelecki Gum (Eucalyptus strzeleckii) (Carter 2006o) has been adopted and identifies the following objectives to assist in recovery of the species:
- Acquire accurate information for conservation status assessments.
- Identify habitat that is critical, common or potential.
- Ensure that all populations and their habitat are protected and managed appropriately.
- Manage threats to populations.
- Identify key biological functions.
- Determine the growth rates and viability of populations.
- Build community support for conservation.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Phalaris aquatica (Phalaris)||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Cirsium vulgare (Spear Thistle, Black Thistle, Scotch Thistle)||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers||Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006j) [Recovery Plan].|
Anon (1995). Nomination to list Strzelecki Gum Riparian Forest under Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1998, nomination no. 402.
Carr, G.W. (2000). Personal Communication. Melbourne: Vic NRE.
David, L. & Paget, A. (1994). Assessement of the Tarwin River System.
Ecology Australia Pty Ltd (2006). Proposed Dairy Factory extension, Yarragon Road, Leongatha-Flora, Fauna and Net Gain Assessment. Project 06-02. Ecology Australia P/L, Fairfield, Victoria.
MEL (undated). National Herbarium of Victoria Specimens. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/herbarium.
Moxham, C. & J. Dorrough (2008). Recruitment of Eucalyptus strzeleckii (Myrtaceae) in intensive livestock production landscapes. Australian Journal of Botany. 56:469-46.
Rule, K. (1992). Two new species of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in south-eastern Australia. Muelleria. 7(4):497-505.
Schinagl H., W. Wright & P. Rayment (2014). Recruitment of Eucalyptus strzeleckii (Myrtaceae) in remnant patches of native vegetation in the Latrobe Valley and South Gippsland, Victoria. Australian Journal of Botany . 61:654-62.
Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2008j). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 228-Strzelecki Gum Eucalyptus strzeleckii. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.
Victorian Workshop Participants (2000). Personal communication.
Walsh, N.G. & T.J. Entwistle, eds. (1996). Flora of Victoria- Volume 3. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Victoria.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus strzeleckii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 20 Sep 2014 08:32:35 +1000.