Species Profile and Threats Database

For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Prasophyllum wallum
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum wallum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008th) [Conservation Advice].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Prasophyllum wallum.
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Prasophyllum wallum
Scientific name Prasophyllum wallum [55148]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.Bates & D.L.Jones
Infraspecies author  
Reference Australian Orchid Research 2: 82, fig 111 (1991).
Other names Prasophyllum sp. 1 [65847]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Prasophyllum wallum

Common name: Wallum Leek-orchid

Conventionally accepted as Prasophyllum wallum (CHAH 2010).

The Wallum Leek-orchid is a perennial orchid growing to 20–40 cm in height, with a single leaf. The species has a short flowering spike, 5–8 cm in length, upon which 12–18 flowers crowd at the top. Flowers are pale green and white, scented and large; growing to 11–14 mm in height and 7–9 mm in width. The white labellum (lip) is not strongly recurved, has a broad base, wavy edges, and a short, broad callus (Jones 1991b, 2006).

The Wallum Leek-orchid occurs from Hervey Bay to Coolum, or coastal areas in the Moreton and Wide Bay districts in south-east Queensland (Jones 2006; Queensland Herbarium 1989). The species relies on coastal wallum communities that occur disjointedly from Fraser Island in, Queensland, to northern New South Wales. As a result, the distribution of the species is fragmented (Queensland Herbarium 1989).

The Wallum Leek-orchid occurs in the Coolum Environmental Park (Briggs & Leigh 1996).

The Wallum Leek-orchid grows in wallum communities and on stabilised dunes. Associated species include Broad-leaved Paperbark (Melaleuca quinqinervia) and Swamp Banksia (Banksia robur) (Jones 1991b). The species is also known to be associated with the Queensland Regional Ecosystem 12.2.1, open or dry heath on Quaternary coastal dunes and beaches or sand plains with Leptospermum sp., Leucopogon sp., Wedding Bush (Ricinocarpos pinifolius), Strangea linearis, Daphne Heath (Brachyloma daphnoides), Small-leaved Geebung (Persoonia virgata), Grass Trees (Xanthorrhoea sp.), Green Five Corners (Styphelia viridis), Prickly Broom Heath (Monotoca scoparia), Snow Wreath (Woollsia pungens) and stunted Black She-oak (Allocasuarina littoralis) (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998a).

Flowering of the Wallum Leek-orchid has been recorded in August and September (Jones 1991b, 2006). Most Prasophyllum species reproduce by seed, and flowering may be stimulated by fire (Jones 1988). Leek orchids are all deciduous terrestrials with a subterranean tuber that is replaced annually (Jones 1988).

The main identified threat to Wallum Leek-orchid is clearing of habitat for urban development (Jones 1991b). The main potential threats to the species are hydrological changes and inappropriate fire regimes. Illegal collection may also be a potential threat to the species (Qld EPA 2007a).

Commonwealth Conservation Advice

Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2008th) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate threats including habitat loss, disturbance and modification, weeds and fire. Raising awareness of the species and enabling recovery of additional populations are also encouraged in the Advice.

Management documents for the Wallum Leek-orchid can be found at the start of this profile. Other management documents relevant to the species include:

  • Burnett Mary Region ‘Back on Track’ Draft Biodiversity Action Plan (Qld EPA 2008)
  • Draft Mount Coolum National Park Management Plan (Qld PWS 2011)
  • Management Program for Protected Plants in Queensland 2006-2010 (Qld EPA 2006b).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Chlamydogobius micropterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006aba) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum wallum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008th) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum wallum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008th) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Chlamydogobius micropterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006aba) [Internet].

Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from:

Jones, D.L. (1988). Native Orchids of Australia. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Reed.

Jones, D.L. (1991b). New Taxa of Australian Orchidaceae. Australian Orchid Research. 2. Essendon: Australian Orchid Foundation.

Jones, D.L. (2006). A complete guide to Native Orchids of Australia, including the island Territories. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd.

Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee (1998a). Forest Ecosystem Mapping and Analysis - B. Regional. Forest Assesment Unit and Queensland Herbarium, Department of Environment, Queensland.

Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Qld DERM) (2011b). Management Program for Protected Plants in Queensland 2011-2015. [Online]. Available from:

Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA) (2007a). Endangered Plants. [Online]. Available from:

Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA) (2008). Burnett Mary Region 'Back on Track' Draft Biodiversity Action Plan. Queensland Government, Australian Government, Burnett Mary Regional Group.

Queensland Herbarium (1989). Specimen Record Information. In: Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross, eds. Flora of South-eastern Queensland. 3. Brisbane, Queensland Department of Primary Industries.

Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (QLD PWS) (2011). Draft Mount Coolum National Park Management Plan. Brisbane, Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008th). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum wallum. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from:

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Prasophyllum wallum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: Accessed Sat, 23 Aug 2014 15:06:11 +1000.