In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
National Recovery Plan for Prasophyllum petilum (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010b) [Recovery Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Prasophyllum petilum |
|Species author||D.L.Jones & R.J.Bates|
|Reference||Jones, D.L. (1991) Orchid Research 2 (1991) 80, fig. 108. [tax. nov.]|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Prasophyllum petilum
Common name: Tarengo Leek Orchid
All Prasophyllum species are tuberous terrestrial herbs with a single cylindrical leaf resembling the leaves of an onion or leek (hence their common name). Flowers are borne in a spike that ruptures the leaf near its midpoint. Most species have pale greenish or cream flowers with a prominent, often crinkled or undulate labellum. The Tarengo Leek Orchid is a slender herb to 30 cm, its cylindrical leaf reaching 25 cm. A narrow flowering spike is produced in October to November, with 5 to 18 flowers distributed sparsely along it. Flowers are greenish to pinkish mauve, 57 mm across, and sweetly scented. Shiny green, obovoid capsules to 4 mm long are produced after flowering (Bernhardt & Rowe 1993, Bates 1994c, Jones 1991c).
New South Wales (NSW) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT)
When first described in 1991, the Tarengo Leek Orchid was known only from the Hall Cemetery in the ACT. It has since been found at four sites in New South Wales: Captains Flat Cemetery, Ilford Cemetery, Steves Travelling Stock Route (TSR) at Delegate and the Tarengo TSR near Boorowa.
Difficult to move/cultivate
There are no ex-situ collections of Tarengo Leek Orchids. Like many other native Australian terrestrial orchids, the Tarengo Leek Orchids do not survive in cultivation for long. The cause is believed to be an incompatibility of the ex-situ environment with the fungal partner of the orchid (Bates 1994c). The Tarengo Leek Orchids' seed from Hall was broadcast at Bowning Cemetery on several occasions prior to 1996 (NSW NPWS 2000). A single plant was found in 2000. It is not known whether plants still survive at Bowning.
Extent of occurrence
The current extent of occurrence is 2 066 831 ha. There is no data to indicate a decline in extent. The species was described in 1991, well after any declines attributable to stock grazing are likely to have occurred. That is, the species is only found in high quality grassland and grassy woodland remnants not subject to continuous grazing pressure. It may be inferred that the distribution was once larger, but there is no data to support the contention (DECCW 2010).
The species has potentially declined in abundance at Ilford, Delegate and Captains Flat in the last 10 years (or three generations), but there are insufficient monitoring data to give accurate population declines (DECCW 2010).
Area of occupancy
The area of occupancy is about 4.5 ha. At Ilford, Captains Flat, and Hall Cemetery the plants occur in a very limited area. At Tarengo, the locations were mapped on a GIS and a polygon used to calculate the area occupied. At Delegate the plants occur over about a hectare (DECCW 2010).
There are no data to indicate declines in areas of occupancy at any of the sites. At Hall Cemetery it is likely that burials have reduced the orchid population over the last 3040 years. However, since the recognition of the population and the development of the Hall Cemetery Management Plan, burials are not permitted within orchid habitat (ACT TAMS 2006b). There are three pre-sold burial plots that are known to have orchids present (Cook et al. 2009).
A survey was conducted by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) in 2000 to identify sites potentially appropriate for the Tarengo Leek Orchid on the basis of climatic similarity to known sites and land use. A grassland and grassy woodland survey database was used in conjunction with a bioclimatic analysis to develop a list of potential sites. No plants were found at the 47 locations examined (NSW NPWS 2000).
A large number of grassland and grassy woodland vegetation survey sites (5000 in the database as a whole and probably in excess of 2500 higher quality sites) have been examined between Delegate and Ilford in the last ten years by NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (DECCW) staff, in both NSW and the ACT (DECCW 2010). Although some would have been surveyed outside the flowering time of the Tarengo Leek Orchid, many have been surveyed several times per year. It is possible that more populations may be in existence and not yet found and surveyed (NSW NPWS 2000).
Given the extent of occurrence it is possible that other populations exist, however, locating new populations is extremely resource intensive due to the rarity and relatively cryptic nature of the species. There is a substantial area of apparently suitable habitat between Delegate and Ilford, but plants are unlikely to be found unless the surveyor is within a few metres at most. A realistic expectation is that no other populations will be found. Resources are better placed to manage and understand the existing sites (DECCW 2010).
One of the difficulties of estimating the mature population size of the Tarengo Leek Orchid is that only flowering individuals are readily identified. The estimates of population size are nearly all of flowering individuals, so that non-flowering individuals persisting as a dormant tuber or with just a leaf are not counted. The true population size is larger than the estimates of flowering individuals. There are an estimated 45 000 flowering individuals in 5 populations, although 99.9% of the total number occurs on one site (DECCW 2010).
The following table provides the numbers (DECCW 2010):
|Captains Flat Cemetery||Only leaves (ie numbers not known accurately)||2009|
|Tarengo TSR||Approx. 45 000||2009|
The trends in numbers are not known in the case of Tarengo, Ilford, Captain's Flat and Delegate as there has been insufficient monitoring to make a reasonable estimate. Annual monitoring has only been undertaken at Hall, where the numbers appear to be slightly higher today than when monitoring began 18 years ago. A complication is that numbers fluctuate widely between years - for example no plants were found in 1994, but 90 were found in 1995. The mean number found between 1991 and 2008 was 43, with a standard deviation of 27 (Cook et al. 2009). At Tarengo numbers found in a series of monitoring plots established between 1995 and 2000 fluctuated in a similar manner.
At Tarengo there was some concern that the area of available habitat was being invaded by a prolific growth of Kangaroo Grass (Themeda australis). Monitoring of the boundary between the Kangaroo Grass and the orchid habitat was established in 2009, but as yet it is too early to determine any change (DECCW 2010).
All populations are genetically isolated from one another and can be regarded as subpopulations. All sites occur on land owned by the crown or by local government.
The trend in total population is not known, due to a lack of monitoring in the last 5 years. Since the population trends are not known, future changes in population size cannot be inferred.
All populations are required for the species' recovery. The distance between all populations implies genetic isolation, and potentially genetic distinctiveness from other populations. Also, even though the total population numbers 45,000 almost all are located in a 2.5 ha area at Tarengo. Other populations require protection to minimise the risk of extinction in the event of a catastrophic loss of the Tarengo site.
No hybridisation is known to occur in populations of the Tarengo Leek Orchid.
No populations occur in a conservation reserve, all sites occur on land owned by the crown or by local government.
Grassy woodland and natural grassland
The Tarengo Leek Orchid occurs on relatively fertile soils in grassy woodland or natural grassland. The three cemetery sites originally contained grassy woodland, dominated by Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora) and Black Gum (E. aggregata) at Captains Flat, and Blakely's Red Gum (E. blakelyi) and Yellow Box (E. melliodora) at Hall and Ilford. Both Tarengo TSR and Steves TSR are natural grasslands (DECCW 2010).
Topography and climatic factors
The Tarengo Leek Orchid also occurs on flat or gently sloping sites on plains and rolling hills. Soils are usually loams, clay loams or sandy clays. Winters are cold, and summers mild to warm. Rainfall is relatively evenly distributed, with a slight decrease in autumn and winter. Median yearly rainfall for Canberra, near Hall, is 616 mm, the median for Ilford is 723 mm, Delegate is 649 mm, Captains Flat is 688 mm and Boorowa is 593 mm.
Cemetery and Travelling Stock Route environments
Hall Cemetery is a grassy woodland dominated by Yellow Box and Blakelys Red Gum in the overstorey. Records indicate that parts of the Hall Cemetery were cleared of trees in 1907. The ground layer is mainly Kangaroo Grass (Themeda sp.) and Wallaby Grasses (Austrodanthonia sp).
The Hall Cemetery vegetation is part of the Yellow Box/Blakelys Red Gum Grassy Woodland Endangered Ecological Community listed under the ACT Nature Conservation Act, 1980 and the Commonwealth EPBC Act (1999) listed White Box Yellow Box Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodlands Endangered Ecological Community.
Captains Flat Cemetery
The main trees at Captains Flat Cemetery are Snow Gum and Black Gum. Regrowth is particularly strong in parts of the Captains Flat Cemetery. A patchy shrub layer of Small-fruited Hakea (Hakea microcarpa), Silver Wattle (Acacia dealbata) and the Slender Tea-tree (Leptospermum brevipes) occurs in the Captains Flat Cemetery. Grey Tussock-grass (Poa sieberiana) and Kangaroo Grass (Themeda sp.) are the dominant grasses at Hall and Captains Flat, although at Captains Flat the Tarengo Leek Orchid occurs mainly in patches of Wild Sorghum (Schoenus apogon) that occur amongst the Poa.
The section of Ilford Cemetery where the plants occur has been excluded from regular mowing for several decades, apparently because the area became too boggy to mow easily. There is significant regeneration of trees, both Blakelys Red Gum and some Eucalyptus camphora. In 2009 there was a dense cover (>90%) of Kangaroo Grass (Themeda sp.) and Wild Sorghum where the Tarengo Leek Orchid occurred.
The Ilford site is part of the Commonwealth and NSW listed White Box Yellow Box Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodlands Endangered Ecological Community.
Tarengo Travelling Stock Route
Tarengo Travelling Stock Route (TSR) is within the "Corcoran's Plains", an area of c. 200 ha regarded by local farmers and historians to have been a largely treeless grassy plain at the time of European settlement. Dense swards of Kangaroo Grass (Themeda sp.) also occur at the Tarengo TSR but the orchid occurs only occasionally within these areas, favouring instead more open swards of Bothriochloa macra, Pentapogon quadrifidus and Austrodanthonia spp. that dominate the south-western section of the TSR.
Steve's Travelling Stock Route
Steve's TSR at Delegate is a natural grassland in a frost hollow, surrounded by Snowgum on the slopes above.
Both Tarengo and Steve's TSR's meet the definition of the EPBC Act Endangered Ecological Community Natural Temperate Grassland of the Southern Tablelands.
While the vegetation differs somewhat between sites, it is notable that the orchid occurs in relatively moist areas within both the Hall, Ilford and Captains Flat Cemeteries. At Hall, the water table is high (ACT Government 1997b), and standing free water is known to occur in the orchid habitat for up to 24 hours after storms. Tarengo TSR is not visibly wet for much of the year but, after rain, standing water is evident in the area where the orchid occurs. Further more, co-occurring species such as Pentapogon quadrifidus, Schoenus apogon, Drosera peltata, Sebaea ovata and Haloragis heterophylla confirm that the site is poorly drained. Occurrence in moist depressions and swamps is typical for the genus Prasophyllum (DECCW 2010).
Immature Prasophyllum plants are not readily identified so it is not known with certainty how long it takes before plants flower. As noted before, since the plants can survive underground for some time, longevity and rates of mortality are not known.
The Hall, Ilford and Tarengo sites usually flower in late October, with the Delegate and Captains Flat sites flowering in late November to mid December. Provided pollination has occurred, the capsule is usually mature 46 weeks after flowering. There are no studies on the pollinators for the Tarengo Leek Orchid. In the related species Prasophyllum affine, Bower (2002) found that the most important pollinators were flower wasps (Thinninae), but that a variety of other wasps and ants visited the flowers.
There is no vegetative production of Prasophyllum except occasionally an additional tuber is formed. The frequency of this occurring is not known with accuracy, but it does not seem to occur very often and is not likely to be a major mechanism of survival.
Orchid seeds are dust-like and wind dispersed. The greatest number probably fall within metres of the parents, however, dispersal over larger distances is possible (Bower 2002).
The introduced grasses Sweet Vernal Grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum) and Yorkshire Fog (Holcus lanatus) are abundant in the Hall and Captains Flat Cemeteries. These grasses appear to invade without disturbance, and have become more prominent at Hall over the last five years (DECCW 2010). Other introduced grasses that occur at Hall include Tall Fescue (Festuca elatior), Soft Brome (Bromus molliformis), Great Brome (Bromus diandrus), Fescue (Vulpia sp.), and Wild Oats (Avena fatua). Exotic grasses probably pose the most serious threat to the Tarengo Leek Orchid at Hall Cemetery (DECCW 2010).
The abundance of weeds fluctuates with seasonal conditions. According to the Hall Cemetery Management Plan, 2005, there were no weeds that were of concern, although in 2009, 4050% of the cover was exotic grasses (DECCW 2010).
Onion Grass (Romulea rosea) is present in large numbers in some areas of Tarengo TSR that may otherwise be habitat for the orchid. St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), a declared noxious weed, is also present in parts of Tarengo TSR, and is herbicide sprayed by the Lachlan Livetsock Health and Pest Authorities staff (DECCW 2010).
The impacts of these weeds on the Tarengo Leek Orchid are not known with certainty. There is insufficient data to say whether weed populations are increasing or whether they just fluctuate with seasonal conditions (DECCW 2010).
Native species encroachment
Tarengo and Hall
Kangaroo Grass was considered to be spreading at Tarengo TSR from 19952002, and perhaps due to the low intensity of grazing at the time. A similar expansion of Kangaroo Grass (Themeda sp.) has recently been noted at Hall Cemetery. The effect of this on Tarengo Leek Orchid numbers needs to be understood so that appropriate management can be undertaken if necessary (DECCW 2010).
Observations at Captains Flat cemetery suggest that the Small-fruited Hakea and other shrubs may be spreading into areas where Tarengo Leek Orchid is growing. Trials of burning, slashing and poisoning for Small-fruited Hakea and Slender Tea-tree were conducted, with the most effective technique being application of glyphosate. All methods resulted in a decline in the abundance of Poa, and an increase in the abundance of Themeda. There were no orchids present in the areas where the trial was conducted. A significant proportion of the Microtis or Prasophyllum leaves found in 2009 were underneath, or on the margin of shrubs (DECCW 2010).
The cover of native grasses at Ilford cemetery is very high, such that there is almost no exposed ground. Small herbaceous species such as the Tarengo Leek Orchid are probably seriously disadvantaged at present (DECCW 2010).
While it appears that Tarengo Leek Orchid can withstand some grazing (cf. historical grazing at Tarengo TSR), it is likely that there is a critical level of grazing above which its survival would be reduced (DECCW 2010). For example, the Tarengo and Delegate populations are potentially at risk from grazing, especially during flowering and fruiting. Therefore, the sections of the TSRs with the Tarengo Leek Orchid should not be stocked from OctoberDecember, and preferably from August. Any loss of individuals due to grazing pressure, and reduction in recruitment due to grazing of flowering stems, particularly from the Delegate site, is detrimental to long term survival (DECCW 2010). Increased browsing/grazing pressure from animals such as kangaroos and rabbits has been identified as a major threat to a similar species, the Gaping Leek Orchid (Prasophyllum correctum). Grazing of emerging plants, particularly in the first season after fire, significantly reduced flowering (Coates et al. 1999).
Two of the five sites are active cemeteries. Ongoing development of the sites for fresh graves potentially conflicts with conservation management for the Tarengo Leek Orchid. This issue has been addressed in the ACT, with a proposal to extend Hall Cemetery into land adjacent to the current site, preserving the existing habitat for Tarengo Leek Orchid. There are a small number of ongoing sales of burial plots (a few per year), and over 70 pre-sold plots. New burial plots are located away from existing plants, but it is possible that recruits will establish on ground reserved for burials. Recently, the plants have been translocated within the cemetery. However, it is not known whether the translocated plants have survived (DECCW 2010).
At Ilford Cemetery, in the next 1020 years it is not likely that sufficient burials would occur as to threaten the Tarengo Leek Orchid (DECCW 2010).
Other practices associated with site management, such as spraying herbicide, mowing, the operation of machinery including backhoes and inappropriate horticultural planting may be threats (DECCW 2010).
Further competition from other native species
At Tarengo TSR, Tarengo Leek Orchid is predominately found in a Beardgrass-Oatgrass (Bothriochloa-Danthonia) sward and is uncommon within Kangaroo Grass swards which occur along the southern edge. Three permanent monitoring plots indicate that the Kangaroo Grass advanced into the Beardgrass-Oatgrass sward from 19952002, and thus is a potential threat to the orchid population. The Golden Sun Moth (Synemon plana) is also disadvantaged by Kangaroo Grass (Themeda sp.), requiring a sward of Austrodanthonia spp. for survival. At the Hall Cemetery, Tarengo Leek Orchid currently grows within a Kangaroo Grass sward. However, the density of Kangaroo Grass (Themeda sp.) may be increasing as a result of the change to the historical management. Native shrubs, particularly Small-fruited Hakea, have increased at the Captains Flat Cemetery in the last two decades (J. Roach, pers. comm, cited in DECCW 2010), possibly particularly so in the last few years (C. Binet pers. comm, cited in DECCW 2010). This may limit the Tarengo Leek Orchid population through shading and/or increased root competition.
Drift of dust and fertilizers from neighbouring paddocks at Tarengo such as superphosphate and other herbicides could interfere with mycorrhizal fungi and kill the orchids (DECCW 2010).
Small population size
Given the small population sizes at Hall, Captains Flat, Ilford and Delegate, stochastic events do have the potential to cause local extinctions. The most likely event is prolonged drought, perhaps as a result of climate change. The Captains Flat population may have declined already in response to the prolonged dry period between 20012009, with very dry years in 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2009. Around 40 individuals were recorded in 2002, but the most recent estimate is only 20 plants, with no plants being found in flower in 2009 (DECCW 2010).
Levels of genetic diversity are not known for the Tarengo Leek Orchid. There are no population viability models for the species. At this stage, except at Hall, there is no data to develop population models (DECCW 2010).
The following proposed recovery actions are taken from the Tarengo Leek Orchid recovery plan (DECCW 2010):
1. Monitor populations
The following monitoring actions should be undertaken (DECCW 2010):
- All populations will be monitored annually.
- The ACT monitors the Hall populations annually.
- NSW will establish a representative monitoring program at Tarengo, since there is a belief that the decline in numbers in the ten permanently marked plots are not representative of the population.
- A sampling procedure will be established at Captains Flat, Delegate and Ilford.
- The population at Bowning cemetery (from seed collected at Hall) will be monitored to better understand the translocation potential of the species.
2. Monitoring and mitigation of native vegatation threats
The following monitoring and mitigation of native vegetation should be undertaken (DECCW 2010):
- The numbers and approximate projected cover of shrubs within the area of occupancy at Captains Flat will be monitored. If shrub cover is found to be increasing, any new recruits directly competing with individual orchid plants will be removed.
- Monitor the spread and changes in density of Kangaroo Grass at the Tarengo TSR to establish whether it is having a detrimental effect on Tarengo Leek Orchid numbers.
- Eucalypt regeneration will be monitored at Hall Cemetery. Any plants directly impacting on Tarengo Leek Orchid plants will be removed.
- Burning or mowing of the habitat is required in autumn to reduce the density of the grass sward. If the site is burned, it should not be burned again for 510 years. In the interim, if the grass sward becomes too dense again, mowing would be the simplest option.
3. Weed control
Hand weeding is the only method that is appropriate for weeds among or near the Tarengo Leek Orchid, until there is a proven non-harmful alternative. Broad scale control of widespread weeds such as Sweet Vernal Grass, Fog Grass or Phalaris without affecting orchids or other natives requires research. Burning and herbicide (e.g. Fusillade TM) may be applicable, but trials will need to be undertaken (DECCW 2010).
4. Conduct further survey
Continue to survey areas suitable for Tarengo Leek Orchid at appropriate times, either as part of other survey work or as time and resources permit (DECCW 2010).
5. Develop management plans for populations
Liaise with South East Livestock Health and Pest Authorities (LHPA), Palerang Shire Council and Mid Western Regional Council to protect the Tarengo Leek Orchid populations at Steves TSR and Captains Flat and Ilford Cemeteries respectively. Ideally, each organisation should have a management plan for the site that recognises the environmental significance and management requirements of the orchid.
Appropriate signage could be erected to inform the public of the cultural and natural heritage significance of sites, and provide contact numbers for further information (DECCW 2010).
6. Analyse the data from the burning/grazing trials at Tarengo
The data from the burning/grazing experiment of Tarengo was never formally analysed. At this stage it is unclear whether there was a significant increase in Tarengo Leek Orchid numbers after the fire. Maximum value for the works and money expended will only be obtained when the data has been properly assessed and documented (DECCW 2010).
7. Conduct the burning and grazing trials again
The experimental plots from the grazing and burning trial at Tarengo are still in place. If the analysis of the results suggests an extension of the experiment is worthwhile, it could be continued with further rounds of treatment.
8. The development of extensions to Hall Cemetery be expedited.
To protect the population of the Tarengo Leek Orchid at Hall Cemetery further burials within the existing cemetery should cease, and the (approved) expansion of the cemetery into the adjacent blocks should be pursued as soon as possible.
9. Co-ordinate recovery actions
NSW DECCW will co-ordinate the implementation of the recovery actions identified for the Tarengo Leek Orchid (DECCW 2010).
Work was undertaken at Tarengo from 19952004 by contractors working for NSW NPWS. Most of this work was not published and therefore, did not inform earlier versions of the recovery plan (DECCW 2010). The data is held by DECCW. The other long term study is of the Hall population by the ACT Department of Parks, Conservation and Lands (DECCW 2010).
Management documents for the Tarengo Leek Orchid include:
- Draft National Recovery Plan for Prasophyllum petilum (DECCW 2010).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Prasophyllum petilum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006sf) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities||Prasophyllum petilum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006sf) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures||National Recovery Plan for Prasophyllum petilum (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010b) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||
The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Prasophyllum petilum (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010b) [Recovery Plan].
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Anthoxanthum odoratum (Sweet Vernal Grass, Sweet-scented Vernal-grass, Sweet Vernal)||
National Recovery Plan for Prasophyllum petilum (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010b) [Recovery Plan].
Prasophyllum petilum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006sf) [Internet].
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Vulpia bromoides (Squirrel-tailed Fescue)||National Recovery Plan for Prasophyllum petilum (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010b) [Recovery Plan].|
|Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire Fog)||Prasophyllum petilum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006sf) [Internet].|
|Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort, Common St John's Wort, Perforate St John's Wort, St John's Grass, St John's Blood, Klamath Weed, Witch's Herb, Devil's Flight, Tipton Weed, Gammock, Goatsbeard, Goatweed, Herb John, Penny John, Rosin Rose, Touch and Heal)||National Recovery Plan for Prasophyllum petilum (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010b) [Recovery Plan].|
|Bromus diandrus (Great Brome)|
|Avena fatua (Wild Oats)|
|Romulea rosea var. communis (Common Onion-grass)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Invasion and competition from native plant species|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:plant|
ACT Government (1997b). A leek orchid (Prasophyllum petilum): An endangered species. Action Plan No. 4. [Online]. Canberra: Environment ACT. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/234455/actionplans4.pdf.
ACT Government (2013b). A Leek Orchid (Prasophyllum petilum) - A endangered species. [Online]. Threatened Species Fact Sheet No. 4. Environment and Sustainable Development Directorate. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/cpr/conservation_and_ecological_communities/information_on_action_plans/factsheet_4.
Bates R.J. (1994c). Orchidaceae: 22. Prasophyllum. In: Flora of Victoria. 2:869-886. Melbourne: Inkata Press.
Bernhardt, P. and R. R. Rowe (1993). Prasophyllum. In: Harden G.J, ed. Flora of New South Wales. 4:155-163. Kensington: New South Wales University Press.
Bower C.C. (2002). Pollution of the Jervis Bay Leek Orchid Prasophyllym affine Lindley (Orchidaceae). Final Report to the Jervis Bay Leek Orchid Recovery Team. Orange: Orchid Research.
Coates, F., I. Lunt & H. Wapstra (1999). Draft Recovery Plan 2000-2002 Prasophyllum correctum D.L. Jones (Gaping Leek-orchid). Environment Australia.
Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (2010b). National Recovery Plan for Prasophyllum petilum. [Online]. Queanbeyan, New South Wales: Department of Environment and Climate Change and Water. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/prasophyllum-petilum.html.
Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (DECCW) NSW (2010). National Recovery Plan for Prasophyllum petilum. Hurstville: DECC NSW.
Jones D.L. (1991c). Some rare or threatened Australian orchids. Butler, G., Meredith, L. & Richardson, M., eds. Conservation of Rare or Threatened Plants in Australasia. Page(s) 203-206. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens.
National Parks and Wildlife Service NSW (NPWS) (2000). Draft NSW and National Recovery Plan for the Prasophyllum petilum. Hurtsville: NPWS.
NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2012l). Tarengo Leek Orchid - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspeciesapp/profile.aspx?id=10666.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Prasophyllum petilum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 8 Mar 2014 17:22:14 +1100.