Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Caladenia macroclavia
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia macroclavia.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia macroclavia.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Caladenia macroclavia
Scientific name Caladenia macroclavia [55012]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author D.L.Jones
Infraspecies author  
Reference Austral. Orchid Res. 2 (1991) 28
Other names Arachnorchis macroclavia [76225]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Caladenia macroclavia

Common name: Large-club Spider-orchid

The Large-club Spider-orchid is conventionally accepted as Caladenia macroclavia (CHAH 2005). The species has previously referred to as Arachnorchis macroclavia, Calonema macroclavia, Calonemorchis macroclavia and Caladenia dilatata.

The Large-club Spider-orchid is a hairy terrestrial herb, with a wiry flowering stem growing to 28 cm in height. The species has oblong-lanceolate, shortly hairy, erect, dull green with a blotched red-purple base leaves that grow 8–10 cm in length and 1–1.3 cm in width (Jones 1991b). Flowers are solitary, green to yellow-green with a prominent dark red central band down each segment and dark brownish osmophores (floral fragrance glands), have no detectable fragrance and grow to approximately 5 cm in width. The labellum (lip) (2.5 mm x 1.5 mm) is articulated, on a short claw, is predominantly three-lobed and is green to yellow-green the dark maroon mid-lobe and calli, and is small for the flower. The dorsal sepal (45–57 mm x 2–3 mm) and lateral sepals (45–52 mm x 3.5–4 mm) are linear to linear-lanceolate at the base and narrow to a linear channel (0.3 mm wide) terminated by a prominent, thickened, laterally flattened, brown, bayonet-shaped osmophore (12–16 mm x 1.5–2 mm) consisting of minute, densely packed, dark brown, glandular cells (Jones 1991b).

The Large-club Spider-orchid was previously thought to have a distribution that extended from the Eyre Peninsula to the Murray Region in South Australia. However, the species is now considered to be mostly confined to the Yorke Peninsula (Bickerton 2003) where it is poorly conserved (Jones 1991b) and has a range of approximately 240 km². It is also rare on central Eyre Peninsula and has a single record from Telowie Gorge Conservation Park in the southern Flinders Ranges (Bates 2011; Bickerton 2003).

There are five known surviving populations of the Large-club Spider-orchid on the Yorke Peninsula at Agery Reserve, Mona Railway Reserve, Muloowurtie Conservation Reserve, Point Julia and Point Vincent. In 2002, only 43 of the spider-orchids, found flowering at these sites, were confirmed as Large-club Spider-orchids and it is estimated that another 50–100 non-flowering plants occurred there at the time. The largest population is at the Point Vincent site where 37 plants were in flower in 2002 (Bickerton 2003). All populations are small but the Point Vincent site is most important for the conservation of the species.

There have been reports of a sixth population in Stansbury Scrub, but an extensive search in 2002 revealed no plants (Bates cited in Bickerton 2003). In 1989, a single specimen was sighted in Telowrie Gorge Conservation Park in the Northern Lofty Ranges (Bates 2000 pers. comm.) but it was not collected and the species has not been seen there since. The Large-club Spider-orchid was last recorded on the Eyre Peninsula (from Stamford Hill) in 1985 (Bickerton 2003).

The Large-club Spider-orchid forms sporadic hybrids with the Winter Spider-orchid (Caladenia brumalis) and the Scented Spider-orchid (C. fragrantissima) (Bates 2000 pers. comm.; Jones 1991b).

The Large-club Spider-orchid grows in fertile shallow loams in mallee-boombrush woodland in sandy loam over limestone (Bates 2011; Jones 1991b). Mallee species such as Yorrel (Eucalyptus gracilis), Red Mallee (E. socialis) and the Ridge Fruited Mallee (E. incrassata) dominate the canopy at all sites. A well-developed shrub layer of Sea Box (Alyxia buxifolia), Broombush (Melaleuca uncinata) and chenopods is present at Agery, Muloowurtie and Point Vincent whereas at the other sites, sedges and grasses dominate the understorey (Bates 2011; Bickerton 2003).

The Large-club Spider-orchid flowers between September and October (Bates 2011) and the primary pollinator of the species is likely to be a Thynnid wasp (Bickerton 2003). The mycorrhizal fungus that the orchid requires for nutrient absorption has not been isolated (Bickerton 2003).

The Large-club Spider-orchid is closely related to the Green-comb Spider-orchid (Caladenia dilatata or Caladenia septuosa) but is readily distinguished by the much larger, brown sepalline osmophores which are laterally flattened and bayonet-shaped and the labellum which is much longer than wide (in most members of this complex the labellum width is usually almost the same as the length). The Large-club Spider-orchid also has a much longer column with relatively narrow column wings and prominently stalked, irregular clavoid column glands (Bates 2000 pers. comm.; Jones 1991b).

In the Eyre Peninsula, the Green-comb Spider-orchid may occur in a large clubbed form. However, the clubs of the orchid are not dark brown or flattened, and the labellum is large for the size of the flower (Bates 2011).

The main threats to the Large-club Spider-orchid include grazing, competition from weeds, habitat damage both by vehicles and dumping of soil or rubbish, herbicide drift and clearing for agriculture and roadworks. The small size and fragmented nature of the remaining populations are of particular concern (Bickerton 2003).

More specifically, weeds, especially Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), but also Soursobs (Oxalis pes-caprae), Wild Oats (Avena sp.) and African Boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum) are a threat at the Agery, Mona and Muloowurtie sites. In addition, kangaroos (Macropodidae), the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the Sheep (Ovis aries) are either present or can gain access to all sites. Currently three of the known populations of the orchid are in small blocks of remnant vegetation on farms and not protected by any form of conservation management agreement (Bickerton 2003).

The Nature Conservation Society of South Australia Incorporated received $21 990 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2004–05. The grant has been used for a multitude of projects aimed at the conservation of the Winter Spider-orchid and a number of other threatened native orchid species. This has included general orchid population survey and monitoring work, Rabbit surveys, fencing (or caging) of sites, public workshops and 'working bees' on South Australian Peninsula orchids (aimed at raising public awareness, including one event on 23/09/2011), grazing monitoring, weed control and bush management activities.

Management documents for the Large-club Spider-orchid can be found at the start of this profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Avena barbata (Bearded Oats) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oxalis pes-caprae (Soursob, Bermuda Buttercup, Buttercup Oxalis, Cape Cowslip, Geelsuring, Oxalis, Sorrel, Sourgrass, Yellow-Flowered Oxalis, Yellow Sorrel) Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lycium ferocissimum (African Boxthorn, Boxthorn) Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Avena fatua (Wild Oats) Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Declining genetic diversity Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Lack of pollination Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid) (Bickerton, D, 2003b) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].

Bates, R.J (2011). South Australia's Native Orchids. Compact disc. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

Bates, R.J. (2000). Personal Communication.

Bickerton, D (2003b). Recovery Plan for Arachnorchis macroclavia (syn. Caladenia macroclavia) (Large-club Spider-orchid). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/archive/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/a-macroclavia/index.html.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2005). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Jones, D.L. (1991b). New Taxa of Australian Orchidaceae. Australian Orchid Research. 2. Essendon: Australian Orchid Foundation.

Jones, D.L., M.A. Clements, I.K. Sharma & A.M. McKenzie (2001). A new classification of Caladenia R.Br. (Orchidaceae). The Orchadian. 13(9):389-417.

Quarmby, J.P. (2010). Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/lofty-block-orchids.html.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia macroclavia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 12 Jul 2014 12:54:39 +1000.