In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Caladenia conferta|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia conferta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006eh) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia conferta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zj) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (48) (10/11/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006b) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia conferta.
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Caladenia conferta |
|Reference||Australian Orchid Research 2: 21 (1991).|
|Other names||Arachnorchis conferta |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Caladenia conferta
Common name: Coast Spider-orchid
The Coast Spider-orchid is conventionally accepted. This species was previously included with Caladenia toxochila (Jones 1991d) which had two distinct forms: an inland form, common in rocky places and native pine communities; and a coastal or more southern form, occurring in terra-rosa soils over limestone in heath or mallee (Bates & Weber 1990). Caladenia toxochila now refers to the inland form and Coast Spider-orchid refers to the coastal or southern form (Jones 1991d).
Some authorities (e.g. Jones et al. 2001) suggest that Caladenia should be split into several new genera, which would place the Coast Spider-orchid into Arachnorchis. Other authorities (e.g. CHAH 2009; Hopper & Brown 2004) consider that Caladenia should not be split. Regardless, taxonomic changes at the genus level would not affect the acceptance of the Coast Spider-orchid.
The Coast Spider-orchid is a small terrestrial orchid. During the growth period, a single dull-green, hairy leaf occurs at the base of the plant. This leaf is ovate-lanceolate in shape, 59 cm long and 1520 mm wide. When in flower, the orchid reaches a height of 1225 cm. The flowers are usually solitary, unscented, and occur on a fine, wiry, hairy scape (stem) 1225 cm tall. Flowers are generally about 3.5 cm across, mostly yellowish-green, with a red tinge, and a red central stripe along each flower segment. The lateral (side) sepals and petals spread out horizontally whilst the dorsal (upper) sepal is erect and curves forward over the flower. The petals are linear-lanceolate in shape and narrow to linear near the tip. The labellum (lower, central petal) is distinctive and, in contrast to the other petals, is three-lobed, articulated on a short claw, dark green to yellowish-green with a dark maroon centre and irregularly toothed edges. The dark maroon calli (hardened appendages on the labellum) are irregular in shape and occur in six regular rows occupying most of the upper surface of the labellum (Jones 1991d, 1991e).
The Coast Spider-orchid is endemic to South Australia. It is currently known from two ecologically and geographically distinct localities in the upper south-east area of the state (at Ngarkat Conservation Park and on granite outcrops near Mount Boothby) and on Yorke Peninsula (near Port Vincent and possibly on the western coast near Maitland). The status and precise location of the Mt Boothby and Maitland subpopulations are unknown (SA DEH 2005).
Herbarium records show that subpopulations occurred at Corny Point and Port Julia on Yorke Peninsula, Hincks Conservation Park on the Eyre Peninsula, and Mount Monster Conservation Park (SA DEH 2005). However, these subpopulations are now considered extinct (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh). A collection identified as the Coast Spider-orchid from Carrappee Hill on the Eyre Peninsula (SA DEH 2005) is now considered another species (possibly a subspecies of Caladenia toxochila) (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh).
Extent of occurrence
The extent of occurrence of the Coast Spider-orchid is estimated to be 1540 km² (TSSC 2006eh). Its occurrence is disjunct, occurring in two separate locations: Yorke Peninsula (720 km²) and the upper south-east of South Australia (820 km²). For the two regions, a polygon was constructed using extant records with data from the State Herbarium of South Australia and South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage (SA DEH 2005).
Historical collections of this species indicate that the Coast Spider-orchid has undergone a considerable decline in its extent of occurrence over the past 50 years. The subpopulations at Hincks Conservation Park, Corny Point, Port Julia and Mount Monster are considered to have disappeared since 2000 (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh). The loss of the subpopulation at Corny Point resulted in a 40% decrease in the extent of occurrence of the species on the Yorke Peninsula; the loss of the Mount Monster subpopulation reduced the range in the upper south-east by approximately 30%; and the loss of the Hincks Conservation Park subpopulation represents the local extinction of the species on the Eyre Peninsula. It is estimated that there has been an overall decline in the extent of occurrence for the species of 57% (SA DEH 2005).
The loss of any further subpopulations from the current range of the species would result in further declines in the extent of occurrence. The lack of information about subpopulations of this species, their occurrence in the agricultural regions and the persistence of threats may result in future declines in the extent of occurrence (SA DEH 2005).
Area of occupancy
The area of occupancy of the Coast Spider-orchid is estimated to be 0.07 km² (TSSC 2006eh). This estimate assumes that the subpopulations do not cover large areas and have an area of occupancy of one hectare at each location (SA DEH 2005).
Extensive vegetation clearance within the agricultural districts throughout the species' range would indicate that the area of occupancy of the species has declined in the past. The loss of several subpopulations over the past five years also indicates a recent decline in the area of occupancy. Subpopulations in reserve systems may be relatively secure but a lack of knowledge about the biology of this species may result in future declines in its area of occupancy (SA DEH 2005).
The distribution of the Coast Spider-Orchid is considered to be severely fragmented. The subpopulation comprises several smaller subpopulations that are geographically isolated with areas of unsuitable habitat separating them.
There have been no surveys targeting the Coast Spider-orchid. Targeted surveys of historic locations would improve the understanding of this species' status (SA DEH 2005). The records available in 2005 were inadequate to provide precise population size estimates and subpopulation locations. There may be other areas of suitable habitat in remnant vegetation on the lower Yorke Peninsula, particularly within the Innes National Park, and larger conservation reserves on the Eyre Peninsula and in the upper south-east (SA DEH 2005).
The entire population of the Coast Spider-orchid (from the known Yorke Peninsula and upper south-east subpopulations) is estimated at 500700 mature plants (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh).
There are records of 13 locations of the Coast Spider-orchid: four are extant, four are extinct, four have an unknown status due to a lack of targeted surveys and one collection has uncertain taxonomy (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., TSSC 2006eh). The 13 known locations may be described as subpopulations as they are geographically isolated and there is unlikely to be genetic exchange between them. Subpopulations of the Coast Spider-orchid occur in small remnants of vegetation on private property, or in small reserves, and generally do not exceed 200 mature plants.
There is one record, collected in 1968, from Hincks Conservation Park but this subpopulation is now considered extinct (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh). Another collection, from Carrappee Hill, may not be the Coast Spider-orchid and is possibly a subspecies of Caladenia toxochila (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh).
There are six records from the Yorke Peninsula, two of which are extinct. The four extant subpopulations were most recently recorded between 1987 and 2005. Three of these subpopulations have an estimated total population size of 500 mature individuals. There are no population estimates for the fourth subpopulation (TSSC 2006eh). The following locations have been recorded on Yorke Peninsula:
- Port Vincent: there is a subpopulation on private property of approximately 200 plants, this is considered the largest subpopulation of the species (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh). This subpopulation may be the source of a collection at Port Vincent in 1956 (SA DEH 2005).
- Mulbara Park Reserve: there are four records from this location (SA DEH 2005), which is a site owned by the National Trust of South Australia and protected in perpetuity under a Heritage Agreement. At least three of these collections have been made from different habitats and may represent different subpopulations within the 19 ha property. The Coast Spider-orchid has been described as "abundant" in one of these habitats. The records date from 19942000 and the subpopulations are considered extant. There is approximately 120 plants at this location (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh).
- Curramulka Scrubs: there are three collection records from Curramulka Scrubs (SA DEH 2005). This subpopulation occurs on private land that is protected under a Heritage Agreement. The most recent record from this location is from 1994 (SA DEH 2005) and the subpopulation is considered to be extant.
- Coast near Maitland: a collection was made from this location in 1987. This subpopulation may occur on private land and its current status and size are not known.
- Near Port Julia: a collection was made from private property near Port Julia in 1968. The property is grazed and this subpopulation is presumed extinct.
- Corny Point: the Coast Spider-orchid was collected from Corny Point in 1968. No recent collections have been made from this location and the subpopulation is presumed extinct (R. Bates, 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh).
Upper south-east of South Australia
There are records for five subpopulations in the upper south-east of South Australia. These are considered to be subpopulations as they occur in specialised habitats (all but one subpopulation on granite outcrops) and are separated by areas of unsuitable habitat. The following locations have been recorded in the upper south-east:
- Ngarkat: the Coast Spider-orchid was collected from Rabbit Island Soak in the Ngarkat Conservation Park in 2003. This subpopulation was described as occurring in "one patch". It is assumed to be extant given the age of the record (SA DEH 2005).
- Near Mount Boothby: a collection was made from a granite outcrop in 1977. This subpopulation occurs on private land and its current status and size are not known (SA DEH 2005).
- Near Woods Well: this collection was made in 1980. This subpopulation occurs on private land and its current status and size are not known (SA DEH 2005).
- Mount Field: a collection of the species was made from Mount Field, a granite outcrop, in 1988. This subpopulation occurs on private land and its current status and size are not known (SA DEH 2005).
- Mount Monster: a subpopulation occurs in the Mount Monster Conservation Park (SA DEH 2005). Two plants were recorded in 1994, but this subpopulation is now believed to be extinct (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2006eh).
There is no data on the size of the upper south-east subpopulations. However, assuming a patch contains a maximum of 50 plants (which is more than can be quickly counted by an observer), each subpopulation would have 250 plants. There are four known subpopulations, therefore the total population size is roughly estimated as 8200 mature plants (SA DEH 2005).
The Coast Spider-orchid has become extinct across most of its range, and may now only be extant in protected areas of vegetation. The exception is granite outcrop habitats in the upper south-east, which remain intact (Croft et al. 1999). There are likely to be future declines in population numbers, especially in areas where the habitat of this species is not protected, and threats to the species continue to operate (SA DEH 2005).
There have been no reports of extreme natural fluctuations in population numbers, extent of occurrence or area of occupancy for the Coast Spider-orchid (SA DEH 2005).
Three of the subpopulations of the Coast Spider-orchid occur in reserves: two of the Yorke Peninsula subpopulations occur in the Heritage Agreement reserves at Curramulka and Mulbura Park; and one subpopulation in the upper south-east occurs in Ngarkat Conservation Park (SA DEH 2005).
The Mulbura Park Reserve is listed under the Register of the National Estate. The reserve is managed by the National Trust of South Australia. There are no specific management actions for the Coast Spider-orchid within the reserve although there are weed control programs for Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae) and introduced annual grasses (SA DEH 2005).
Although there is a management plan for the Ngarkat Conservation Park (SA DEH 2004) this plan does not specifically address the management of the Coast Spider-orchid and the plant is not listed in the plan. General management actions for threatened plant subpopulations within the park include creation of a spatial database, monitoring, identifying threatening processes, undertaking threat abatement programs and researching the impact of fire on flora (SA DEH 2004).
The Coast Spider-orchid occurs in mallee woodlands or broombush scrubs in terra-rosa soils over limestone, or on fertile red-brown soils amongst granite outcrops (Jones 1991d; R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., cited TSSC 2006eh).
The Coast Spider-orchid is distributed across the southern part of South Australia where rainfall occurs predominantly in winter. The average annual rainfall across the species' range is 300500 mm (Bureau of Meteorology 2006). This region is characterised by cool wet winters and long, mild, dry summers (Croft et al. 1999).
In the upper south-east, collections of the Coast Spider-orchid have been made from granite outcrops, for example at Mount Field, north of Mount Boothby, east of Woods Well and at Mount Monster (SA DEH 2005). At Ngarkat, the species occurs in sedgelands on sandy soils.
On the Yorke Peninsula the species occurs on a variety of soil types over limestone. It has been collected from brown loams, terra-rosa soils and deep, brown, sandy soils. At Hincks Conservation Park on the Eyre Peninsula the species occurred on sandy loams. At Mulbura Park, it has been collected from flats, shallow ridges and swales in Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticillata) woodland with an understorey of wire-rushes (Restionaceae). It has also been collected from limestone outcrops in shrublands with emergent Drooping Sheoak, in shady depressions in open Drooping Sheoak woodland, in mixed Red Mallee (Eucalyptus socialis) Narrow-leaved Red Mallee (E. leptophylla) open scrubs, and in Mallee Box (E. porosa) open woodlands of the Curramulka Scrubs (Neagle 1995).
The generation length of the Coast Spider-orchid is not known. Caladenia orchids grow annually from a tuberoid (underground storage organ) that is replaced each year (Bates & Weber 1990). Adult plants may live for several years (occasionally decades), producing a new tuberoid beneath the old tuberoid each growing season (Bates & Weber 1990).
The Coast Spider-orchid belongs to a group of orchids (the spider orchids) with a specialised pollination mechanism (Jones 1991e). The flowers emit a chemical signal similar to the odour female wasps emit to attract males (Bates & Weber 1990). Pollination is achieved during mating attempts by the male wasp on the orchid flower. The pollinator vector of the Coast Spider-orchid has not been identified but a thynnine wasp, possibly in the genus Neozeleboria, has been observed and collected from flowers at Mount Field, in the upper south-east (SA DEH 2005).
The Coast Spider-orchid has been reported to hybridise with Caladenia brumalis (Jones 1991d) which also occurs on the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas (Barker et al. 2005).
The Coast Spider-orchid is similar to Caladenia toxochila but differs in the horizontally spreading lateral petals and sepals, the three-lobed labellum and the dark and crowded calli on the labellum surface (Jones 1991d).
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation
The range of the Coast Spider-orchid coincides with the southern agricultural districts of South Australia. Vegetation clearance for agriculture has been extensive in this region, particularly in the more fertile areas. Remnant native vegetation is concentrated in areas that are not suitable for agriculture such as areas of sheet limestone, deep sands or granite outcrops, or regions with low rainfall unsuitable for cropping (Croft et al. 1999; Graham et al. 2001). Orchids are highly susceptible to disturbance and generally do not occur on cleared land or on disturbed roadside verges. Therefore, most extant subpopulations of the Coast Spider-orchid occur in small fragments of remnant vegetation, surrounded by unsuitable hostile ground (Bates & Weber 1990). Native vegetation clearance continues throughout the range of the Coast Spider-orchid, and represents a current threat to many plant species in South Australia (TSSC 2006eh).
Habitat fragmentation may affect the future viability of subpopulations through indirect mechanisms related to the species' biology. For example, habitat fragmentation may lead to a decline in pollinators, resulting in a reduction in seed set and a continuing decline in population numbers (TSSC 2006eh).
The quality of small blocks of remnant vegetation that support this species may continue to deteriorate where threats are not controlled. Grazing and weed invasion can contribute to a loss in habitat, particularly for those subpopulations that occur on private land. This is considered an ongoing threat as there are no management actions specifically targeting this species on either private and public land (TSSC 2006eh).
The subpopulation at Ngarkat Conservation Park may be threatened by recreational activities within the park. The subpopulation occurs at Rabbit Island Soak, which is a camping and picnic area that can be accessed by four-wheel drive vehicles. Plants at this site may be threatened by trampling from foot traffic or destruction by vehicles (SA DEH 2004).
Catastrophic events that are likely to severely affect the Coast Spider-orchid include severe drought and changes to the normal climate pattern. The species occurs in areas that receive 300500 mm of rainfall, with an annual rainfall variability of 5075% (Bureau of Meteorology 2006). In severe drought years there is a reduction in annual rainfall, or an increase in rainfall variability, which may cause localised extinction in low rainfall areas (SA DEH 2005). Changes to annual rainfall patterns may have an indirect impact on the species by changing pollinator behaviour or pollination efficiency.
Lack of pollinators
It is not known whether the small size of the Coast Spider-orchid populations is the result of low seed set, which may indicate lack of appropriate pollinators. Habitat fragmentation may limit pollinator visitation rates and vegetation clearance may have eliminated pollinator food plants. Because of the highly specialised relationship between the orchid and its pollinator, the habitats that support orchids must also provide suitable habitat for pollen vectors (TSSC 2006eh).
The Coast Spider-orchid is not known to self-pollinate, so, although self-pollination may enable small subpopulations to persist, especially if pollinators are limiting, it is unlikely that this could occur in this species (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm., TSSC 2006eh).
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia conferta (TSSC 2008zj) outlines a number of research actions, including:
- Design and implement a monitoring program.
- More precisely assess population size, distribution, ecological requirements, pollination vector dynamics, reproductive biology and the relative impacts of threatening processes.
- Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional subpopulations.
- Undertake seed germination and/or vegetative propagation trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment, including mycorrhizal association trials.
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia conferta (TSSC 2008zj) outlines a number of recovery priority actions, including:
- Monitor known subpopulations to identify key threats.
- Identify subpopulations of high conservation priority.
- Manage threats to areas of vegetation that contain subpopulations of the Coast Spider-orchid.
- Control access routes to suitably constrain access to known sites on public land and manage access on private land.
- Ensure road maintenance, infrastructure or development activities in areas where the Coast Spider-orchid occurs do not adversely impact on known subpopulations.
- Investigate further formal conservation arrangements such as the use of covenants, conservation agreements or inclusion in reserve tenure.
- Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
- Develop and implement a management plan for the control of invasive weeds in the local region.
- Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on the Coast Spider-orchid.
- Raise awareness of Coast Spider-orchid within the local community.
- Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for the Coast Spider-orchid.
- Identify appropriate intensity and interval of fire to promote seed germination and vegetation regeneration.
- Provide maps of known occurrences to local and state rural fire services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk register and/or operation maps.
- Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
- Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional subpopulations.
- Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional subpopulations is considered necessary and feasible.
- Manage known sites on private property to ensure appropriate grazing regimes are conducted outside the growing season, i.e. when plants are not fertile.
There are no recovery plans or other management documentation available for the Coast Spider-orchid. The Threatened Species Scientific Committee's conservation advice and listing advice provide management recommendations for this species (TSSC 2006ep, 2008zj).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia conferta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zj) [Conservation Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia conferta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zj) [Conservation Advice].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia conferta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zj) [Conservation Advice].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
Barker, W.R., R.M. Barker, J.P. Jessop & H.P. Vonow, eds. (2005). Census of South Australian Vascular Plants, 5th edition. In: Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens Supplement 1. [Online]. Adelaide: Botanic Gardens of Adelaide & State Herbarium. Available from: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/pdfs/Census_5.0_web.pdf.
Bates, R. (2005). Personal communication.
Bates, R.J. & J.Z. Weber (1990). Orchids of South Australia. Adelaide: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee.
Bureau of Meteorology (2006). Climate Averages. [Online]. Available from: http://www.bom.gov.au/.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2009). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Croft, T., S. Carruthers., H. Possingham & B. Inns (1999). Biodiversity Plan for the South East of South Australia. Adelaide: Department of Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs.
Graham, A., A. Oppermann & R.W. Inns (2001). Biodiversity Plan for the Northern Agricultural Districts. Adelaide, South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage.
Hopper, S.D. & A.P. Brown (2004). Robert Brown's Caladenia revisited, including a revision of its sister genera Cyanicula, Ericksonella and Pheladenia (Caladeniinae: Orchidaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 17:171-240.
Jones, D.L. (1991d). Caladenia conferta. Australian Orchid Research. 2:21.
Jones, D.L. (1991e). Caladenia R.Br. Australian Orchid Research. 2:13-36.
Jones, D.L., M.A. Clements, I.K. Sharma & A.M. McKenzie (2001). A new classification of Caladenia R.Br. (Orchidaceae). The Orchadian. 13(9):389-417.
Neagle, N. (1995). An update of the conservation status of the major plant associations of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: Native Vegetation Conservation Section, Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2004). Ngarkat Complex of Conservation Parks Management Plan. Adelaide: SA DEH.
South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2005). Databases: Opportune, Plant Population, Reserves, Roadside Vegetation and Survey. Viewed 31 May 05. Adelaide: SA DEH.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2006eh). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia conferta. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/caladenia-conferta.html.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008zj). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia conferta. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/55000-conservation-advice.pdf.
Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia conferta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 28 Jul 2014 16:55:27 +1000.