Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan (Obst, C., 2005) [Report].
SA:Draft recovery plan for 23 threatened flora taxa on Eyre Peninsula, South Australia 2007-2012 (Pobke, K., 2007) [State Recovery Plan].
SA:Threatened Flora of Eyre Penninsula. Fat-leaf Wattle Acacia pinguifolia. Endangered (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2006c) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Acacia pinguifolia [5319]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author J.Black
Infraspecies author  
Reference Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 71: 20 (25 Jul. 1947).
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Acacia pinguifolia

Common name: Fat-leaved Wattle

The Fat-leaved Wattle is a dense spreading shrub, growing up to 2 m high and 3 m across (Davies 1992) with globular golden yellow flowerheads (Orchard & Wilson 2001a). Numerous terete, ascending, arching branches extend from just above or at ground level, with branchlets glabrous, smooth, reddish-brown and with thin bark which is pale grey at the base of the stems. Phyllodes are 1–3.5 cm long, 2–3 mm in diameter and are straight or falcate, terete or somewhat compressed, rigid, thick and fleshy and light green in colour. The surface of phyllodes becomes wrinkled and grooved when dry and the apex ends abruptly with a minute, hard, thick point (Jessop & Toelken 1986).

Inflorescences are simple and axillary, solitary or twin, or sometimes up to four heads. Flower-heads are globular, deep yellow, with 20–30 individual flowers. Peduncles are glabrous, 5–10 mm long and legumes are 5–7 cm long, 5 mm broad, curved and finally twisted, swollen and raised over the seeds, dark brown with light-brown margins and are slightly constricted between the seeds. The seeds are longitudinally arranged within the legume, ellipsoid in shape with a whitish, fleshy aril (Jessop & Toelken 1986).

The Fat-leaved Wattle is endemic to South Australia and has a widely separated distribution with disjunct populations located on Eyre Peninsula and Fleurieu Peninsula (Pound et al. 2011).

The disjunct southerly population on Eyre Peninsula occurs between Cummins and Wanilla, including the Koppio Hills, and another grouping of populations between Cummins and north east to Ungarra (Pound et al. 2011; Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994; Leigh et al. 1984).

The small, disjunct population on Fleurieu Peninsula occurs near Finniss in the southern Lofty region, South Australia (Orchard & Wilson 2001a). The occurrence is 55 km south-south-east of Adelaide (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994; Leigh & Briggs 1992), immediately west of Lake Alexandrina (Davies 1992; Leigh et al. 1984).

There are three main populations of the Fat-leaved Wattle (Jusaitis 1991a; Leigh & Briggs 1992; Leigh et al. 1984). The first, bounded by Ungarra, Moody, Cockaleechie and Nyllow Park, contains about 2000 plants which occur mainly on roadsides. However, there is one subpopulation on grazed farming land that contains an estimated 1000 plants (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994), and is the largest known congregation outside a road or railway reserve (RNEDB June 2001). The second population, containing 1000 plants, is located along roadsides between Pillana and Warunda and extending for 5 km east of Edillilie (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994). These populations are healthy and regenerating (Leigh & Briggs 1992). A third smaller outlying population of 150 plants occurs near 'Nunmulta' homestead, 15 km west of Cummins along the Warrow Road (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994).

There are also several small populations in the Finiss area, ranging from 5 to 50 plants each. These populations are confined to railway reserves or road reserves (Davies 1992).

The Fat-leaved Wattle is not known to occur in any conservation reserve (Davies 1992; Leigh & Briggs 1992), though the species was known, in 1996, to occur in a Heritage Agreement Area on the Eyre Peninsula (Briggs & Leigh 1996).

The Fat-leaved Wattle generally grows on sandy or hard alkaline yellow duplex soils (Whibley 1980) which is mainly salty (Staff of the SA Herbarium 2000 pers. comm.). More specifically, in the Finniss area, the species has been found on an undulating plain of sands, sandy clay loams and clay loams of pH 7.5 to 9.5. Specimens from the southern Eyre Peninsula were collected from an undulating terrain with a westerly aspect, either on cream loam with clay subsoil, on red loam (calcareous), brown clay-loam on schist (SA DEH 2004a), brown clay loam on broken limestone, and pale grey sand over ironstone gravel (National Herbarium of Victoria, Melbourne, cited in Davies 1992). Annual rainfall averages 400-500 mm (Leigh et al. 1984; Whibley & Symon 1992).

The species is more abundant in open and disturbed vegetation (J.D. Briggs pers. comm. cited in Leigh et al. 1984; Davies 1992). It is an understorey shrub occurring in mallee, open woodland, open scrub, shrubland or heath (Davies 1992; Leigh et al. 1984; Leigh & Briggs 1992; Whibley & Symon 1992). Associated species include Eucalyptus odorata and E. incrassata (Orchard & Wilson 2001a; Whibley & Symon 1992). The species has also been found with E. dumosa, E. foecunda, E. calycogona, E. cooperana, E. flocktoniae, E. pileata and Melaleuca uncinata (Davies 1992; Leigh et al. 1984; Leigh & Briggs 1992; Whibley & Symon 1992).

In the Finiss area, the shrub layer is sparse to moderately dense and frequently dominated by Melaleuca uncinata, with less frequent co-domination by Dodonaea baueri, Acacia halliana, Callistemon rugulosus, A. spinescens, A. paradoxa, A. pycnantha, Correa glabra, Lasiopetalum behrii and Lasiopetalum baueri. The lowest stratum is sparse, and frequently dominated by exotic grasses. Native species such as Stipa sp., Danthonia sp., Lepidosperma sp. and Dianella revoluta are dominant at some sites (Davies 1992).

Flowering of the Fat-leaf Wattle occurs from July to October (Jessop & Toelken 1986); however specimens have been collected flowering as early as June and as late as January (Adelaide Herbarium, National Herbarium of Victoria, Melbourne, cited in Davies 1992). Specimens with fruit have been collected from October to February (Davies 1992).

Individual plants were found to vary quite considerably in the amount of seed produced, and in the onset of seed maturity. This difference was accentuated between populations (Jusaitis 1991a).

Many Acacia species are known to respond to fire with mass germination events. The Fat-leaf Wattle appears to have a similar response, as noted in Pobke (2007), who observed mass recruitment of Fat-leaved Wattle at some sites on Eyre Peninsula after the 2005 Wangary fire.

Given that the Fat-leaved Wattle is almost entirely confined to narrow strips of roadsides and railway reserves, it is at risk from roadwork and railway maintenance (Leigh et al. 1984; Leigh & Briggs 1992). Railway populations have incurred damage due to railway maintenance activities and roadside populations are being suppressed by heavy invasion of weeds (Davies 1992; Jusaitis 1991a).

In addition to inappropriate disturbance regimes, threats impacting the species include land clearance, fragmentation and associated genetic isolation, grazing, herbicide drift, weeds, Phytophthora cinnamomi and inappropriate fire regimes. Protection from grazing has been found to double the average growth of the plant within two years (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994). A comprehensive description of these threats and their impact on the species can be found in the Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia at the start of this profile

Recovery actions relevant to this species can be found in the Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Pobke 2007).

Ark on Eyre Threatened Flora Recovery Team (SA) received $3850 of funding, through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2002-03, part of which was for the enhancement of a vegetation corridor along a five km stretch of road reserve to assist in the recovery of the species through an increase in population size, re-establishment of a locally extinct population and linkage of two populations.

Nature Conservation Society of South Australia Inc received $2590 of funding, through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2003-04, part of which was for conducting a series of workshops targeted at a series of high priority stakeholders in the Eyre Peninsula region to build capacity for threatened plant conservation, including the Fat-leaved Wattle.

Management documents for the Fat-leaved Wattle can be found at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Acacia pinguifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006v) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Acacia pinguifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006v) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oxalis pes-caprae (Soursob, Bermuda Buttercup, Buttercup Oxalis, Cape Cowslip, Geelsuring, Oxalis, Sorrel, Sourgrass, Yellow-Flowered Oxalis, Yellow Sorrel) Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus declinatus (Bridal Veil, Bridal Veil Creeper, Pale Berry Asparagus Fern, Asparagus Fern, South African Creeper) Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle) (Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Acacia pinguifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006v) [Internet].

Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.

Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.

Jusaitis, M (1991a). Ex Situ Conservation in the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide. In: Butler, G., Meredith, L. & Richardson, M., eds. Conservation of Rare or Threatened Plants in Australasia. Page(s) 39-42. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. Canberra, Australian National Botanic Gardens.

Jusaitis, M. & B. Sorensen (1994). Conservation Studies on Endangered Plant Species from South Australia's Agricultural Regions. Adelaide, South Australia: Black Hill Flora Centre.

Leigh, J., R. Boden & J. Briggs (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Macmillan.

Leigh, J.H. & J.D. Briggs (Eds) (1992). Threatened Australian Plants. Overview and Case Studies. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson, eds. (2001a). Flora of Australia, Volume 11B, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 2. In: Flora of Australia. Canberra, ACT: ABRS & CSIRO.

Pobke, K. (2007). Draft recovery plan for 23 threatened flora taxa on Eyre Peninsula, South Australia 2007-2012. [Online]. South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/west_bcp/pdfs/draft_recovery_plan_for23.pdf..

Pound L., C. Obst., T. How & D. Bickerton (2011). Recovery Plan for Acacia pinguifolia (Fat-leaved Wattle). [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/acacia-pinguifolia.html.

South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2004a). SA DEH databases comprising of the Opportune Database, Plant Population Database, Reserves Database, Roadside Vegetation Database and Survey Database. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage.

Staff of the South Australian State Herbarium (2000). Personal Communication.

Whibley, D.J. (1980). Acacias of South Australia. Adelaide: State Herbarium of South Australia.

Whibley, D.J.E. & D.E. Symon (1992). Acacias of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbook Committee.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia pinguifolia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 22 Aug 2014 11:41:50 +1000.