Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Caladenia rosella
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia rosella.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia rosella.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Rosella Spider Orchid - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005ao) [Internet].
NSW:Recovery Plan for the "lost" threatened flora of south-eastern NSW: Baeuerlen's Gentian (Gentiana baeuerlenii), Elusive Bush-pea (Pultenaea parrisiae subsp. elusa), Elusive Cress (Irenepharsus magicus), etc (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001h) [State Recovery Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 103 - Twelve threatened Spider-orchids Caladenia species (Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2004) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Extinct (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013) as Caladenia rosella
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014) as Caladenia rosella
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Caladenia rosella [5086]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author G.W.Carr
Infraspecies author  
Reference Muelleria 6: 442, fig. 2 (1988).
Other names Arachnorchis rosella [76203]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Caladenia rosella

Common name: Rosella Spider-orchid

Other names: Little Pink Spider-orchid 

Conventionally accepted as Caladenia rosella (CHAH 2010).

The Rosella Spider-orchid is a deciduous, terrestrial species with a single, hairy leaf (to 80 mm x 8 mm), which has reddish spots and blotches near its base. The slender flower stems are up to 17 cm tall. The musk-scented flowers are pink in colour and borne singly. A full description and photograph of the Rosella Spider-orchid can be found in Backhouse and Jeanes (1995). 

Given the Rosella Spider-orchid's association with woodlands that have been subjected to a variety of soil disturbances over the past 150 years, the species was probably once widespread and common (Carr pers. comm. cited in NSW NPWS 2001h). Some of the localities of the old collections (Maryborough, Evansford and Clydesdale) suggest that this species may have been a component of box-ironbark associations of central and northern Victoria (Carr 1988) between the Grampians in Victoria and Albury in southern NSW (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). Collections held at the National Herbarium in Melbourne are from Hurstbridge, Maryborough, Clydesdale, Evansford, Grampians and Albury.

The current distribution, within the Victoria Midlands bioregion, includes disjunct populations north east of Melbourne at Cottlesbridge, Research and Christmas Hills and an unconfirmed record at the Deep Lead site near Stawell (Vic. DSE 2004). The extent of the species' occurrence, across these four locations, is estimated at 3500 km2 (Jeanes & Backhouse 2006).

The single collection of the Rosella Spider-orchid for NSW was made by H. Beattie and was lodged at the National Herbarium of Victoria. The collection is undated and only gives "Albury" as a location. According to Neville Walsh (National Herbarium of Victoria), the label is in the handwriting of Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, which places the collection as pre-1896. Some doubt has been expressed about the validity of the name given to the specimen, especially since a similar species, Crimson Spider-orchid (C. concolor), still occurs in the Albury area. However, Geoff Carr, who described the Rosella Spider-orchid, is confident that the determination was correct (Carr pers. comm. cited in NSW NPWS 2001h). David Jones (Australian National Herbarium) viewed the specimen and agreed with the determination made by Geoff Carr (NSW NPWS 2001h).

Although dedicated searches for the Rosella Spider-orchid have not occurred since the sole NSW record for the species, extensive searches have been conducted in bushland remnants in the Albury area for orchids in general (Branwhite pers. comm. cited in NSW NPWS 2001h). Whilst no findings have occurred for the species as part of these general searches, the National Parks and Wildlife Service, NSW, will encourage surveys for the Rosella Spider-orchid in the conduct of environmental impact assessments for proposed developments and activities in the Albury area (NSW NPWS 2001h).

Tremblay and colleagues (2009a, 2009b) report survey results for the Rosella Spider-orchid from 2003–2007 in north-eastern Melbourne. It was found that the probability of resighting an individual for two consecutive years was conditional on the individual being observed above ground. The Rosella Spider-orchid had one of the highest probabilities of being resighted at ~90%.

Wright and colleagues (2010) surveyed the Cottlesbridge population for their study on mycorrhizal fungi associations.

The Rosella Spider-orchid consists of four small populations in Victoria with approximately 120 plants (Vic. DSE 2004). The species is presumed extinct in NSW (NSW NPWS 2001h).

In 1991, there were seven colonies in the Cottlesbridge population containing about 34 plants in total. The Research site had only a few plants, and the Deep Lead site had only one flowering plant (Beardsell & Muir 1992). There is a single historic collection for NSW at Albury (but not in 1991).

Key populations for the conservation of the Rosella Spider-orchid occur at Cottlesbridge on private land and on public land, managed by Parks Victoria, at One Tree Hill (Warrandyte-Kinglake Nature Conservation Reserve adjoins Kinglake National Park) and Christmas Hills (Vic. DSE 2004).

Tremblay and colleagues (2009b) examined data to evaluate some of the basic life-history strategies in Caladenia, specifically the transitions between life-history stages. As a relative measure of comparison of how endangered each of the Caladenia species is, the quasi-extinction rate was calculated, assuming all conditions equal. No recruitment was included in the model and all populations started with the same number of individuals, n = 50. The quasi-extinction rate suggests that the Rosella Spider-orchid, Plain-lip Spider-orchid (C. clavigera), C. graniticola and Large-club Spider-orchid (C. macroclavia) are most at risk. The Rosella Spider-orchid appeared to be one of the most vulnerable with 20.3 years to median extinction (Tremblay et al. 2009b). High elasticities in the transition between the dormant stages suggest that dormancy has a large impact on population persistence.

Ninety-two percent of plants (ie 100 plants) are reserved at One Tree Hill (Warrandyte-Kinglake Nature Conservation Reserve). Two sites are unreserved containing 10 plants on three private properties protected by Trust for Nature (TFN) Conservation Covenants (Vic. DSE 2004).

The Rosella Spider-orchid occupies box and ironbark forests and woodlands of inland Victoria within the Victorian Midlands bioregion (Vic. DSE 2004). It is also associated with Grassy Dry Forest and Heathy Dry Forest on sandy clay loams derived from sandstone and mudstone (Vic. DSE 2004). It grows mainly on dry west-facing slopes in well-drained skeletal sandy clay loams (Carr 1988; Todd 2000).

In Victoria, extant populations grow in woodlands dominated by Red Stringybark (Eucalyptus macrorhyncha), Red Box (Eucalyptus polyanthemos) and Long-leaved Box (Eucalyptus goniocalyx). The understorey is generally sparse and consists of a combination of low shrubs, grasses and herbs. The dominant understorey plants at the Cottlesbridge site are Wreath Wattle (Acacia acinacea), Silvery Hairgrass (Aira caryophyllea), Quaking Grass (Briza maxima), Australian Carrot (Daucus glochidiatus), Scented Sundew (Drosera whittakeri), Hypochoeris glabra, Red Anther Wallaby Grass (Joycea pallida), Microseris sp., Millotia tenuifolia, Fine-leaved Tussock-grass (Poa sieberiana sens. lat.), Ranunculus pumilio var. pumilio, Senecio tenuiflorus and Tall Bluebell (Wahlenbergia stricta) (Carr 1988). 

In NSW, the dry stony ridges that surround Albury may be suitable habitat for the species (NSW NPWS 2001h).

Caladenia species die back annually to subterranean tuberoids. Plants resprout in response to autumn rain and generally flower in spring. The Rosella Spider-orchid flowering occurs mainly in August and September (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995) and fruit is produced in October and November (Vic. DSE 2004). Reproductive maturity is reached after three to five years and is maintained for up to five years thereafter, beyond which time, the pseudo-bulb is apparently incapable of leaf initiation (Beardsell & Muir 1992). Reproduction is entirely from seed that is ripe and dispersed three to four weeks after pollination (Carr 1988). Plants produce a single replacement tuber each year, and may be capable of maintaining themselves in this way for many years.

Like many Caladenia species, flowering in the Rosella Spider-orchid may be enhanced by fire (Backhouse &Jeanes 1995), although Beardsell and Muir (1992) suggest that the understorey of natural stands is so sparse that fire may not be important. Beardsell and Muir (1992) report that, unlike many other orchids, reproduction in the Rosella Spider-orchid occurs primarily by seedling establishment rather than division of pseudo-bulbs (NSW NPWS 2001h).

Natural pollination has been observed at the Cottlesbridge site (Carr 1988). A small native calictid bee (Neoproctus species) has been reported as a pollinator of the Rosella Spider-orchid (Beardsell pers. comm. cited in Vic. DSE 2004), but the orchid exists in such low numbers that natural pollination would be an uncommon event if flowers were not hand pollinated annually (Carr 1988; Todd 2000). Artificial cross-pollination and capsule collection have been used as ongoing management tools for over 12 years at the Cottlesbridge site and for about nine years at the Christmas Hills site (Todd 2000).

One study has found remarkable similarity between fungi associations of six endangered orchid species, including the Rosella Spider-orchid. Not only were these fungi from a single taxonomic group of organisms with shared ancestry, but those isolated from the Charming Spider-orchid (C. amoena), McIvor Spider-orchid (C. audasii), Rosella Spider-orchid and C. sp. aff. patersonii had identical genetic sequences. Interestingly, the fungal taxon associating with these endangered orchids was geographically the most widespread of the three fungal taxa identified in the authors' study, occurring throughout the study range.  The commonness of this fungal taxon, associated with both the common and endangered orchids, highlights that orchid mycorrhizal fungi are potentially widely and heterogeneously spaced in the environment (Wright et al. 2010).

Mycorrhizal fungi isolates (Wright et al. 2010) were collected from wild populations and stored under sterile water in the Royal Botanic Gardens of Melbourne's Living Collection for symbiotic propagation. Whilst isolates from the Rosella Spider-orchid had been collected in the past (1994), the Living Collection also included isolates from whole stem collars. Other collections held at the National Herbarium in Melbourne are from Hurstbridge, Maryborough, Clydesdale, Evansford, Grampians and Albury (Todd 2000).

The Rosella Spider-orchid can be identified by the relatively small, bright pink flower on a short scape. The narrow labellum has finer-like marginal and laminar calli. Flowers have a musky floral fragrance (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). Crimson Spider-orchid (C. concolor) has broader sepal and petal tips and a less extensively toothed midlobe to the labellum. Elegant Spider-orchid (C. formosa) has larger flowers on taller stems, not scented and not rigidly spreading in a cross shape (Bishop 2000).

Habitat of the Rosella Spider-orchid has been severely reduced and altered by clearance for agriculture (Jeanes 2001 pers. comm.) as well as historic mining activities and more recent urban development (Vic. DSE 2004). The types and levels of threats to the species (Vic. DSE 2004) include:

Threat Level of threat Notes
Weed invasion Medium Threat from mostly annual grasses and herbs presently being managed at most sites.
Grazing Medium Many plants are caged and one population is fenced for protection. 
Inappropriate fire regimes Low Semi-urban areas with very infrequent fire.
Site disturbance Low to Medium Most sites are not well known but are sometimes heavily visited in spring. Tubers often dug up by White-winged Choughs (Corcorax melanorhamphos).
Illegal collection Medium No evidence but some sites are well known.
Stochastic event/accidental damage Medium Small populations (with a number of colonies) occupy restricted habitat.

Conservation management should focus on studies to identify cues that influence flowering in consecutive years, emergence from dormancy and increasing recruitment (Tremblay et al. 2009b).

NSW recovery actions (NSW NPWS 2001h)

  • Systematic and dedicated searches by trained botanists for those species that have a good chance of being found.
  • Provision of information, where appropriate, to communities and interested groups in the areas where the species were last located to encourage community participation in field searches.
  • The encouragement of targeted surveys for seven of the species in the conduct of environmental impact assessments for proposed developments and activities in suitable habitat.

Victorian recovery objectives (Vic. DSE 2004)

Protection and fine-scale management of the Rosella Spider-orchid populations and ex situ cultivation/re-introduction of plants.

Victorian recovery actions undertaken (Vic. DSE 2004)

  • Control of annual and perennial introduced herbs
  • Caging of plants at Cottlesbridge to protect from pests and predators
  • Hand pollination of plants
  • Collection and storage of capsules (seed) at Kings Park Botanical Gardens in Perth, Western Australia
  • Fine-scale habitat management - leaf litter scattering etc.
  • Population monitoring

Onground works at Rosella Spider-orchid sites in Victoria (Vic. DSE 2004)

  • Cottlesbridge population - caging, micro-site management, hand pollination, capsule collection from the late 1980s (ongoing). The Dunmoochin Landcare Group protects plants and generally manages the species' habitat.
  • One Tree Hill (Warrandyte-Kinglake Nature Conservation Reserve) population - fencing, caging, weed control, micro-site management, hand pollination from 1992 (ongoing).

Steps have been taken to obviate most of the listed threats by fencing (Christmas Hills population), caging (Cottlesbridge population and Christmas Hills population) and weed control (all populations) (Todd 2000). The most notable invasive species are annual grasses and herbs that are currently being managed (Todd 2000).

Recovery actions required (Vic. DSE 2004)

1.1 Identify and survey potential habitat for other populations (eg. Deep Lead).
3.1 Control high-priority weed species.
3.2 Control animal pests and predators through caging of populations or habitat.
4.1 Hand pollinate plants annually.
4.2 Harvest and store seeds annually.
4.3 Manage micro-habitat using litter scattering techniques.
5.1 Conduct annual censusing of populations.
6.2 Determine genetic relationship between Cottlesbridge and Deep Lead populations (if latter able to be located).
6.3 Investigate seed viability, germination and seedling establishment.
7.1 Isolate and culture the mycorrhizal fungus.
7.2 Establish seedlings in cultivation and maintain a number of plants ex situ.
7.3 Maintain a database of cultivated plants.
8.1 Select introduction sites.
8.2 Prepare an introduction plan and introduce plants to at least one reserved site in northeast Melbourne.
9.2 Establish a regional guardian group that includes government and non government agencies, private landholders and one expert botanist.
10.2 Prepare and review the Victorian Action Statement for Rosella Spider-orchid.

Management documents for the Rosella Spider-orchid can be found at the start of the profile. 

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Recovery Plan for Rosella Spider-orchid (Caladenia rosella Carr) (Beardsell, C.M. & Muir, A.M., 1992) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through underground mining Recovery Plan for Rosella Spider-orchid (Caladenia rosella Carr) (Beardsell, C.M. & Muir, A.M., 1992) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Recovery Plan for Rosella Spider-orchid (Caladenia rosella Carr) (Beardsell, C.M. & Muir, A.M., 1992) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by marine invertebrates Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Recovery Plan for Rosella Spider-orchid (Caladenia rosella Carr) (Beardsell, C.M. & Muir, A.M., 1992) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004 (Todd, J.A., 2000) [Recovery Plan].

Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes (1995). The Orchids of Victoria. Carlton: Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press.

Beardsell, C.M. & Muir, A.M. (1992). Recovery Plan for Rosella Spider-orchid (Caladenia rosella Carr). Melbourne: Victorian Department NRE.

Bishop, A. (2000). Field Guide to the Orchids of New South Wales and Victoria. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press.

Carr, G.W. (1988). New species of Caladenia R.Br. (Orchidaceae) from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Muelleria. 6(6):439-447.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Environment Australia (EA) (1999c). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org.

Jeanes, J. (2001). Personal communication.

Jeanes, J. & G. Backhouse (2006). Pictorial Guide to: Wild Orchids of Victoria, Australia. Seaford, Aquatic Photographics.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005ao). Rosella Spider Orchid - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10123.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001h). Recovery Plan for the "lost" threatened flora of south-eastern NSW: Baeuerlen's Gentian (Gentiana baeuerlenii), Elusive Bush-pea (Pultenaea parrisiae subsp. elusa), Elusive Cress (Irenepharsus magicus), etc. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/lostFloraApproved.pdf.

Todd, J.A. (2000). Recovery Plan for twelve threatened spider orchids Caladenia R. Br. Taxa of Vic and SA - 2000-2004. [Online]. VIC DNRE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/12-orchid/index.html.

Tremblay, R.L., M.E. Perez, M. Larcombe, A. Brown, J. Quarmby, D. Bickerton, G. French & A. Bould (2009a). Dormancy in Caladenia: a Bayesian approach to evaluating latency. Australian Journal of Botany. 57:340-350.

Tremblay, R.L., M.E. Perez, M. Larcombe, A. Brown, J. Quarmby, D. Bickerton, G. French & A. Bould (2009b). Population dynamics of Caladenia: Bayesian estimates of transition and extinction probabilities. Australian Journal of Botany. 57:351-360.

Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2004). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 103 - Twelve threatened Spider-orchids Caladenia species. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/103240/103_twelve_caladenias_2000.pdf.

Wright, M.M., R. Cross, R.D. Cousens, T.W. May & C.B. McLean (2010). Taxonomic and functional characterisation of fungi from the Sebacina vermifera complex from common and rare orchids in the genus Caladenia. Mycorrhiza. 20:375-390.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia rosella in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 07:01:32 +1000.