Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Calystegia affinis
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice for Norfolk Island Flora - 11 Critically Endangered Species (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003o) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Calystegia affinis.
 
Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan] as Calystegia affinis.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (03/11/2003) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2003a) [Legislative Instrument] as Calystegia affinis.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Lord Howe Island Morning Glory - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005bg) [Internet].
NSW:Final Determination, Calystegia affinis (NSW Scientific Committee (NSW SC), 2002f) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Critically Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Calystegia affinis
Scientific name Calystegia affinis [48909]
Family Convolvulaceae:Solanales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Endl.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Prodromus Florae Norfolkicae: 51 (1833).
Other names Convolvulus affinis [78853]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/519816120330/009.html
http://www.lordhoweisland.info/environ/Newsletter8web.pdf

Scientific Name: Calystegia affinis

The plants of Calystegia affinis found on Lord Howe Island differ consistently from those on Norfolk Island, and may be a separate subspecies (Green 1994; NSW SC 2002f).

Calystegia affinis is a thin stemmed, climbing or creeping, vine. The flowers are solitary, funnel shaped and 3.5 cm long (DEH 2003b; Green 1994; NSW DECC 2005bg; NSW SC 2002f). The arrow-head shaped leaves are thin, 6 cm long and 5 cm wide (NSW DECC 2005bg). Green (1994) considers that the plant from Lord Howe Island differs consistently from that of Norfolk Island in the larger size of its corolla and the broader leaves. In addition, on Norfolk Island the flowers are white, whereas on Lord Howe Island, they are pink with five creamy longitudinal bands (NSW SC 2002f).

Calystegia affinis is endemic to both Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands. It is a rare plant on Norfolk Island and very rare on Lord Howe Island (Green 1994).

On Norfolk Island it has been recorded from Mt Pitt and its vicinity (Green 1994). The number of locations of Calystegia affinis on Norfolk Island is unknown.

Calystegia affinis was thought to be extinct on Lord Howe Island until 1985 when one plant was located at the northern area known as Old Settlement. Surveys in 2001 and 2002 located another three plants in remote mountain areas of the southern mountains (Hutton et al. 2008).

Calystegia affinis is known from four locations on Lord Howe Island: one on the boundary between the Northern Hills and Old Settlement in the north (Auld & Hutton 2004), and three in the southern mountains (one on Mount Lidgbird and two on Mount Gower) (Green 1994; Hutton et al. 2008).

The species' distribution at Old Settlement (Lord Howe Island) is fragmented due to the Max Nicholls Memorial Track which bisects the population (NSW DECC 2009).

The total population of Calystegia affinis (on Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands) is thought to be approximately 45 mature individuals (TSSC 2003o). The four known sites on Lord Howe Island may contain as few as one plant each, as the species has a sprawling habit and can root at the nodes (NSW SC 2002f).

All known Lord Howe Island populations, of Calystegia affinis, occur in the Permanent Park Preserve (NSW SC 2002f). In addition, the Lord Howe Island Group was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1982 (DEWHA 2008adj).

Calystegia affinis occurs mainly in open higher areas along ridge tops (Sykes & Atkinson 1988). On Lord Howe Island, the species occurs in two different habitats; in lowland areas in the north of the island, and high in the southern mountains. Both habitats are on basalt-derived soils. The mountain habitat is an open, sunny, moist area near semi-permanent water flows. The lowland habitat is on a south facing slope in Blackbutt (Eucalyptus patens)/Greybark (Eucalyptus robusta) forest with an introduced grass understory (NSW DEC 2005bg).

Species from the genus Calystegia have been reported as being clonal and it is likely that Calystegia affinis is clonal. Some plants that reproduce clonally can live for decades or centuries. The population at Old Settlement has been there at least since 1985, and is probably the same plant that was collected in 1937 (Hutton et al. 2008). Clonal plants reproduce largely by vegetative means and often have extensive, thin, underground rhizomes that produce many leafy stems above ground (Hutton et al. 2008).

The major threats to Calystegia affinis are weed invasion, introduced invertebrate pests, small population size, trampling and climate change (NSW DEC 2005bg).

Weeds
Wind-dispersed weed species, such as Kikuyu Grass (Pennisetum clandestinum), Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) and Buffalo Grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) severely restrict regeneration of native species as they form a thick barrier which is virtually impossible for seedlings to penetrate. Due to the twining nature of Calystegia affinis, a great deal of care is needed to minimise any adverse impacts of Kikuyu Grass control on the species (NSW DECC 2007b). Fleshy-fruited weed species, such as Cotoneaster spp. and Stawberry Guava (Psidium cattleianum), have the ability to invade and modify the understorey structure of the forests of the southern mountains. If left unchecked, these species have the potential to seriously impact on Calystegia affinis (Auld & Hutton 2004).

Introduced invertebrates
The beetle, Arsipoda parvula, which is known to feed on Calystegia affinis at Old Settlement, may have been introduced with exotic species of Ipomoea (Auld & Hutton 2004). Hutton and colleagues (2008) found evidence of extensive leaf damage on Calystegia affinis caused by the beetle. New leaves appeared to be free of damage, while older leaves were affected. The impact of the beetle on Calystegia affinis is unknown, however, it may affect the flowering, and thus seed-producing, ability of the plant (Auld & Hutton 2004; NSW DECC 2009).

Small population size
The risk of extinction of Calystegia affinis is increased due to its small population size and restricted distribution (NSW DEC 2005bg).

Trampling
Trampling by visitors is a threat to the species, particularly on Mt Gower in the southern mountains and the area beside the Max Nichols Memorial Track in the north (NSW DECC 2009).

Climate change
The summits and upper slopes of the southern mountains may be affected by climate change through upward altitudinal shifts in the areas that receive cloud formations (Still et al. 1999). There may be a reduction in the formation of clouds on the southern mountains, leading to a reduction in precipitation. This would probably have a negative impact for the species occupying both the cloud forests themselves and the associated mountain slopes, including Calystegia affinis (Auld & Hutton 2004).

The Lord Howe Island Permanent Park Preserve Draft Plan of Management (NSW DECC 2009) provides the following recovery actions for Calystegia affinis on Lord Howe Island:

  • Protect populations of the species from trampling by restricting access to their locations by restricting access to their locations in the southern mountains and by providing information in relation to visitors keeping to the defined path on the Max Nichols Memorial Track.
  • Investigate control methods for Arispoda parvula and implement methods that do not pose a risk to Calystegia affinis.

The Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW DECC 2007b) provides the following recovery actions for Calystegia affinis on Lord Howe Island:

  • Undertake gradual weed control along the forest edge at Old Settlement at the Calystegia affinis site.
  • Protect existing Calystegia affinis populations from clearing.
  • Fence the species habitat where possible to protect from trampling or grazing, particularly where expansion of the species' habitat is possible.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from tourism to the Max Nichols Memorial Track and maintain the boardwalk.
  • Monitor consequeces of climate change.
  • Investigate control methods for Arsipoda parvula that do not pose a risk to Calystegia affinis and, if found, undertake a control proagram.

In addition, the Lord Howe Island Morning Glory Profile (NSW DEC 2005bg) suggests the following recovery actions:

  • Establish ex-situ collections of the species in the event of local extinction.
  • Establish monitoring sites to enable early detection of impacts of climate change.
  • Support climate change initiatives.
  • Study and monitor populations to determine the plant's biology.
  • Research into the species' ecology and genetics to provide information to assist in its conservation.
  • Control exotic grass on Lord Howe Island.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina adenophora (Crofton Weed, Catweed, Hemp Agrimony, Mexican Devil, Sticky Agrimony, Sticky Eupatorium) Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice for Norfolk Island Flora - 11 Critically Endangered Species (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003o) [Listing Advice].

Auld, T.D. & I. Hutton (2004). Conservation issues for the vascular flora of Lord Howe Island. Cunninghamia. 8(4):490-500.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2003b). What the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) means for Norfolk Islanders - Consultation Draft. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/publications/norfolk-island/index.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008adj). World Heritage Places - Lord Howe Island Group. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/places/world/lord-howe/index.html.

Director of National Parks (DNP) (2010). Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan. [Online]. Canberra, Director of National Parks Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/norfolk-island.html.

Green, P.S. (1994). Norfolk Island & Lord Howe Island. In: Flora of Australia. 49:1-681. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Hutton, I., R. Coenraads, T.D. Auld, A.J. Denham, M.K.J. Ooi & D. Brown (2008). Herbicide impacts on exotic grasses and a population of the critically endangered herb Calystegia affinis (Convolvulaceae) on Lord Howe Island. Cunninghamia. 10(4):539-545.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007b). Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan. [Online]. Sydney, NSW: NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/lord-howe/index.html.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2009). Lord Howe Island Permanent Park Preserve Draft Plan of Management. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/LordHoweIslandDraftPOM.pdf.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2005bg). Lord Howe Island Morning Glory - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10877.

NSW Scientific Committee (NSW SC) (2002f). Final Determination, Calystegia affinis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/npws.nsf/Content/Calystegia+affinis+a+twining+plant+endangered+species+listing.

Still, C.J., P.N. Foster & S.H. Schneider (1999). Simulating the effects of climate change on tropical montane cloud forests. Nature. 398:608-610.

Sykes, W.R. & I.A.E. Atkinson (1988). Rare and endangered plants of Norfolk Island. New Zealand: Botany Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2003o). Commonwealth Listing Advice for Norfolk Island Flora - 11 Critically Endangered Species. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/norfolk-island-flora-critically.html.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Calystegia affinis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 13 Jul 2014 05:44:22 +1000.