Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Clematis fawcettii (Stream Clematis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afs) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Clematis fawcettii (Stream Clematis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012ag) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Northern Clematis - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005bl) [Internet].
QLD:Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South-East Queensland Biographical Region (Halford, D., 1998) [Report].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
Biodiversity Recovery Plan for Gatton and Laidley Shires, South-East Queensland 2003-2008 (Boyes, B., 2004).
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Scientific name Clematis fawcettii [4311]
Family Ranunculaceae:Ranunculales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author F.Muell.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 10: (Jan. 1876).
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Clematis fawcettii

Common name: Stream Clematis

Other names: Northern Clematis, Fawcett's Clematis

Conventionally accepted as Clematis fawcettii (CHAH 2010).

The Stream Clematis is a climbing vine with separate male and female plants that can grow high in the rainforest canopy, but is mainly identified as a weak climber in the understorey. Long leaf stalks twine to vegetation. The paired leaves are divided into 9–15 leaflets, usually serrate-dentate, which give the plant a 'lacy' appearance. Leaflets are 0.6–4 cm long and 0.5–3 cm wide. The flowers are solitary or in small panicles, and tepals (petals and sepals) are white to pink-purple. The one-seeded fruit has long feathered tails arranged in fluffy clusters. The tails assist in the wind dispersal of seeds (Eichler & Jeanes 2007; TSSC 2008afs).

Stream Clematis is endemic to Australia, extending from the Bunya Mountains in Queensland to Lismore in NSW (Eichler & Jeanes 2007; Queensland Herbarium 2009).

The species' extent of occurrence is approximately 65 000 km2 (TSSC 2008afs).

The species consists of 16 subpopulations as a minimum (Bean 2009 pers. comm. cited in DEWHA 2009bd) at approximately 39 locations (DEWHA 2009bd). There are likely to be more subpopulations, as the species is not obvious due to its occurrence in tree canopies (Bean 2009 pers. comm. cited in DEWHA 2009bd).

There are no data on the total population size of the Stream Clematis. It can be locally common at some sites, but is often recorded as rare or uncommon (Queensland Herbarium 2009).

The Stream Clematis has been recorded from the following estates:

State Reserve
Queensland     Bunya Mountains National Park (NP) (Cherry Plains to Burton's Camp) (Queensland Herbarium 2009)
Main Range NP (Wilson's Peak to The Head) (Queensland Herbarium 2009)
Mt Barney NP (Queensland Herbarium 2009)
Lamington NP (Queensland Herbarium 2009)
State Forest 151 (Qld DNR 2000)
NSW       Border Ranges NP (Atlas of NSW Wildlife 2010 cited in TSSC 2010ax)
Captains Creek Nature Reserve (Atlas of NSW Wildlife 2010 cited in TSSC 2010ax)
Mebbin NP (Atlas of NSW Wildlife 2010 cited in TSSC 2010ax)
Richmond Range NP (Atlas of NSW Wildlife 2010 cited in TSSC 2010ax)
Tooloom NP (Atlas of NSW Wildlife 2010 cited in TSSC 2010ax)
Toonumbar NP (Atlas of NSW Wildlife 2010 cited in TSSC 2010ax)

Stream Clematis occurs most commonly in the canopy gaps of drier rainforests near streams (Halford 1998; Harden 1990; NSW DECCW 2005bl). It has been recorded in (Queensland Herbarium 2009):

  • semi-evergreen vine thicket
  • araucarian microphyll vine forest
  • occasionally, in complex notophyll vine forest
  • occasionally, in eucalypt woodland communities that are close to vine thicket or rainforest.

Soil types in known habitats are varied, but are mainly fertile clays or loam soils derived from basalt and mixed volcanic rocks, usually near streams. The altitude range of the species is 500–980 metres (Halford 1998; Harden 1990; Queensland Herbarium 2009).

The distribution of the Stream Clematis overlaps with the EPBC Act-listed Endangered ecological community Semi-evergreen Vine Thickets of the Brigalow Belt (North and South) and Nandewar Bioregions (DEWHA 2009bd).

The Stream Clematis flowers from October to December, with fruits recorded in January, June and December (Barry & Thomas 1994; Halford 1998). It is thought that the species is fire-sensitive and killed by fire, as there is no evidence that it is capable of regenerating from rootstock. Regeneration after fire would rely on successful germination of seed and survival of seedlings (Halford 1998).

The vines generally have a high light requirement, and hence probably only flower and fruit in high light conditions. It is proposed that this species would be favoured by disturbance that would open up the tree canopy (Bean 2009 pers. comm. cited in DEWHA 2009bd).

Similar species

The Stream Clematis is similar to the Small-leaved Clematis (C. microphylla), which may occur in similar habitats (Queensland Herbarium 2009).

Survey methods

As Stream Clematis is a perennial vine, surveys could be conducted at any time of the year and under any weather conditions. Surveys should be along edges of clearings or along roads, where detection of this light-loving species is most likely. Binoculars should be used to search tree canopies. Being a rainforest vine, often confined to tree canopies, the species is not easily detectable (DEWHA 2009bd).

A known threat to the Stream Clematis is invasion by introduced weeds, such as Lantana (Lantana camara) (NSW DECCW 2005bl; TSSC 2008ax). The weeds, Mist Flower (Ageratina riparia) and Crofton Weed (A. adenophora), have been identified as a threat (NSW DECCW 2005bl), although it is unknown whether these weeds are a known or potential threat.

Potential threats to Stream Clematis include:

  • habitat loss or destruction, such as clearing for agriculture (NSW DECCW 2005bl)
  • risk of local extinction as numbers are low and few adult vines are known (NSW DECCW 2005bl)
  • grazing by domestic stock (NSW DECCW 2005bl)
  • too frequent fire events (NSW DECCW 2005bl)
  • forest eucalypt dieback associated with over-abundant Bell Miners (Manorina melanophrys) and psyllid insects (Glycaspis spp.) (NSW DECC 2007c).

Queensland Species Management Profile - mitigation measures

A species management profile has been developed for the Stream Clematis (Wang 1997). This document outlines strategies for the amelioration of impacts during forest operations under the Forestry Act 1959 (Queensland) on forest entitlement areas (state forests and timber reserves) and other public lands (Wang 1997). The following protective measures are outlined during forest operations (Wang 1997):

  • Where the Stream Clematis occurs, establish a protective buffer which excludes clearing. The minimum buffer area is 2500 m2 (0.25 ha). All Stream Clematis plants should be at least 20 m inside the buffer boundary.
  • Control Lantana spp. on sites where Stream Clematis occurs.

NSW Priority Action Statement

The NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW 2005ow) has identified 17 priority actions to help protect Stream Clematis, including:

  • Increase community awareness to assist with the detection of new locations and habitat rehabilitation projects.
  • Protect habitat from fire, and develop and implement a fire management strategy once fire ecology is understood.
  • Survey prior to road and track maintenance in suitable habitat of the species and assess the need to protect trackside plants.
  • Assess weed threats to populations, manage as necessary, and take precautions against accidental damage to threatened vines during weed management.
  • Confirm existing records, and estimate abundance and extent of populations.
  • Map populations and habitat.
  • Model habitat to identify sites for further survey.

Commonwealth Conservation Advice

Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2008afs) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate threats including habitat loss, disturbance and modification, weeds, fire and trampling. Raising awareness of the species is also encouraged in the Advice.

Managment documents relevant to Stream Clematis include:

  • Species Management Profile for Clematis fawcettii (Wang 1997)
  • Weeds of National Significance: National Strategy for Lantana (Lantana camara) (ARMCANZ 2001a)
  • The Parks and Reserves of the Northern Richmond Range - Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 2005i)
  • Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Clematis fawcettii (TSSC 2008afs).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Clematis fawcettii (Stream Clematis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afs) [Conservation Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Clematis fawcettii (Stream Clematis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afs) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Clematis fawcettii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ez) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina riparia (Mistflower, Mist Flower, Creeping Croftonweed, River Eupatorium, Spreading Mistflower) Clematis fawcettii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ez) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina adenophora (Crofton Weed, Catweed, Hemp Agrimony, Mexican Devil, Sticky Agrimony, Sticky Eupatorium) Clematis fawcettii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ez) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Clematis fawcettii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ez) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Clematis fawcettii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ez) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Clematis fawcettii (Stream Clematis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afs) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Clematis fawcettii (Stream Clematis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afs) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Clematis fawcettii (Stream Clematis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afs) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Clematis fawcettii (Stream Clematis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afs) [Conservation Advice].

Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ), Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers (2001a). Weeds of National Significance: Lantana (Lantana camara) Strategic Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/xbcr/dpi/IPA-Lantana-Nsplan.pdf.

Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009bd). Species Information Sheet on Cleamtis fawcettii. Report to DEWHA. Brisbane: Queensland Herbarium.

Eichler, H.J. & J.A. Jeanes (2007). Clematis. In: Flora of Australia. 2:297-310. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Halford, D. (1998). Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South-East Queensland Biographical Region. [Online]. Brisbane: Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee. Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/rfa/regions/qld/environment/threatened-plant.

Harden, G.J. (ed) (1990). Flora of New South Wales. Volume One. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007c). Forest eucalypt dieback associated with over abundant Bell Miners and psyllids - final determination. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/determinations/bellminerfd.htm.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005bl). Northern Clematis - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10169.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005ow). Northern Clematis - priority actions. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/pas_profile.aspx?id=10169.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2005i). The parks and reserves of the Northern Richmond Range - Plan of Management. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/POMNthnRichmondRange.pdf.

Queensland Department of Natural Resources (Qld DNR) (2000). Species Management Manual. Forest and Fauna Conservation and Ecology Section, Queensland Department of Natural Resouces.

Queensland Herbarium (2009). Specimen label information.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008afs). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Clematis fawcettii (Stream Clematis). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/4311-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010ax). Draft Clematis fawcettii Listing Advice. Unpublished. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts.

Wang, L. (1997). Species Management Profile for Clematis fawcettii (Myrtaceae). Queensland: Department of Natural Resources.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Clematis fawcettii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 31 Jul 2014 07:36:00 +1000.