In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Critically Endangered as Dasymalla axillaris|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pityrodia axillaris (Native Foxglove, Woolly Foxglove) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010af) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pityrodia axillaris (Native Foxglove, Woolly Foxglove) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010ar) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (13/07/2010).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (98) (13/07/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010h) [Legislative Instrument] as Pityrodia axillaris.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178, 181 and 183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) (160) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014h) [Legislative Instrument] as Dasymalla axillaris.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Dasymalla axillaris |
|Reference||Novarum Stirpium Decades 2 (15 May 1839) 11.|
|Other names||Pityrodia axillaris |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Native Foxglove is a low, diffuse shrub growing to 30 cm tall. Flowers are vivid red to yellow-scarlet and 2.5–3 cm long. Flowering occurs between July–December. Leaves are egg-shaped, 2–4 cm long, 1–1.5 cm wide, woolly/hairy and joined at the branch by the narrow end of the leaf (Corrick & Fuhrer 2009; WA DEC 2009a; Western Australian Herbarium 2009).
Native Foxglove is endemic to Western Australia and known from eight populations in the Morawa area, approximately 200 km south-east of Geraldton (WA DEC 2009a). These sites occur in the Avon Wheatbelt Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation of Australia Bioregion and the Northern Agricultural Natural Resource Management region (TSSC 2009ar).
Native Foxglove has an extent of occurrence of approximately 30 km2 and an area of occupancy less than 1 km2 (WA DEC 2009a).
Native Foxglove's distribution is fragmented and continued decline is likely due to the threats posed by the current management regime (WA DEC 2009a).
Based on surveys in 2007–08, Native Foxglove populations consist of approximately 120 mature plants (WA DEC 2009a).
Native Foxglove is known from sandy soils in the Yalgoo area of the northern area of the Avon Wheatbelt (Western Australian Herbarium 2009a).
Native Foxglove may be a disturbance opportunist, only being found in areas after recent disturbance followed by rapid population declines (WA DEC 2009a). Rates of post disturbance germination and rates of decline are unknown.
Native Foxglove flowering occurs between July–December (Western Australian Herbarium 2009).
Native Foxglove was previously threatened by land clearing (WA DEC 2009a).
Inappropriate infrastructure maintenance
The Native Foxglove occurs on road and rail reserves and on a fire access track within a water reserve. This species is vulnerable to road widening, road and rail maintenance (such as grading, clearing and soil compaction by vehicle movements), weed invasion and physical damage to individual plants (WA DEC 2009a).
Whilst the species may require some level of disturbance for recruitment, it is likely that inappropriate disturbance regimes may deplete the soil seed bank (WA DEC 2009a). Furthermore, substrate disturbance may encourage weed invasion (WA DEC 2009a).
Commonwealth conservation advice
The Commonwealth conservation advice on Pityrodia axillaris identifies the following research actions (TSSC 2010ar):
Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
More precisely assess population size, geographic distribution, ecological requirements, and the relevant impacts of threatening processes, including:
- factors that influence the level of flowering, pollination, seed production and fruit development for the species
- the pollination biology of the species and the requirements of pollinators
- longevity of plants and time taken to reach maturity
- the reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species
- the species’ response to disturbance (e.g. fire and slashing)
- other relevant mortality and morphological data for the species.
- Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat during the July to December flowering period to locate any additional populations/occurrences/remnants.
- Undertake seed germination trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment.
The Commonwealth conservation advice on Pityrodia axillaris identifies the following priority recovery actions (TSSC 2010ar):
Habitat loss, disturbance and modification
- Monitor known population to identify key threats.
- Manage disturbance in areas where Native Foxglove occurs.
- Control access routes to suitably constrain public access to known sites on public land.
- Investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
- Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
- Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to Native Foxglove, using appropriate methods.
- Manage sites to prevent introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to Native Foxglove, using appropriate methods.
- Raise awareness of Native Foxglove within the local community.
- Frequently engage with land managers responsible for the land on which the populations occurs, and encourage these key stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.
Enable recovery of additional sites and/or populations
- Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
- Investigate options for enhancing or establishing additional populations.
- Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004), if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.
Management documents for the Native Foxglove include:
- Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora of the Geraldton District (Patrick 2001)
- Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pityrodia axillaris (Native Foxglove, Woolly Foxglove) (TSSC 2010ar).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pityrodia axillaris (Native Foxglove, Woolly Foxglove) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010af) [Listing Advice].|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of railway tracks||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pityrodia axillaris (Native Foxglove, Woolly Foxglove) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010af) [Listing Advice].|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pityrodia axillaris (Native Foxglove, Woolly Foxglove) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010af) [Listing Advice].|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development of roads and railroads|
Corrick, M.G. & B. Fuhrer (2009). Wildflowers of Southern Western Australia 3rd Edition. Western Australia: Rosenberg Publishing Pty Ltd and Monash University.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Patrick, S.J. (2001). Declared Rare or Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District. [Online]. Wildlife Management Program No 26. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010af). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pityrodia axillaris (Native Foxglove, Woolly Foxglove). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/17376-listing-advice.pdf.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010ar). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pityrodia axillaris (Native Foxglove, Woolly Foxglove). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/17376-conservation-advice.pdf.
Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.
Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009a). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: DEC.
Western Australian Herbarium (2009). Florabase, Plant of the Month, July 2009 Pityrodia axillaris - Native Foxglove. [Online]. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/potm/?y=2009&m=7.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dasymalla axillaris in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 21 Aug 2014 16:01:48 +1000.