Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Syzygium hodgkinsoniae
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Syzygium hodgkinsoniae (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agi) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Syzygium hodgkinsoniae.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Red Lilly Pilly - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005mb) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013) as Syzygium hodgkinsoniae
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012) as Syzygium hodgkinsoniae
Scientific name Syzygium hodgkinsoniae [3539]
Family Myrtaceae:Myrtales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (F.Muell.) L.Johnson
Infraspecies author  
Reference Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium 3 (17 Sep. 1962) 99.
Other names Eugenia fitzgeraldii [22226]
Eugenia hodgkinsoniae [22465]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Syzygium hodgkinsoniae

Common name: Smooth-bark Rose Apple

Other names: Red Lilly Pilly

Conventionally accepted as Syzygium hodgkinsoniae (CHAH 2010).

The Smooth-bark Rose Apple is a small tree that grows to approximately 11 m tall. Its paired leaves are oval shaped or slightly elongated, 8–15 cm long, with a short blunt point at the tips, dark green above and paler beneath. The flowers are off-white, fluffy and honey scented, about 2.5 cm in diameter, and are held in clusters at the ends of stems. The fruit are 4 cm in diameter, round and bright red. The flesh of these fruit are said to have a distinctive smell, like an ashtray. A single large seed is enclosed within the fruit (Floyd 1989; NSW DECCW 2005mb; Sheringham & Westaway 1995).

The Smooth-bark Rose Apple occurs in a geographically disjunct distribution from the Richmond River in north-east New South Wales (NSW) to Maleny and Kin Kin in south-east Queensland, with disjunct populations in Kuranda and Gordonvale, north-east Queensland. The species is locally common in some parts of its range, but is otherwise sparsely distributed (BRI n.d.; NSW DECCW 2005mb).

In NSW, the Smooth-bark Rose Apple is known from Toonumbar and Unumgar State Forests, Big Scrub and Minyon Falls Forest Reserves, Davis Scrub, Limpinwood, Numinbah and Brunswick Heads Nature Reserves, as well as sites at Lismore, Alstonville, Wardell, Hayters Hill, Mullumbimby, Billinudgel, Crabbes Creek, Burringbar, Eungella, Upper Oxley and Couch Creek (Floyd 1989; Sheringham & Westaway 1995). There are 37 recorded occurrences of this species in the Byron Bay Local Government Area (LGA), of which 12 are within Nature Reserves.

In north Queensland the Smooth-bark Rose Apple has been collected from west of Kuranda on the Koah Road, about 1.6 km north of Clohesy River (BRI n.d.) and near Gordonvale in State Forest Reserve 310, Parish of Bellenden Ker, Upper Goldsborough LGA. (CANB n.d.). In south-east Queensland, populations occur along the coastal parts of Moreton and Wide Bay districts to Maleny and Kin Kin (TSSC 2008agi). The following table shows records from the Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast hinterlands:

Population Location Number of plants Comments
Berrigans Road Mudgeeraba Valley, Gold Coast hinterland 2 adults Within an area of about 10 x 15 m (Barry & Thomas 1994)
Upper Mudgeeraba Creek Austinville State Forest and adjacent areas, Gold Coast hinterland unknown (BRI n.d.)
Upper Tallebudgera Creek Gold Coast hinterland unknown The species is scattered throughout forest remnants on freehold land (Barry & Thomas 1994)
Natural Arch and Mt Cougal sections Springbrook National Park, Gold Coast hinterland unknown (McDonald & Elsol 1984 cited in Barry & Thomas 1994)
Mary Cairncross Park Maleny area, Sunshine Coast hinterland 3 adults, 24 juveniles Currently managed by Caloundra City Council as a Scenic and Park Purposes Reserve (Barry & Thomas 1994)
Earth Valley Head of tributary of Obi Obi Creek, Sunshine Coast hinterland unknown Freehold land (BRI n.d.)
Obi Obi Gorge Sunshine Coast hinterland 2 seedlings (BRI n.d.)
Kin Kin Creek Sunshine Coast hinterland unknown (BRI n.d.)

There is no population estimate for the Smooth-bark Rose Apple.

The Smooth-bark Rose Apple grows in riverine subtropical or gallery rainforest on deep rich alluvial and basalt soils at altitudes of up to 300 m above sea level. The species is considered a rheophyte (adapted to growing along or sometimes within fast-flowing streams) (Barry & Thomas 1994; Floyd 1989; Hyland 1983; NSW DECCW 2005mb; Sheringham & Westaway; Stanley & Ross 1986).

At Earth Valley and Austinville State Forest, the species grows in notophyll feather palm vine forest. Associated species at Austinville include Yellow Carrabeen (Sloanea woollsii), Coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum), Red Carrabeen (Geissois benthamii), Rose-leaf Marara (Caldcluvia paniculosa) and Piccabeen Palm (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana) (McDonald 2001 pers. comm.). For a detailed description of habitat at Berrigans Road Mudgeeraba, Tallebudgera and Mary Cairncross Park sites see Barry and Thomas (1994).

Smooth-bark Rose Apple flowers have been recorded in January to May (Floyd 1989), June, November and December (Hyland 1983). Ripe fruits have been found in August to November (Floyd 1989) and May (Hyland 1983). The flowers have a strong, sweet perfume (McDonald 2001 pers. comm.). The species is known to be pollinated by the Richmond Birdwing Butterfly (Ornithoptera richmondia) (Barry & Thomas 1994).

Seed sown fresh after removing flesh is reported to germinate readily (Floyd 1989). As seedlings, the species is often prone to a defect or disease that results in terminal twigs proliferating and the leaves being reduced to small scales (Floyd 1989; Hyland 1983).

Much of the Smooth-bark Rose Apple's original rainforest habitat has been cleared or modified by weed invasion and grazing impacts, and the species now has limited opportunities for natural regeneration (Barry & Thomas 1994). Identified threats to the species include (NSW DECCW 2005mb):

  • clearing and fragmentation of habitat for development, agriculture, road-works and powerlines
  • weed infestation and general degradation of rainforest habitat
  • grazing and trampling of seedlings and saplings by domestic stock
  • roadside slashing and mowing
  • illegal collection for horticulture.

At the Tallebudgera sites, significant weeds are Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), Lantana (Lantana camara), Small-leaved Privet (Ligustrum sinense) and various introduced pasture grasses (Barry & Thomas 1994). These sites are also threatened by increasing isolation, grazing impacts, weed encroachment and potential clearing as a consequence of closer settlement (Barry & Thomas 1994).

In the Maleny area, significant weeds are Small-leaved Privet (Ligustrum sinense), Tree Privet (Ligustrum lucidum) and Lantana (Lantana camara) (McDonald 2001 pers. comm.).

The population in the Mudgeeraba Valley is threatened from human disturbance and weed encroachment. The site is surrounded by cleared land and access roads. The site also experiences some recreational impact (Barry & Thomas 1994).

The NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW 2005mb) identify the following actions to assist in recovery of the species:

  • Buy plants only from licensed nurseries.
  • Fence rainforest and riverbank remnants to protect them from grazing, trampling and erosion by stock.
  • Identify roadside trees and protect them during road-works.
  • Remove weeds in rainforest environments.
  • Protect areas of suitable rainforest habitat from clearing or development.
  • Expand, connect and rehabilitate remnants of rainforest.
  • Report roadside trees to local authorities so that damage during road maintenance can be avoided.

Conservation Advice

Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2008agi) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate threats including habitat loss, disturbance and modification, grazing weeds and fire. Raising awareness of the species and enabling recovery of additional populations are also encouraged in the Advice.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vf) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vf) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vf) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vf) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vf) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vf) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ligustrum sinense (Chinese Privet, Narrow-leaved Privet. Small-leaved Privet, Privet, Hedge Privet, Narrow-leaf Privet, Chinese Ligustrum, Ligustrum) Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vf) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor Laurel, Camphor Tree, Gum Camphor, True Camphor, Japanese Camphor, Formosa Camphor, Shiu Leaf) Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vf) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vf) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Syzygium hodgkinsoniae (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agi) [Conservation Advice].

Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.

BRI Collection Records (BRI) (undated). Queensland Herbarium specimens.

CANB (n.d.). Australian National Herbarium specimens.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Floyd, A.G. (1989). Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

Hyland, B.P.M. (1983). A Revision of Syzygium and Allied Genera (Myrtaceae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Botany Supplementary Series. 9:1-164.

McDonald, W.J.F. (2001). Personal Communication.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005mb). Red Lilly Pilly - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10792.

Sheringham, P. & J. Westaway (1995). Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North East NSW: A report by the NSW NPWS for the Natural Resources Audit Council. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (1986). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume Two. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008agi). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Syzygium hodgkinsoniae. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/3539-conservation-advice.pdf.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Syzygium hodgkinsoniae in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 14:32:37 +1000.