Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Elatostema montanum
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice for Elatostema montanum - (Mountain Procris, a herb) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2003s) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Elatostema montanum.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (03/11/2003) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2003a) [Legislative Instrument] as Elatostema montanum.
 
Scientific name Elatostema montanum [33862]
Family Urticaceae:Urticales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author S.L.Endlicher
Infraspecies author  
Reference Prodromus Florae Norfolkicae: 39 (1833).
Other names Procris montana [51377]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Elatostema montanum

Common name: Mountain Procris

This species is conventionally accepted as Elatostema montanum (CHAH 2010).

The Mountain Procris is a fleshy, succulent-stemmed, perennial herb or low shrub with a straggling structure. The species grows to 1 m high (DEH 2003c; Green 1994).

The Mountain Procris is endemic to Norfolk Island and is found in the Norfolk Island National Park, between the upper bowl area and the escarpment of Mt Pitt (Gilmour & Helman 1989b, cited in DNP 2010; Green 1994).

The Mountain Procris has a small extent of occurrence of 0.399 km2 (TSSC 2003s).

The species is known from seven sites in the Norfolk Island National Park and in 2003 had a total population of 76 mature plants. The two largest populations have six and 26 plants respectively (DNP 2010; TSSC 2003s).

All occurrences of the Mountain Procris are within the Norfolk Island National Park.

The Mountain Procris occurs in damp, shady areas. The species has extremely specific site requirements (Green 1994). The species is restricted to steep rocky bands and cliffs in shaded valley bottoms where there is constant moisture. The species relies on erosion by streams to create new sites for colonisation. Heavy rain events have the potential to destroy existing colonies due to flooding (Sykes & Atkinson 1988, cited in DNP 2010).

The Mountain Procris is monoecious (having separate male and female plants/flowers) (Green 1994). The species is known to seed only rarely, however it has been propagated from cuttings (DNP 2010).

Threats to the Mountain Procris include (TSSC 2003s):

  • Susceptibility to stochastic events such as cyclones or flood damage
  • Competition from weeds such as Lantana (Lantana camara) and William Taylor (Ageratina riparia)
  • Seed predation by the Black Rat (Rattus rattus)
  • Cattle grazing
  • Increased drought and more frequent extreme weather events due to climate change.

The Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (DNP 2010) includes management actions to assist recovery of this species and other Norfolk Island endemics. Specific objectives of the plan include:

  • Control of Lantana and William Taylor weeds
  • Forest revegetation
  • Quarantine measures to prevent the accidental introduction of exotic fauna, flora and pathogens to Norfolk Island
  • Community engagement to assist in implementation of the plan.

Documents relevant for the management of the species can be found at the start of the profile. Other documents which may be relevant to managing the species include:

  • The National Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii (Hill 2002), which includes actions that will also benefit the Mountain Procris.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Listing Advice for Elatostema montanum - (Mountain Procris, a herb) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2003s) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice for Elatostema montanum - (Mountain Procris, a herb) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2003s) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice for Elatostema montanum - (Mountain Procris, a herb) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2003s) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina riparia (Mistflower, Mist Flower, Creeping Croftonweed, River Eupatorium, Spreading Mistflower) Elatostema montanum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hz) [Internet].
Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Elatostema montanum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hz) [Internet].
Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice for Elatostema montanum - (Mountain Procris, a herb) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2003s) [Listing Advice].

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2003c). Norfolk Island Botanic Garden. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/norfolk/botanic.html.

Director of National Parks (DNP) (2010). Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan. [Online]. Canberra, Director of National Parks Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/norfolk-island.html.

Green, P.S. (1994). Norfolk Island & Lord Howe Island. In: Flora of Australia. 49:1-681. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Hill, R. (2002). Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii - May 2002. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/norfolk-green-parrot/index.html.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2003s). Commonwealth Listing Advice for Elatostema montanum - (Mountain Procris, a herb). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/e-montanum.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Elatostema montanum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 31 Jul 2014 19:59:01 +1000.