Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Northern Quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005x) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Invasion of northern Australia by Gamba Grass and other introduced grasses (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bn) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Draft Referral guidelines for the northern quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011n) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (25/01/2005) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005m) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NT:Threatened Species of the Northern Territory - Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Woinarski, J. & B. Hill, 2012) [Information Sheet].
QLD:Enhancing biodiversity hotspots along Western Queensland stock routes (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Qld DERM), 2009a) [Management Plan].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
Priority Threat Management of Pilbara Species of Conservation Significance (Carwardine, J., S. Nicol, S. Van Leeuwen, B. Walters, J. Firn, A. Reeson, T.G. Martin & I. Chades, 2014).
State Listing Status
NT: Listed as Critically Endangered (Territory Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2000 (Northern Territory): 2012 list)
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Dasyurus hallucatus [331]
Family Dasyuridae:Polyprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Gould,1842
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Dasyurus hallucatus

Synonym: Satanellus hallucatus

Common name: Northern Quoll

Other common names: Little Northern Native Cat, Satanellus, North Australian Native Cat.

Indigenous name: Njanmak (Mayali)

The Northern Quoll is the smallest of the four Australian quoll species. It has a pointy snout and reddish brown fur, with a cream underside. It has white spots on its back and rump and a long, sparsely-furred, unspotted tail (Oakwood 2008). The tail length ranges between 202 and 345 mm. The hindfeet have striated pads and five toes (Oakwood 2008). Northern Quolls can weigh up to 1.2 kg, with the males (usually between 400 to 900 g) (Braithwaite & Begg 1995) being larger than the females (usually 300 to 500 g) (Braithwaite & Begg 1995, TSSC 2005). It is the most arboreal and aggressive of the four quoll species, and its faeces and body smell strongly (Braithwaite & Begg 1995).

The Northern Quoll was historically common across northern Australia, occurring almost continuously from the Pilbara, Western Australia, to near Brisbane, Queensland (Braithwaite & Griffiths 1994). The Northern Quoll now occurs in five regional populations across Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia both on the mainland and on offshore islands.

Queensland

The Northern Quoll is known to occur as far south as Gracemere and Mt Morgan, south of Rockhampton, as far north as Weipa in Queensland and extends as far west into central Queensland to the vicinity of Carnarvon Range National Park (McGoldrick 2013; Woinarski et al. 2008). There are occasionally records as far south in Queensland as Maleny on the sunshine coast hinterland (Qld DERM 2009a). The species is highly fragmented in the state and surveys Woinarski and colleagues (2008) indicated severe reductions from the species' former distribution.

Local populations are still persisting in the central Queensland coast and in Northern Queensland despite the presence of Cane Toads (Rhinella marinus) with recent Northern Quoll records coming from around Proserpine, Midge Point, Eungella and Cape Upstart (Woinarski et al 2008). In northern Queensland recent Northern Quoll records exist from Mareeba, Mount Carbine, Tolga and around Cooktown (Woinarski et al. 2008). At Weipa, 24 individuals were identified in an area of 3500 ha, and further research is planned to better understand the species in the area (McGoldrick 2013).

Top End and Kimberley

In the Northern Territory the species is restricted to the Top End. A 1905 record from Alexandria (Thomas 1906) marks the southern limit of its known Northern Territory distribution, now far from any records (Woinarski et al. 2007). Post 1970 records indicates the species occurs as far south east as Borroloola and as far west as the Northern Territory/ Western Australia border. The Northern Quoll is absent from Bathurst and Melville Islands but occurs on other smaller islands in the Northern Territory (Vanderlin, Marchinbar, Inglis, Groote and North-east) and has also been translocated to Astell and Pobasso islands (Woinarski et al. 2007).

It has been recorded from 15 conservation reserves in the Northern Territory: Kakadu, Litchfield, Garig Gunak Barlu, Mary River, Manton Dam, Nitmiluk, Umbrawara Gorge, Fogg Dam, Charles Darwin, Black Jungle, Tjuwaliyn (Douglas Hot Springs), Berry Springs, Limmen, Leaning Tree Lagoon and Howard Springs (Woinarski et al. 2004).

In the Kimberley, records are scattered discontinuously from just south of Derby across to Wyndham. Declines are known from lowland areas and/or the semi-arid inland fringes of its range e.g. the south-west Kimberley (McKenzie 1981) and Purnululu National Park in south-east Kimberley (Woinarski 1992).
Pilbara, Western Australia

In the Pilbara, the distributional boundaries of Northern Quoll are defined in the north, east and south by the Great Sandy Desert, Gibson Desert and Little Sandy Deserts. Records from the Pilbara bioregion are scattered across the four subregions; namely the Hamersley, Fortescue Plains, Chichester and Roebourne Plains subregions with records extending as far west as the Little Sandy Sesert (How et al. 2009) and as far south as Karinjini National Park. The majority of recent records however have come from the Rocklea, Macroy and Robe land systems (Biota Environmental Services 2008; van Vreeswyk et al. 2004).

The Northern Quoll is known to occur on a number of Western Australia islands including Adolphus, Augustus, Berthier, Bigge, Boongaree, Caffarelli, Capstan, Carlia, Dolphin, Hidden, Koolan, Purrungku, Sir Fredrick, Uwins and Wollaston islands (Burbidge & McKenzie 1978).

Population genetics

Given the recent decline of the Northern Quoll in the five geographically isolated regions, genetic differentiation of Northern Quolls is probable (Hill & Ward 2009). Recent genetic analyses have shown a marked genetic disjunction between the Queensland populations and those of the Northern Territory plus Western Australia (Hill & Ward 2009). How and colleagues (2009) found the Western Australian populations differed to those from east Queensland and the Northern Territory and differentiation occurred even between the Western Australian populations in the Pilbara and Kimberley. Considerable reduction in diversity in endemic island populations that are isolated from the mainland has also been recorded e.g. Marchinbar Island and islands off the Kimberley coast (How et al. 2009). Work on the genetic diversity of a translocated island population also found some divergence from founder populations within three years (Cardoso et al. 2009). In light of these results it is likely that recently isolated populations in the Northern Territory (due to Cane Toads) may also become more genetically distinct from each other (Hill & Ward 2009).

The Northern Quoll occupies a diversity of habitats across its range which includes rocky areas, eucalypt forest and woodlands, rainforests, sandy lowlands and beaches, shrubland, grasslands and desert (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005aq). Northern Quoll are also known to occupy non rocky lowland habitats such as beachscrub communities in central Queensland. Northern Quoll habitat generally encompasses some form of rocky area for denning purposes with surrounding vegetated habitats used for foraging and dispersal. Rocky habitats are usually of high relief, often rugged and dissected but can also include tor fields or caves in low lying areas such as in Western Australia. Eucalypt forest or woodland habitats usually have a high structural diversity containing large diameter trees, termite mounds or hollow logs for denning purposes. Dens are made in rock crevices, tree holes or occasionally termite mounds (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005aq). Northern Quolls sometimes occur around human dwellings and campgrounds. Northern Quolls appear to be most abundant in habitats within 150 km of the coast (Braithwaite & Begg 1995).

Recent surveys throughout Queensland have suggested Northern Quolls are more likely to be present in high relief areas that have shallower soils, greater cover of boulders, less fire impact and were closer to permanent water (Woinarski et al. 2008).

Habitat in the Top End and Kimberley comprises rocky areas and tall open coastal eucalypt forests. Prime habitat in these northern regions is sandstone escarpment (Braithwaite & Griffiths 1994). Northern Quoll habitat in Kakadu National Park includes open forest and woodlands on plains dominated by Eucalyptus tetrodonta, E. minata and E.tectifita, open woodland on low rocky hills dominated by E. setosa and E.bleeseri and riparian areas with flowing water dominated by Melaleuca virdiflora and Pandanus spiralis (Oakwood 2000).

Rocky habitats support higher densities and/or longer lived individuals within the species range, due to more protection from predators, better nutrition and less exposure to agricultural practices (Burnett 1997; Oakwood 2000). Rocky habitats also supported a higher density of Northern Quoll dens (Oakwood 1997 in Oakwood 2000). Breeding success is higher in animals that have a den near a creek line (Braithwaite & Begg 1995).

On the Mitchell plateau of the Kimberley in Western Australia, Northern Quolls have been recorded in a variety of habitats including low open eucalypt woodland and hummock grass (Plechtrachne spp.) on sandstone, deciduous vine thicket and open eucalypt woodland over dense grasses, a rocky creek containing large boulders and deciduous vine thicket of dense low forest between a beach and volcanic cliff (Schmitt et al. 1989). Sharply defined areas of low closed mangrove forest that were flooded tidally were not occupied by Northern Quolls (Schmitt et al. 1989).

In the Pilbara region, the species tends to prefer the Rocklea, Macroy and Robe land systems (Biota Environmental Services 2008). These land systems comprise of basalt hills, mesas (and buttes of limonites), high and low plateaux, lower slopes, occasional tor fields and stony plains supporting either hard or soft spinifex grasslands (van Vreeswyk et al. 2004). The Northern Quoll has also been recorded in other land systems which comprise sandstone and dolomite hills and ridges, shrublands, sandy plains, clay plans and tussock grasslands and coastal fringes including dunes islands and beaches (Biota Environmental Services 2008).

Northern Quolls have short life spans, with males living for approximately one year and the oldest recorded female in the wild being three years of age (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005aq). In rocky habitats both sexes have longer life spans, with animals of both sexes often living to two years and occasionally three. They also grow to a larger size than animals in savanna habitats (Braithwaite & Begg 1995).

Northern Quolls breed once each year exhibiting synchronous reproduction within each year at each site (Nelson & Gemmell 2003; Oakwood 2008). Northern Quolls bear on average seven young which are born after a gestation of 21–26 days (Oakwood 2008). Females wean two to three young which become reproductively mature at 11 months (Oakwood 2008). Northern Quolls have a short life span with most females only surviving one breeding season (Oakwood 2002; 2008).

At a study site on the lowland savannas of northern Australia in Kakadu National Park, the breeding season occurs in mid-dry season, from late May to early June. Breeding events are synchronised, with all observed matings occurring within a two week period. However, there are minor variations in timing between years and geographic location (Oakwood 2000). The peak of breeding activity on the Mitchell Plateau, Western Australia, has been recorded in July. The timing of reproductive events is earlier at locations closer to the coast (Schmitt et al. 1989)

In the first year that females reproduce, the litters are larger and predominately male. If breeding occurs in the second year, litters are smaller and predominately female. As females rarely survive to reproduce in the third year, the breeding territory is probably inherited by one of her daughters, ensuring breeding success (Oakwood 2000).

Whilst still in the pouch, juveniles have a high rate of survival, but once they leave the pouch and are left in the den they are likely to suffer high mortality. Young are left in the den when they are eight to nine weeks old, in late August or September (Braithwaite & Begg 1995), whilst the mother forages at night (Oakwood 1997 in Oakwood 2000). At this time the young's eyes are still closed and they have short grey-brown hair with cream spots (Braithwaite & Begg 1995). Many juveniles are orphaned before they are old enough to be independent, increasing the mortality rate at this stage (Oakwood 1997 in Oakwood 2000).

Young start to eat insects at four months old, (Oakwood 1997 in Oakwood 2000) and leave the den to forage at five months old, whilst still suckling from their mother. Juveniles are weaned at 6 months old, in November to early December. Once young are independent their survival is difficult to assess as they disperse to other areas. At this stage, they are in a size range that makes them vulnerable to a wide range of predators (Oakwood 2000).

The majority of male Northern Quolls die after their first breeding season, which is unusual for a marsupial this large (Oakwood 2000). During a study in the lowland savannas of northern Australia, most males died within the two weeks following mating (Oakwood 2000). Similar results were recorded from the Mitchell Plateau, Western Australia (Schmitt et al. 1989). The Northern Quoll appears to be a species that is in an intermediate stage between two types of reproductive strategy; between semelparity (production of offspring all at once) and iteroparity (production of offspring in successive groups) (Oakwood 2000).

The intense physical effort of male Quolls (roving during the females onset of oestrus) appears to cause the physiological decline of males and subsequent die off at one year of age (Oakwood 2008). This male die-off in combination with the fact females usually breed only once makes local populations highly vulnerable to extinction. The records of males "surviving to a second year" at Nourlangie Rock in Western Australia were based on weights and not definite recaptures (Begg 1981a).

Northern Quolls are opportunistic omnivores, consuming a wide range of prey including beetles, grasshoppers, spiders, scorpions and centipedes. They also eat fruit, nectar, and are known to feed on carrion and human refuse. In savannah, their diet usually includes invertebrates, particularly beetles, grasshoppers, spiders and centipedes, but they also eat fruits of at least nine species of plants, particularly favouring the wild grape Ampelloccissus acetose (Oakwood 2008). Vertebrates eaten include 11 species of mammal (e.g. bandicoots, sugar gliders, brush-tail possums and rats), eight species of birds (e.g. Brown Quail), reptiles (skinks and snakes) and seven species of frog. They also eat bird eggs and nectar of eucalypt and grevillea flowers (Oakwood 2008). Northern Quolls will also scavenge from road kills and garbage bins (Oakwood 2008).

Frogs are eaten regularly in the wet season with at least seven species taken, including large native frogs such as the Green Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea) and the Giant Frog (Cyclorana australis). As Cane Toads have moved into the Northern Quoll's range, they have also been added to the diet of the Northern Quoll (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005aq).

There are no observable differences in the pattern or extent of movements between males and females. One long range movement has been recorded of a male moving 2.5 km in a day in July on the Mitchell Plateau, Western Australia (Schmitt et al. 1989).

Radio tracking and live trapping in lowland savannah of Kakadu National Park indicated that female Northern Quolls occupied home ranges averaging 35 ha with intra-sexually exclusive denning areas (Oakwood 2002). There was some overlap in foraging ranges of females when the density was 3–4 females / km² but no overlap during periods of lower population density of 1–2 females / km² (Oakwood 2002). Male Northern Quolls appear to adopt a roving strategy, regularly visiting several widely spaced females in rapid succession, presumably to monitor the onset of oestrus (Oakwood 2002). Radio tracking results suggested the home ranges of male Northern Quolls were similar to female home ranges before the mating season, but expanded during the mating season to >100 ha to overlap extensively with several female home ranges and numerous other male home ranges (Oakwood 2002). Braithwaite and Griffiths (1994) suggested that Northern Quolls have a much smaller home range in rocky country.

A guide to conducting surveys for Northern Quoll in areas of suitable habitat is outlined below.
These guidelines were developed through consultation with species experts (Northern Quoll Workshop 2010).
Surveys should:

  • be conducted by a suitably qualified person with demonstrated skill in mammal surveys
  • maximise the chance of detecting the species
  • account for uncertainty and error (such as false presences and absences).

Surveys for the Northern Quoll can have different objectives and therefore require different guidelines and experimental design. However for the purposes of referral and assessment under the EPBC Act it is recommended that surveys for Northern Quoll involve an initial reconnaissance survey which aims to identify the need for further investigations through a targeted survey. Where it is not possible to conduct surveys in this manner, failure to detect Northern Quoll should not be considered indicative of its absence.

Reconnaissance survey

A reconnaissance survey can be conducted at any time of the year but should be undertaken in the early planning stages of the project. The reconnaissance survey should assess the suitability of habitat for Northern Quolls, both for denning / shelter and dispersal and foraging purposes. Suitable habitat should be mapped during this survey and habitat areas calculated. Data collected should describe the habitat quality including information on vegetation, microhabitat, fire history, presence of introduced predators, grazing history and landscape condition. A reconnaissance survey may choose to consider the presence or potential presence of the Northern Quoll by using non-invasive techniques such as active searching for scats and latrine sites, motion sensitive cameras, hair tubes or spotlighting where appropriate.

Targeted survey

A targeted survey is recommended for any proposal occurring within the modelled distribution of the species where the reconnaissance survey identifies the presence of Quolls and / or habitat critical to the survival of Northern Quoll.

The objective of the targeted survey should be to determine the relative abundance and distribution of Northern Quolls likely to be impacted by the proposed development. The survey protocol should be designed so that the total population of Northern Quolls in the impact area can be calculated. A targeted survey should be undertaken pre development and during the months of May, June, July or August (primarily to avoid any disturbance during the reproductive period) and involve a trapping program using preferably wire cage traps or large size Elliot traps.

As a minimum, a targeted survey should consider the following:

  • Carefully configure the trapping program to address project impact and non-impact zones so that results are adequate to inform monitoring programs and project siting options.
  • Trapping should be concentrated in habitat critical to the survival with some consideration of non-rocky foraging and dispersal habitats.
  • In Western Australia traps should be set for seven consecutive nights, unless two or more individuals are caught twice, in which case the traps should be closed after four nights of trapping.
  • In the Northern Territory and Queensland, traps should be set for a minimum of three nights with the aim of sampling as many sites possible over the three nights
  • Where large Elliott traps are the primary trapping technique, a minimum of four cage traps should be used per trap configuration.
  • To be considered effective, traps should be baited with oats, sardines and peanut butter. Chicken wings and diced bacon are optional.
  • Traps should be rebaited at least every second day (baits should be fresh), cleared within 2–3 hours of sunrise and have adequate shade cover during the day. Consideration should be given to closing traps during the day to eliminate by-catch and potential heat stress issues.
  • In Western Australia, tissue samples (ear clippings) should be collected from all individuals captured and analysed with the aim of increasing genetic knowledge of the Northern Quoll in Western Australia (ethics clearance is required for this procedure). Tissue samples should be sent to the Western Australian Museum with the following details: Weight, sex, pes (left hindfoot measurement), tail diameter / circumference, crown reproductive condition, presence/absence of bite marks and parasites, locality (GPS coordinate in lat and long), collectors name and date.
  • Targeted surveys may be supplemented by one of several non-invasive survey techniques such as latrine searches in habitat critical to the survival, use of motion sensitive cameras and / or hair tubes. These methods should however not be relied upon to demonstrate Northern Quolls are not present in an area.

Targeted survey effort

  • Trapping effort for a targeted survey should be determined by the formula y = 50x0.5, where y is the number of trap-nights and x is the area of potential Northern Quoll habitat in hectares.
  • Trapping effort is calculated as the number of traps by the number of nights of trapping (e.g. trap-nights).
  • For linear habitat critical to the survival of the species (e.g. gorges, major drainage lines, breakaways less than 100 m wide), 1 trap per 100 linear metres is recommended.

Those wishing to demonstrate the absence of Northern Quolls in an area, or who are planning trapping programs over large areas of Northern Quoll habitat (>15 000 ha), should contact the department to discuss survey design and effort. Please send an email to speciespolicy@environment.gov.au.

The Northern Quoll's distribution has declined gradually over the last fifty years with the species' range contracting considerably in some areas and Northern Quolls disappearing from southern Queensland, the east Kimberley, the Gulf region and the drier southern extreme of their range in the Northern Territory (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005x). Populations of Northern Quoll have been lost from most of the north eastern Top End of the Northern Territory, Cape York Peninsula and the Einasleigh Uplands of northern Queensland (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005x).

The Northern Quoll is likely to continue to decline over most of its mainland range and some of its island range. This reduction has been estimated at about 95% of the range between 1980 to 2010 - even allowing for the persistence of isolated pockets in Queensland and in some offshore islands. This is projected from population crashes during the 1990s in Cape York Peninsula and more recently Kakadu National Park, and projecting a similar decline as the Cane Toad advances across the remainder of the Quoll's range (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005aq).

The population has almost entirely been lost from the north east Top End, Northern Territory, the Cape York Peninsula and the Einasleigh Uplands of northern Queensland. These areas have been estimated to constitute approximately 30–40% of the Northern Quoll's pre-toad distribution. The viability of these remnant populations is unknown (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005aq). The rest of the mainland Top End population and much of the Kimberley mainland population is expected to also disappear. These areas are estimated to constitute a further 30% of the species' pre-toad distribution. Cane Toads are expected to colonise almost all of the Northern Quoll's non-island range (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005aq).

Northern Quolls are still present in a number of areas in Queensland in which Cane Toads have been present for many years, but do not appear to recolonise their former locations and there is little evidence that any substantive recovery has occurred following Cane Toad invasion. More recent evidence from the Northern Territory supports anecdotal reports from Queensland that Northern Quoll populations are severely affected by the presence of Cane Toads (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005aq). A number of threats either directly or in combination with each other are thought be contributing to the species' decline. These threats include lethal toxic ingestion caused by Cane Toads, removal, degradation and fragmentation of habitat as a result of development actions and agricultural activities, inappropriate fire regimes, weeds and predation by feral animals.

Lethal toxic ingestion caused by Cane Toads

Lethal toxic ingestion caused by Cane Toads is a key threatening process listed under the EPBC Act. The Northern Quoll is particularly vulnerable to this process as they eat several species of native frogs including the Green Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea), the Giant Frog (Cyclorana australis) and the Cane Toad (Oakwood 1997). Cane Toads release poison from their parotoid glands which is ingested by Northern Quolls and results in death. Symptoms of death from Cane Toad toxin can include bright red lips and or gums and can also include a red roof of the mouth or bright red nose and nose bleeds, red ears, bleeding from the ears, a red eye, red skin pouch, bright purple teats and faeces around the anus (Oakwood 2003).

Relating the Northern Quoll's decline directly to Cane Toads is complicated by the species having been in the process of decline prior to the arrival of the Toad and the likelihood that other factors are also contributing to the decline. It is possible that the impact of the Cane Toad has accelerated a gradual decline, into a more sudden and catastrophic one (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005z).

The Cane Toad was introduced to north-eastern Australia in 1935 and has now spread extensively along the eastern coastline, as well as penetrating into the arid interior of the continent (Kearney et al. 2008). Established Cane Toad populations occur far south along the east coast, with occasional records as far south as Sydney. The Cane Toad is continuing to spread at an increasing rate across far northern Australia and at 2007 has reached a longitude of approximately 128 ºE (Phillips et al. 2007). The only part of the Northern Quoll's distribution not predicted to be occupied by Cane Toads is the Pilbara population.

It is known that Cane Toads colonised Cape York between the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s with subsequent crashes in Northern Quoll populations. During 1994–95, the disappearance of Northern Quolls was reported at two monitored sites in northern Cape York Peninsula within three months of the arrival of Cane Toads, with no subsequent population return observed (Burnett 1997). Northern Quolls had previously been common at both these sites.

It is suggested that between 1900 and 1990 the Northern Quoll has undergone a 75% reduction in its range (Braithwaite & Griffiths 1994). The pre-toad mainland distribution of the Northern Quoll in the Northern Territory is estimated to be 249 207 km². The species also occurs on offshore island, notably on the two main islands of Groote and Marchinbar, which contribute a further distribution of 2487 km² (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005aq). By 1990 the species was considered to occupy approximately 87% of its former range (216 854 km²). Following invasion of the Cane Toad the Northern Territory mainland distribution is estimated to have declined to 20% of the species' 1990 distribution by 2004 (i.e. 47 812 km²) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2005z).

In northern Queensland populations of Northern Quoll are known to have survived for over fifty years in areas invaded by Cane Toads. Northern Quolls are still present in localised pockets, such as Cape Cleveland/Mt Elliott and Mareeba, in which Cane Toads have occurred for many years and it has been observed that such populations occur in small, high altitude areas associated with extremely rocky habitats. Northern Quolls are also thought to co-exist with reasonably high local densities of Cane Toads in several coastal sites in north Queensland. There is limited quantitative data on the extent and density of the remaining populations or the precise factors that have led to the survival of these remnant populations following Cane Toad invasion.

While Northern Quolls are still present in a number of localised areas in Queensland in which Cane Toads have been present for many years, and other factors may have contributed to the species decline in Queensland, including loss of habitat and predation following fire, they do not appear, to date, to be recolonising their former locations. There is no evidence that a recovery is occurring in these populations, or is likely to occur, following Cane Toad invasion, nor is their any information on the viability of these remnant populations. In particular, Northern Quoll appear not to have recovered in savannah areas, west of the eastern escarpment and in Cape York Peninsula.

Recent broad scale surveys of Northern Quoll in Queensland has suggested that those populations that do persist despite Cane Toads are most likely to persist because of either behavioural avoidance of Toads and/or because the sites where they exist allow high reproductive output and high densities of Quolls (giving them capacity to lose individuals to Toads without catastrophic loss to the total local Quoll population) (Woinarski et al. 2008). Cane Toad presence should not be used as evidence of Northern Quoll presence or absence with trapping in Queensland revealing the greatest Quoll abundance was at a site that had one of the highest Cane Toad counts (M. Oakwood 2009, pers. comm.). Although Northern Quolls are persisting at some sites with Cane Toads, they do not appear to be recolonising areas of their former distribution (Burnett 1997).

At the time of European settlement there was probably a single Northern Quoll population in Queensland, equivalent in size to the Top End / Kimberley population. The three regional populations now recognised in Queensland are the result of declines in range since the spread of Cane Toads. With no biological solution for Cane Toads hopeful in the near future, the real threats regarding the cane toad are the continued decimation of Quoll populations as the Cane Toad moves westwards through the Kimberley. Potential also exists for offshore islands to be colonised. This risk is likely to be higher with recent offshore petroleum and gas processing interests in the Northern Territory and Western Australia (Northern Quoll Workshop 2010).

Removal, degradation and fragmentation of habitat

The removal, degradation and fragmentation of Northern Quoll habitat is usually the consequence of development actions such as mining, transport infrastructure, offshore petroleum or gas processing facilities or through agricultural activities such as land clearing, pasture improvement or grazing.

The clearing of Northern Quoll habitat is ultimately reducing a distribution which has already contracted significantly as a result of other threats such as Cane Toads. Habitat clearing also displaces animals, jeopardises reproduction and can result in direct mortality or extinction of local populations.

Habitat clearing results in the fragmentation of habitat which in turn isolates Quoll populations and can reduce the genetic diversity of local populations. Habitat preference modelling of Northern Quolls on the outskirts of Darwin which were exposed to various degrees of fragmentation and habitat loss, showed a strong negative response to fragmentation (Hill & Ward 2009). No Quolls were recorded from fragments with less than 65% woodland within a 4 km radius of the trapping site. Further modelling predicted that Northern Quolls would disappear from landscapes with less than approx 70% woodland within a four km radius (Rankmore & Price 2004). Development actions and agricultural activities facilitate the introduction of invasive species which can result in the degradation of Northern Quoll habitat (including but not limited to the Cane Toad, Gamba Grass and Feral Cats).

Degradation of habitat can also refer to invasive species outcompeting native species and therefore changing habitat heterogeneity, erosion, soil compaction, loss of vegetation structure through grazing or the loss or reduction of foraging resources to name a few. For example, the introduction of exotic pasture grasses in the Northern Territory disadvantages Quolls by inhibiting movement and hunting ability through high density stands of exotic pastures and also fosters more intense fire regimes (Hill & Ward 2009). Increased pastoral use is also considered a conservation concern for the Northern Quoll in Western Australia (How et al. 2009).

Inappropriate fire regimes

It is suggested that Northern Quolls may be vulnerable to extensive frequent fires now characteristic of much of northern Australia. One cause postulated for the decline of Northern Quolls is predation of the species following the removal of ground cover by fire which increases the species vulnerability to predators such as Dingos, Cats and raptors (Hill & Ward 2009). In a detailed radio-tracking study undertaken before the arrival of Cane Toads, it was reported that the main cause of Northern Quoll mortality at Kapalga, Kakadu National Park, was predation in the period following extensive fire (Oakwood 2000). In the Mitchell River region of the Kimberley, Northern Quolls appeared to prefer more recently burnt open areas (< 1 year) and it was suggested that they do not maintain viable populations in intensively burnt areas (Radford & Fairman 2008).

Woinarski and colleagues (2004) found that Northern Quolls were more abundant in annually burnt sites compared with sites that had not been burnt for 23 years. Furthermore, Woinarski and colleagues (2004) found that the annually burnt sites were in good condition compared with similar open forest elsewhere in this region and may represent an ideal early dry season burning regime. However too frequent burning can reduce the availability and abundance of prey items and intense fires can also result in the destruction or degradation of important habitat resources such as hollow trees or logs and termite mounds for denning. The season, frequency, extent and severity of fires are all likely to be key factors influencing Quoll populations (Hill & Ward 2009).

Weeds

The invasion of northern Australia by Gamba Grass (Andropogon gayanus) and other introduced grasses is a key threatening process listed under the EPBC Act (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2009bn). Gamba Grass is a high biomass pasture grass that out-competes native grasses and increases fuel loads which promote intense, late, dry season fires (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2009bn). Gamba Grass has fuel loads up to seven times higher than native grasses (Rossiter et al. 2003). This produces fires that are eight times more intense than those produced by native grasses (Rossiter-Rachor et al. 2008). These fires can be detrimental to the Northern Quoll by causing direct mortality either from fire or predation after fire and reducing the availability of shelter and habitat heterogeneity (Hill & Ward 2009).

Feral predators

Predation by the Feral Cat (Felis catus) and European Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) are key threatening processes listed under the EPBC Act (EA 1999b; DEWHAzzq). These feral predators, in particular Feral Cats, may be having an impact on Northern Quoll populations either through competition for food or direct predation, and these impacts may be exacerbated after fire (Oakwood 2004). The impact of these feral predators on Northern Quolls has not been directly addressed however attempts should be made to protect quolls from these species considering their implications in the decline of other Quoll species such as the Western Quoll and Spot-tailed Quoll (Hill & Ward 2009) The Northern Quolls are also considered more vulnerable to predation by Cats and Foxes than other quoll species due to their smaller size (Hill & Ward 2009).

Parasitism

Although Oakwood and Spratt (2000) found that parasitism was common in the Northern Quoll, they concluded that few individuals harboured large burdens and hence parasitism could not be viewed as a major factor contributing to the population decline of Northern Quoll in the Northern Territory. Parasitism is therefore only viewed as a potential threat.

Between 1993 and 1995, brain, lung, heart, liver, muscle and skeletal muscle tissue samples were taken from 28 road killed Northern Quolls in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, and tested for toxoplasmosis cysts and antibodies (Oakwood & Pritchard 1999). This study concluded that there is no compelling evidence that toxoplasmosis is involved in the decline of Northern Quolls in this region.

The draft National Recovery Plan for the Northern Quoll (Hill & Ward 2009) aims to minimize the rate of decline of the Northern Quoll in Australia, such that viable populations remain in each of the major regions of distribution into the future.

The nine main objectives of the draft Plan include:

  • Protect Northern Quoll populations on offshore islands from invasion and establishment of Cane Toads, Cats and other potential invasive species.
  • Foster the recovery of Northern Quoll sub-populations in areas where the species has survived alongside Cane Toads.
  • Halt declines in areas not yet colonised by Cane Toads.
  • Halt declines in areas recently colonised by Cane Toads.
  • Maintain secure populations and source animals for future reintroductions/introductions, if they become appropriate.
  • Reduce the risk of Northern Quoll populations being impacted by disease.
  • Reduce the impact of pastoral land management practices on Northern Quolls.
  • Raise public awareness of the plight of Northern Quolls and the need for biosecurity of islands and Western Australia.

Some specific actions identified include continue research into the susceptibility of Quolls to Cane Toad poisoning, investigate factors causing declines in Northern Quoll populations not yet affected by Cane Toads, continue studies of whether there is a genetic basis for differences in susceptibility of Northern Quolls to Cane Toad toxins, develop and, where required, implement a strategy for rapid-response control of Cane Toad or Feral Cat outbreaks on offshore islands occupied by Northern Quolls.

O'Donnell and colleagues (2010) have trialled taste aversion in juvenile Northern Quoll, with some success. They induced an aversion to live toads in juvenile Northern Quolls by feeding them a dead toad containing a nausea-inducing chemical (thiabendazole). O'Donnell and colleagues suggest that wildlife managers could aerially deploy taste aversion baits in the field, ahead of the toad invasion front, to teach toad-naïve quolls to avoid live Cane Toads before the toads invade such areas. This approach has wider applications, and could also be used to mitigate the impacts of invasive vertebrate predators on threatened fauna. When invasive predators cannot be eradicated, controlled taste aversion may provide a feasible way to maintain populations of endangered fauna in the presence of the invader.

The Threat abatement plan for the biological effects, including lethal toxic ingestion, caused by cane toads (Draft) (DEWHA 2010g) clearly outlines that, given the absence of a potential biological control, and the limited effectiveness of physical barriers, Cane Toads will not be eradicated in Australia and will continue to spread throughout southern and western Australia. The draft Plan identifies the importance of identifying and protecting threatened species particularly susceptible to poisoning from Cane Toads.

Over $11 million of the Australian Government Cane Toad funding has been provided for the search for a biological control agent in the Toads' native habitat in South America, and research directed at modifying a virus in order to disrupt the development of infected Cane Toad tadpoles. In 2008, an independent review of the CSIRO's Cane Toad biological control research (Shannon & Bayliss 2008) resulted in funding for this project being discontinued. Community action to manually remove Cane Toads from the landscape has also received Australian Government funding (approx $1.3 million from 1986 to 2009). Government agencies in Queensland, NSW, Western Australia and the Northern Territory have contributed to Cane Toad control efforts. However, there is no evidence that these endeavours have prevented the continued spread of the pest or significantly limited its impact on Australia's biodiversity. It concludes that to date no broad-scale or biological control has been identified and it is unlikely that such a control could be developed and approved for use before the Cane Toad will have reached its maximum extent and impact (DEWHA 2010g).

Recommended mitigation

Best practice mitigation for the Northern Quoll follows that prescribed in the Northern Quoll workshop (2010):


Threats and key impacts Mitigation
Habitat clearing

  • Direct mortality
  • Displacement

  • Relocate the project
  • Design the project to avoid and protect habitat critical to the survival of the species
  • Reconfigure the project to remove threatening processes
  • Retain movement corridors and put in place natural buffers
  • Rehabilitate disturbed habitats
  • Maintain habitat to reduce edge effects and monitor
  • Avoid activities such as rock blasting or heavy machinery operation between May and November (Quoll breeding).
  • Educate mine site personnel about Northern Quoll ecology on site
Introduction of invasive species

E.g. Cane Toads, Gamba Grass.

  • Direct mortality
  • Habitat degradation
  • Competition
  • Increased fire risk
  • Habitat displacement

  • Implement quarantine protocols
  • Install a staging facility for the storage and inspection of equipment/goods. The staging facility should be surrounded by a toad-proof barrier/fence (including no gaps under doors), and should include shelter sites for toads that can be easily and regularly inspected. For island developments, the staging facility should be on the mainland (e.g. Broome, Derby, Wyndham, Darwin, Gove and Borroloola) and be located at the wharf from where goods are shipped out to the site.
  • Prescribe and apply a holding period (at least 24 hours) before equipment is used on-site or shipped to site, to allow time for toads/pests to emerge.
  • Install a wash down facility. The wash down facility should comprise high pressure water or steam devices. Cane Toad traps should be installed surrounding the wash down and staging facilities (see http://www.frogwatch.org.au for more information on cane toad traps).
  • Develop and facilitate educational programs for staff and contractors about quarantine protocols and associated risks involved with invasive species.
  • Implement a no fill policy for the life of the project e.g. no introduction of material from off site such as soil or vegetation.
  • Control (and where possible) eradicate weeds with a high priority for habitat-modifying weeds.
  • Remove and spray high priority weeds e.g. Gamba Grass (Andropogon gayanus).
  • Manage fuel loads of weeds to reduce risk of high fire intensity.
Pastoralism

  • Habitat degradation
  • Inappropriate fire regimes

  • Maintain current site conditions e.g. disturbance regimes, grazing, vegetation structure.
  • Retain and manage grazing regimes to avoid high fuel levels and high intensity dry season fires (as some of the most persistent populations of Northern Quolls in Queensland are in areas that are grazed, often heavily).

Traffic

  • Direct mortality
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Retain quoll movement corridors.
  • Control and manage traffic levels to minimise fragmentation and mortality.
  • Educate project staff.
  • Ensure no entry into conservation areas with signage (except for necessary environmental management and monitoring).
  • Enforce bans / restrictions to off track driving.
  • Reduce and enforce speed limits in the vicinity of Quoll habitat with signage and penalties.
  • Fence underpasses where appropriate to funnel movement to safer areas.
  • Report and record road kills
  • Inappropriate fire regimes

    • Increased predation risk
    • Loss of denning habitat
  • Manage fires to reduce incidence, extent and severity to levels appropriate to retain or restore optimal Northern Quoll habitat. In QLD, storm-burning (lighting fires after the first wet season rains) is the suggested burning regime for Northern Quoll. Such a regime aims to reduce the risk of high fuel accumulation and homogeneity. Storm burning significantly reduces the risk of extensive dry season wildfire which can result in local population extinctions of Northern Quoll.
  • Construct fire control lines to facilitate movement to control fire fronts.
  • Educate and train staff about equipment and procedures to act on unexpected fire events.
  • Feral animals

    e.g. Feral cats and pigs, wild dogs and cattle

    • Direct predation
    • Habitat degradation
    • Competition
    • Disease e.g. Toxoplasmosis

    • Control feral animal abundance such as feral cat and pigs and wild dog and cattle.
    • Eradicate feral animals through localised live trapping, shooting, baiting (cattle should be also be considered). Consideration should be given to limit the likelihood of baiting mortality to Quolls.
    • Implement and enforce a no cat and no dog policy for developments with accommodation facilities
    • Educate and train staff and public in any no cat and dog policy and ensure signage is displayed.
    • Remove any harbourage sites such as tips and dump sites
    • Modify existing habitat to make it less suitable for cats e.g. reduce fragmentation by rehabilitating tracks and clearings and making it more structurally complex with shelter and escape sites.


    Management documents for the Northern Quoll include:

    • Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the Feral Cat (EA 1999b).
    • Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (DEWHA 2008zzq).
    • National Recovery Plan for the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill & Ward 2010).

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Northern Quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005x) [Listing Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Small isolated populations National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pennisetum ciliare National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Andropogon gayanus (Gamba Grass) National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pennisetum polystachion (Mission Grass, Perennial Mission Grass, Missiongrass, Feathery Pennisetum, Feather Pennisetum, Thin Napier Grass, West Indian Pennisetum, Blue Buffel Grass) National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rhinella marina (Cane Toad) National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Northern Quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005x) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Northern Quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005x) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Northern Quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005x) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Northern Quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005x) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus (Hill, B. & S. Ward, 2010) [Recovery Plan].

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    Braithwaite, R.W. & A.D. Griffiths (1994). Demographic variation and range contraction in the Northern Quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Wildlife Research. 21:203-218.

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    Cardoso, M.J., M. D. B. Eldridge, M. Oakwood, B. Rankmore, W.B. Sherwin & K. B. Firestone (2009). Effects of founder events on the genetic variation of translocated island populations: implications for conservation management of the northern quoll. Conservation Genetics. 10, No.6:1719-1733. [Online]. Available from: http://www.springerlink.com/content/658g05x61q09qx57/.

    Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

    Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.

    Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2010g). Threat abatement plan for the biological effects, including lethal toxic ingestion, caused by cane toads (DRAFT). Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia.

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    Hill, B. & S. Ward (2010). National Recovery Plan For the Northern Quoll Dasyurus hallucatus. [Online]. Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, Northern Territory. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/northern-quoll.html.

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    International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org.

    Kearney, M., B.L. Phillips, C.R. Tracy, K.A. Christian, G. Betts & W.P. Porter (2008). Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia under current and future climates. Ecography.

    McGoldrick, I. (2013). Weipa commissions Northern Quoll surveys. Media Release. Rio Tinto Alcan.

    McKenzie, N.L. (1981). Mammals of the Phanerozoic south-west Kimberley, Western Australia: biogeography and recent changes. Journal of Biogeography. 8:263-280.

    Nelson, J.E. & R.T. Gemmell (2003). Birth in the northern quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus (Marsupialia : Dasyuridae). Australian Journal of Zoology. 51(2):187 - 198.

    Northern Quoll workshop (2010). Northern Quoll workshops for the development of the referral guidelines for the Northern Quoll.

    O'Donnell, S., J. K. Webb & R. Shine (2010). Conditioned taste aversion enhances the survival of an endangered predator imperilled by a toxic invader. Journal of Applied Ecology. 47, 3:558-565. [Online]. Online: British Ecological Society. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123350230/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0.

    Oakwood M and D.M Spratt (2000). Parasites of the northern quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) in tropical savanna, Northern Territory. Australian Journal of Zoology. 48:79-90.

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    Oakwood, M. (2002). Spatial and social organization of a carnivorous marsupial, Dasyurus hallucatus. Journal of Zoology, London. 257:237-248.

    Oakwood, M. (2003). The effect of cane toads on a marsupial carnivore, the northern quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus. A report prepared for Parks Australia North. Darwin: Department of the Environment and Heritage.

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    Phillips, B.L., G.P. Brown, M. Greenlees, J.K. Webb & R. Shine (2007). Rapid expansion of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) invasion front in tropical Australia. Austral Ecology. 32:169-176.

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    EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dasyurus hallucatus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 11:17:28 +1000.