Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oc) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Scientific name Eucalyptus conglomerata [3160]
Family Myrtaceae:Myrtales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Maiden & Blakely
Infraspecies author  
Reference A Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus 8(71) (Feb. 1929) 5, Pl. 288(6-8).
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The Swamp Stringybark belongs to Eucalyptus ser. capitellatae (the true stringybarks), a group widespread in south-eastern Australia. The Swamp Stringybark is one of only three stringybark species endemic to Queensland (Brooker & Kleinig 1994). It is distinguished from all other Queensland stringybarks by its very small fruits (Bean 2001 pers. comm.).

The Swamp Stringybark is a mallee or small tree that grows to 12 m tall. The bark is persistent almost throughout, coarsely fibrous and furrowed (a stringybark) and is grey to brownish in colour. Branches are smooth and white and less than 2 cm in diameter. The adult leaves are lance-shaped or elliptical, 13-30 mm wide, not pendulous, the same colour on both sides. The flowers are formed in the leaf axils, in groups of 13-20 and flower buds are egg-shaped, 5-8 mm long, without stalks. The fruit is cup-shaped, 3.5-6 mm long, with 3 cavities and the valves are below rim level (Brooker & Kleinig 2004).

The Swamp Stringybark is confined to southern coastal Queensland, between Kin Kin and Beerwah (Drake 1995).

A detailed study by Drake (1995) revealed a total of 22 extant populations, at ten locations. Two populations previously mapped by Bean (1989) at Kawana and Marcoola were destroyed for housing development (Bean 2001 pers. comm.). Approximately one third of remaining plants occur on freehold property, a third on state forest and a third on conservation reserves (Drake 1995). There have been three more recent records from conservation reserves (Queensland Herbarium 2008c).

The Swamp Stringybark is known from 22 populations and an estimated total population of 1100 plants (Drake 1995).

The Swamp Stringybark occurs on coastal flats up to 30 m above sea level. It occurs mostly in the ecotone between wet heath (wallum) and tall open forest communities. The soils are infertile, deep and sandy or peaty in texture. Drainage is poor and soils can be seasonally water-logged (Bean 1980; Halford 1996g).

The Swamp Stringybark flowers from March to June and flower buds take about twelve months to mature (Halford 1996g). The seeds are typically held on the plants for some years or until the branch they are attached to dies (Halford 1996g; Bean 2001 pers. comm.).

There are a number of threats to the Swamp Stringybark including (Bean 1980; Drake 1995; Halford 1996g; Bean 2001 pers. comm.):

  • Destruction of habitat due to clearing and expansion for road infrastructure, clearing for agriculture, drainage works, urban development and road construction.
  • Changes in hydrology and water quality - the Swamp Stringybark seedlings were found to have poor tolerance of salinity, compared to other Eucalyptus species from the same area. Measurements of pH made from the soil of wild populations ranged from 3.9-5.2. Similarly, pot trials showed that this species is significantly more susceptible to water stress than other associated eucalypt species. Its lack of drought tolerance is also evident in mixed-species field cultivation trials, as it is one of the first species to show drought stress and/or die completely.
  • Effects of nutrient-laden and polluted run-off.
  • Weed infestations such as Groundsel Bush (Baccharis halimifolia) and exotic grasses.
  • Inappropriate fire regimes.

Existing plans/management prescriptions relevant to the Swamp Stringybark include:

  • Conservation Research Statement and Proposed Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus conglomerata (Swamp Stringybark), Myrtaceae (Drake 1995).
  • Approved Conservation Advice for Eucalyptus conglomerata (Swamp Stringybark) (TSSC 2008oc).

Other documents relevant to the management of the Swamp Stringybark can be found at the start of this profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oc) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oc) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Cupaniopsis tomentella in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006aav) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oc) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oc) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oc) [Conservation Advice].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oc) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oc) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oc) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Cupaniopsis tomentella in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006aav) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Habitat modification due to maintenance of water pipeline easement Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].

Bean, A.R. (1980). The Ecology and Distribution of Eucalyptus conglomerata Maiden et Blakely, a threatened species. Hons. Thesis. School of Env. & Rural Studies, Qld Agr. College.

Bean, A.R. (1989). The Distribution of Queensland Eucalypts. A.R. Bean, Nambour.

Bean, A.R. (2001a). Personal Communication.

Brooker, M.I.H. & Kleinig, D.A. (1994). Field Guide to Eucalypts. Volume 3, Northern Australia. Chatswood: Inkata Press.

Drake, W.E. (1995). Conservation Research Statement and Proposed Recovery Plan. Eucalyptus congomerata. Brisbane: Qld Dept of Environment & Heritage.

Halford, D. (1996g). Eucalyptus conglomerata. Species Management Profile, Jan. 1996. Flora and Fauna Information System. 2. Qld Dept Natural Resources, Brisbane.

Queensland Herbarium (2008c). Specimen label information.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008oc). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus conglomerata. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/3160-conservation-advice.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus conglomerata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 10 Jul 2014 15:30:37 +1000.