Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aed) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afl) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, Reedia has declined in range, occurs only in a limited number of disjunct wetland habitats, and is facing a number of threats. A single species recovery plan is not considered to be an efficient use of resources at this time. Reedia may be included in a future regional recovery plan. At this time, the approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats.(19/12/2008).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (63) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008g) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Reedia spathacea [2995]
Family Cyperaceae:Cyperales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author F.Muell.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Mueller, F.J.H. von (1859), Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 1(10) 240, t.10
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of Reedia, Reedia spathecea, under Australian and state government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Critically Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Reedia spathecea

Common name: Reedia

Reedia is a robust, tufted caespitose sedge with a woody trunk (caudex) that forms large leafy clumps to over 1 m in height. The leaves are about 1.2 m in length, bordered by prickles, and they originate from apical shoots of the caudex. The leaf sheaths form water tanks (phytotelmata) similar to those of a bromeliad. The roots of the plant are all stem-borne (i.e. they originate exclusively on the caudex, well above the ground) and grow down through a mass of dead leaf bases and decaying plant matter to the ground, in the manner of stilt roots. Once below the ground, the roots ramify into vertical and horizontal branches. The horizontal branches of the roots bear apogeotropic (growing away from the earth) rootlets, the tips of which protrude just above ground level somewhat like pneumatophores (Tauss 2000).

Reedia has a dense, spadix-like inflorescence that is loosely enclosed with several pale yellow papery bracts (spathes) that are about 40 cm in length. The inflorescence terminates a scape of about 3 m in height. The simple flowers of Reedia do not have a perianth but are enclosed in a series of small, brown papery glumes. At anthesis, the flowers are fragrant and attract small beetles, which congregate within the spathes, and bees that transport pollen between plants (Tauss 2000).

Reedia occurs as 27 disjunct populations in two Biogeographical Regions (Warren and Jarrah Forest) in south-west Western Australia. From all available evidence, including rbcL gene sequencing (Tauss 2009), Reedia is thought to be a Gondwanan relict species. Its habitat is thought to have been more extensive prior to the onset of Pleistocene-era aridity (Semeniuk 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed).

Reedia is confined to small-scale, wetland habitats of a type that are now uncommon in all but the most humid climatic zone of south-west Western Australia. These wetlands are classified as paluslopes (seasonally-waterlogged slopes) and floodplains (seasonally-inundated flats) (Semeniuk & Semeniuk 1995). Reedia occurs most commonly on paluslopes in the Warren Bioregion where there is a coincidence of specific topography and stratigraphy with high rainfall and low evaporation that enables the formation of shallow, confined peat aquifers. More rarely, Reedia occurs on the narrow floodplains of perennial streams in the less humid Jarrah Forest Bioregion, which are maintained by flow from the deep, confined, Yaragadee or Leederville aquifers (Tauss 2000).

Reedia is susceptible to a range of threats due to its biological adaptations to a specialised (and now uncommon) habitat and the small extent and fragmentation of that habitat. Feral pigs and inappropriate fire regimes have both been observed to rapidly decimate large populations; these two factors (individually or in combination) have extirpated a number of populations since the 1990s (Tauss 2009). Reedia requires a constantly high watertable to survive and thus the modification of the hydrological regime of Reedia wetlands (by water extraction from deep aquifers that maintain the wetlands, the dewatering of catchment areas of Reedia wetlands for development and climate change) also pose a direct threat to this species. The decline of Reedia has been most marked in the Blackwood region over the last 20 years. Currently, only two of the original eight populations remain viable at Blackwood and both of these populations are subject to ongoing, serious threats. Reedia has a high risk of becoming extinct in the Blackwood region (Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed).

Reedia has an extent of occurrence of 4262.5 km2, which is a rectangular area of approximately 137.5 x 31 km (Trauss 2000). There is limited data to suggest a larger historic extent of occurrence, which includes locations at "King George Sound" and "Frankland River" (both of which are very old records, from the 1800s, in areas, that at the time, were poorly known). Recent extinctions are from within the current extent of occurrence (Tauss 2000). If the at-risk populations at Blackwood were to become extinct, the extent of occurrence would contract by 50% (Tauss 2000).

In 2007, Reedia's area of occupancy was approximately 44.92 ha or 0.449 km2 (Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed). This is considered a very restricted distribution given the species' specific habitat requirements, very limited habitat availability, its slow growth, clonal growth habit and rare seed recruitment events (TSSC 2008aed). Since 1990 there has been a 43.15% decline in area of occupancy (a reduction of 34.65 ha) (TSSC 2008aed). Monitoring of these populations is quite thorough, however some estimates may over-represent the area of occupancy of some populations (Tauss 2000).

Reedia occurs as disjunct populations that are clustered near Walpole and Blackwood Plateau. The distribution is very fragmented because the species is found only in specific, small-scale habitats that are generally determined by topography and stratigraphy in the Walpole area and by hydrological and geological factors (such as surface discharge of aquifers) in the Blackwood area. Broadscale factors, such as climate (particularly the balance between precipitation and evaporation), are secondary to the determination of Reedia's preferred habitat (Tauss 2000).

The distribution of suitable habitat for Reedia is naturally disjunct, although there is evidence that preferred habitat was more continuous in the past (during humid periods of the Tertiary period). However, contemporary distribution has been reduced by anthropogenic disturbance. Specific events include the death of thousands of adults at Spearwood Swamp after fire in 1997 and the recent extirpation of a population in Pingerup by feral pigs over the course of two years (2000–2001). The majority of the 27 remaining Reedia populations are continuing to decline (Atkins 2007 unpub. data cited in TSSC 2008aed; Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed). These declines are substantial in light of the species' extreme vulnerability to fire and feral pig grazing; slow, predominately clonal growth habits; sporadic flowering; extremely low seed viability; and the rarity of recruitment from seed (TSSC 2008aed).

Thorough surveys were undertaken by Tauss (2000) with comprehensive follow ups (e.g. data in TSSC 2008aed).

As Reedia has complicated growth forms and a clonal habit, the estimation of plant numbers in populations can be difficult (except when counting juveniles). However, area of occupancy is used as an accepted measure of abundance. The extent of occupancy for this species in 2007 was approximately 44.92 ha or 0.449 km2 (Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed). Although it is difficult to derive density of plants and health of population from available data, on best estimates, Reedia has declined in occupancy by 34.65 ha or 43% and is continuing to decline but at an unknown rate (TSSC 2008aed).

Generation length of Reedia is not known. It is suspected that ramets (clonal clumps) may be many decades old (comprehensive monitoring only spans back to the mid 1990s); conversely the individual live shoots can be relatively short lived (3–10 years or more) before they flower and senesce. Reedia populations have been observed to be variable in their reproductive behaviour (Tauss 2000; TSSC 2008aed).

Populations critical for the survival for Reedia include those near the edge of the species' climatic range, all of the Blackwood populations and populations near Shannon airstrip, Bull Road, Nelson Road and Mitchell Road (Trauss 2000).

An unknown number of populations occur in Blackwood National Park: it is unknown whether Reedia population/s, at this location, are managed for conservation.

Reedia is the dominant structural component of the oligotrophic, permanently waterlogged wetlands it inhabits in south-west Western Australia (with the restiads Empodisma gracillimum and Sporadanthus rivularis) (Trauss 2000). This species is specialised to grow in permanently waterlogged and low nutrient wetlands (TSSC 2008aed). These wetlands are usually very stable environments with constantly high groundwater and waters that are consistently low in salinity and nutrients (TSSC 2008aed).

Optimum conditions

In undisturbed, optimum habitats, Reedia comprise tall open sedgeland to tall close sedgeland stands (> 1 m height and 30–70% canopy cover, rarely 70–100% canopy cover) of apparently even-aged, mature clones. Associated vegetation, such as sedges, rushes and low shrubs, are a relatively minor component of the vegetation (except in frequently burnt sites). In habitat where it occurs, Reedia could be considered a keystone species as it provides the bulk of the live biomass and is a major component of the peat substrate (along with Empodisma) (Trauss 2000). The constantly anoxic, nutrient-restricted and often highly acidic conditions in these wetlands, exclude many of the common wetland plants and animals that are found in the more abundant (seasonal) wetlands of the region that dry out in summer (TSSC 2008aed).

Habitat stability

Reedia could be considered a major factor in perpetuating the constantly waterlogged, humid, acidic, anoxic and nutrient-limited habitat it thrives in to the exclusion of other plant taxa. Comparatively, wetlands that are frequently burnt, where nutrient enrichment occurs, or where water levels and/or quality are marginal in terms of the range inhabited by Reedia, myrtaceous shrubs such as Homalospermum firmum and Swamp Peppermint (Taxandria linearifolia) tend to dominate the vegetation (Trauss 2000).

It is probable that the thick vegetation of the Reedia wetlands, the peat it creates (together with E. gracillimum) and the phytolemata of Reedia provide important fauna habitat. The large spathes enclosing the inflorescences harbour an array of insects and spiders (during flowering where pollinators are attracted to the fragrant flowers and at other times of the year). Red-tailed Black Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus banksii) also feed on the large grubs that invade a high proportion of the Reedia inflorescence scapes. Foliose liverworts and the club moss, Lycopodiella serpentina, are usually abundant at ground level amongst the cluster roots of E. gracillimum (Trauss 2000).

Ecological descriptions

Preferred habitat of Reedia includes (Trauss 2000):

  • The Warren region paluslopes (on slopes and adjacent streams) that are permanently waterlogged. The peat of these paluslopes (wetland definition follows Semeniuk & Semeniuk 1995) generally forms a perched aquifer that usually overlies a shallow confined aquifer. The maintenance of these wetlands relies on atmospheric humidity, topography and stratigraphy of the slope and the upslope recharge area. The waters of the paluslopes that have forested recharge zones are oligotrophic (extremely nutrient poor). Both perched and confined aquifers are ombrotrophic (rain fed) with strongly acidic waters. The peat layer of the paluslopes is up to 2 m thick. The vegetation associated with these wetlands in the Warren Bioregion includes:
    • sedgeland of Reedia with E. gracillimum in H. firmum or Rhadinothamnus anceps heath
    • H. firmum scrub over Reedia and E. gracillimum
    • closed Reedia sedgeland.

  • The Jarrah Forest region (Blackwood Plateau) on narrow floodplains that are shallowly inundated in winter and remain waterlogged throughout summer and autumn, and peat paluslopes that have consistently high levels of soil moisture that exist only where there is artesian flow from the Yaragadee/Leederville aquifers. All of the Reedia wetlands located in the Blackwood River National Park have forested catchments and nutrient-poor waters. The perched aquifer at the Spearwood Swamp paluslope is maintained by precipitation and has strongly acidic water. Floodplains and streams are somewhat more saline (annual salinity maxima < 300 ppm) with circumneutral pH.

Wetland descriptions

Several wetland types are associated with Reedia. The various water sources of these wetlands (groundwater from deep aquifers, surface water and perched water from rainfall) provide varying salinity, acidity and sediment texture characteristics (Tauss 2000). Wetlands that support Reedia are generally considered acidic, anoxic and low in nutrients (TSSC 2008aed). Flowing and still water zones can be present (Tauss 2000). These wetlands can be described as muddy floodplains or waterlogged peat slopes (TSSC 2008aed). Large plants on floodplains trap sediments in root mats and crustaceans burrow and form mounds above floodwaters. Two vegetation units and their floristic assemblages are unique to wetlands associated with Reedia (Tauss 2000):

  • On floodplains where the vegetation occurs as a species-rich assemblage of sedges and rushes dominated by Reedia, E. gracillimum and S. rivularis with open low shrubs and perennial herbs. The Blackwood Road population is the best representative of this type of vegetation even though it has recently been invaded by feral pigs and is being degraded rapidly.
  • At the peat paluslopes of Spearwood Creek, the scrub vegetation comprises H. firmum and Swamp Peppermint over Reedia and E. gracillimum. (This assemblage differs significantly in floristics from that of the restiad peat paluslopes of the Warren region).

Reedia habitat ecology

As habitat in which Reedia occurs is permanently waterlogged, it is a summer wetland refuge that is uncommon in a region with a Mediterranean climate that experiences prolonged summer drought (TSSC 2008aed). The most species rich and representative Reedia populations, and those including other uncommon flora and fauna, are populations at (Tauss 2000):

  • Blackwood Road (Blackwood Plateau), species rich and most representative of the Reedia floodplain habitat of the Jarrah Forest Bioregion
  • Spearwood Swamp, harbours a natural population of the EPBC Act listed, vulnerable Orange-bellied Frog (Geocrinia vitellina): this swamp is a Reedia paluslope outlier
  • Boronia Ridge (Walpole), the most species-rich, pristine and natural of all the Walpole populations and thus most representative of the paluslope habitat, includes unique closed sedgeland structural formation
  • Woolbales Track board walk population (D'Entrecasteaux National Park), unique floristic assemblage and a floodplain outlier.

Historic habitat contraction

The habitat of Reedia is refugial as it has contracted substantially during the aridity of the Pleistocene. The wetlands also provide refugia for fauna during prolonged summer drought (particularly on Blackwood Plateau).

Wetland habitat associated with Reedia is declining in terms of peat loss due to frequent fires (including prescribed fires, escaped prescribed fires and wildfires); peat disturbance and nutrient enrichment due to feral pigs; nutrient enrichment due to farming, urban runoff and septic tanks (in some populations around Walpole and McCleod Creek); weed encroachment at Walpole and McCleod Creek; and hydrological regime disruption (TSSC 2008afl).

EPBC Act listed species occurring in Reedia wetlands

Species listed under the EPBC Act that are found in habitat dominated by Reedia include the endangered White-bellied Frog (Geocrinia alba) and the vulnerable Orange-bellied Frog (Geocrinia vitellina)

Reedia characteristics

Reedia has two recruitment strategies: clonal reproduction during the normal stable conditions found in the Reedia wetlands; and sexual reproduction from seed that is most effective after disturbance events (Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed). Reedia is very unusual in that it has an extremely complicated biology compared to other Australian Cyperaceae, and appears to have several specific adaptations to its waterlogged environment (Tauss 2000; TSSC 2008aed):

  • Most of the living parts of the plant, including starch storage areas, root initiation points and the apical shoot are found only in the small area at the top of the caudex.
  • The roots of the plant are all stem-borne (i.e. they originate exclusively on the top of the caudex) and grow down the side of the caudex through a mass of dead leaf bases and decaying plant matter to the groundwater table.
  • There are no underground storage organs (e.g. rhizomes).
  • Clonal growth, where new caudices branch off laterally from near the top of senescing older caudices, is the main form of reproduction and leads to an extremely variable range of complicated growth forms.
  • Dead leaves are retained, presumably to re-draw scarce nutrients.
  • The leaf sheaths form water tanks somewhat like those of bromeliad species.
  • The stem-borne roots form horizontal branches below the surface and bear small upwardly-growing rootlets that protrude just above ground level, like the pneumatophores of some mangroves. These rootlets appear to oxygenate the root zone of Reedia.

Growth forms

Reedia plants can occur as a single caudex surmounted by a single shoot (juveniles), doughnut-shaped clumps with multiple caudices emanating from a central common point, long arcs of seemingly-connected shoots and many other variations of form (Tauss 2000). Fire further complicates and modifies the range of possible physiognomic forms of Reedia. As stilt roots are severed by fire, plants that survive fire often fall over and then the apex of the shoot generally curls up from a prostate caudex to continue its vertical growth (Tauss 2000). In dense populations there is a range of growth forms and complex organisation patterns of ramets.

The structure of a mature, long-established Reedia plant can be seen as one or more large apical shoots with dense leaves perched on top of a mass of slowly decaying shoots from previous seasons, with their roots weaving down through the dead matter to connect the plant to the shallow water table. Growth is slow (Tauss 2000; TSSC 2008aed).

Sexual reproduction

Reedia puts significant resources into occasional (multi-year-interval) flowering events. Flowers are generally produced in November and fruit is set in December, however seasonal climate may alter or suppress these events (Tauss 2000). The inflorescence scape can reach up to 3m in height. Several thick, papery pale yellow spathes loosely enclose the dense cylindrical inflorescence. The flowers are bisexual and they lack a perianth (as is typical of sedges). The strongly fragrant flowers attracting numerous bees for pollination (insect pollination is extremely rare in sedges, particularly in the temperate climate sedges) (TSSC 2008aed). Copious amounts of pollen accumulate within spathes around the inflorescence. Beetles and other insects congregate within the spathes at this time.

Seed viability in Reedia is low, with less than 5% germination observed in trials to date. The seeds have no obvious morphological features that would aid dispersal. Seedling germination has been observed in most populations in the absence of any disturbance (TSSC 2008aed). However, few seedlings survive in the long term due to overshading from surrounding vegetation (TSSC 2008aed). Sexual reproduction from seed has been observed to be most effective after severe disturbance, such as fire events, has significantly thinned or destroyed the adult Reedia population and other vegetation (TSSC 2008aed).

Reedia is very distinctive during aerial surveys and is easily distinguished in on-ground surveys. Leaves have a glaucous hue that stands out from surrounding olive green vegetation, the tall spathes are particularly visible in early summer (Tauss 2000).

Feral pigs

Reedia is extremely vulnerable to grazing by feral pigs (Sus scrofa) due to its morphological characteristics and reproductive behaviour, i.e. growth points for both roots and apical shoots emerge at the top the caudex. Feral pigs find these points palatable and specifically target them. The removal of these critical points kills the plant (Tauss 2000, 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed).

Feral pigs pose the major threat to the species as they have been introduced by recreational pig hunters into Reedia habitats in the last few years and their numbers and impacts are expanding rapidly. It has been observed that feral pigs destroyed one 3 ha population in two years (Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed).

Fire

The apical shoots and root initiation zone of Reedia are in close proximity to large masses of flammable old leaves, which the plant presumably retains to re-draw scarce nutrients. Cool fires have been observed to kill a significant proportion of adult shoots and juveniles in a population (Tauss 2007, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed). Hotter fires generally cause great losses with deep burns on the caudices of the dead plants that totally sever the roots. Reedia shoots do not flower every year and mild fire will cause a population to cease flowering for at least one or two years post fire (Tauss 2000, 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed).

Reedia populations and habitats are found in many areas (state forest and crown land) that are subject to short cycle prescribed burning by the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation. This regime (combined with drier climatic conditions and wildfires) has reportedly caused significant damage to Reedia populations (Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed) and the peat layers in some of the wetlands (Semeniuk 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed). In 2007, most Reedia populations with peat substrates were routinely burnt in prescribed fires (approximately every seven years) (Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed).

Groundwater abstraction and hydrological modification

Groundwater abstraction poses a major threat to Reedia. Groundwater in the region is increasingly being drawn for use in local agriculture, viticulture and urban water supply. Any significant tapping of local groundwater systems that maintain Reedia wetlands will risk drying out the waterlogged environments in which Reedia grows (Tauss 2000, 2004a, 2004b, 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed).

Other activities that change groundwater hydrology and catchment areas also pose a major threat to Reedia. For example, a residential development under construction in the recharge zone of a groundwater system that maintains a significant Reedia population at Walpole is currently draining the groundwater in the development site and diverting this into the Walpole River. These changes to the underground hydrology of the wetland's catchment pose a serious threat to the Reedia population (Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 208aed).

Weeds

Several Reedia populations are now threatened by invasive wetland weed species such as Budding Club-rush (Isolepis prolifera) (Tauss 2007 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008aed).

Nutrient enrichment

Nutrient enrichment from leaking septic tanks and agricultural practices pose a threat to the species which is adapted to an extremely low-nutrient environment. Nutrient enrichment will potentially affect the health and growth of Reedia and may assist competing species to become dominant, altering the composition of the wetland plant communities in which Reedia grows (Tauss 2000).

Minister's reasons for recovery plan decision

Reedia has declined in range, occurs only in a limited number of disjunct wetland habitats and is facing a number of threats. A single species recovery plan is not considered to be an efficient use of resources at this time. Reedia may be included in a future regional recovery plan.The current approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats.

Priority recovery actions

The Conservation Advice for Reedia spathacea (TSSC 2008afl) suggests priority actions for the recovery of this species, including:

  • Further investigation into the fire ecology and reproductive behaviour of Reedia.
  • Further investigation into propagation strategies for Reedia.
  • Development and implementation of an aggressive, continuous control program for feral pigs to prevent destruction of Reedia populations from feral pig grazing.
  • Investigation into large scale pig-exclusion fencing of important Reedia populations.
  • Further monitoring of known Reedia populations to identify key threats and the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Identification of Reedia populations of high conservation priority.
  • Avoidance of Reedia wetland hydrological change including disturbance/alteration of recharge zones and changes caused by development.
  • Avoidance of Reedia habitat nutrient enrichment.
  • Investigation of formal conservation arrangements such as the use of covenants, conservation agreements or inclusion in reserve tenure for populations on private property.
  • Development and implementation of a weed management plan.
  • Development and implementation of a suitable fire management strategy for Reedia that avoids burning of populations and habitat.
  • Provision of maps of known occurrences, to local and state rural fire services and the inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk registers and/or operation maps.
  • Raising awareness of Reedia within government agencies and the local community, particularly highlighting the species' extreme vulnerability to fire, feral pigs and altered hydrology.

Implemented priority actions

A number of priority actions have been implemented, these include (Tauss 2000):

  • Prescribed burns have been excluded from the Reedia population at Angove Road through the construction of a firebreak around the population.
  • Feral pig exclusion fences have been built and intermittent pig trapping has been conducted at Pingerup Road, Chesapeake Road and Granite Peak.
  • Fire has been excluded from Spearwood Swamp and Adelaide Brook, however, it has been suggested that the purpose of this program was mainly for the management of the Orange-bellied Frog.
  • Intermittent trapping of feral pigs at the Blackwood Road population.

A number of management plans are relevant to the recovery of Reedia, including:

  • The draft South Coast Threatened Species and Communities Regional Recovery Plan is being prepared by the West Australian Department of Environment and Conservation and will cover part of Reedia's range (TSSC 2008afl).
  • The draft Restiad peat paluslopes inhabited by Reedia spathacea in the Warren Biogeographical Region Interim Recovery Plan 2004–2009 (Tauss 2004a).
  • The draft Reedia spathacea species-rich sedgeland and scrub on tributaries of the Blackwood River maintained by the Yarragadee/Leederville aquifers Interim Recovery Plan 2004–2009 (Tauss 2004b).
  • The Conservation Advice for Reedia spathacea, which outlines priority recovery actions (TSSC 2008afl).

The Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (AGDEH 2005p) may provide recovery actions for Reedia populations threatened by feral pigs.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for recreational purposes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aed) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afl) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Isolepis prolifera (Budding Club-rush) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aed) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afl) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aed) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aed) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afl) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of ground water Commonwealth Listing Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aed) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afl) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afl) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aed) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Environmental impacts due to application of fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afl) [Conservation Advice].
Pollution:Household Sewage and Urban Waste Water:Pollution due to sewage run-off Commonwealth Listing Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aed) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Reedia spathacea (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afl) [Conservation Advice].

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.

Semeniuk, C.A. & V. Semeniuk (1995). A geomorphic approach to global classification for inland wetlands. Vegetatio. 118:103-124.

Tauss, C. (2000). Preliminary studies of the biology and ecology of Reedia spathacea F.Muell. (Cyperaceae). Unpublished Postgraduate Diploma of Science thesis. Department of Botany, University of Western Australia.

Tauss, C. (2004a). Restiad peat paluslopes inhabited by Reedia spathacea in the Warren Biogeographical Region, Western Australia. DRAFT Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2009. Prepared for the Western Australian Threatened Ecological Communities and Species Unit, Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Tauss, C. (2004b). Reedia spathacea species-rich sedgeland and scrub on tributaries of the Blackwood River maintained by the Yarragadee / Leederville aquifers. DRAFT Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2009. Prepared for the Western Australian Threatened Ecological Communities and Species Unit, Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Tauss, C. (2009). Unpublished data. University of Western Australia.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008aed). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Reedia spathacea. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/2995-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008afl). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Reedia spathacea. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/2995-conservation-advice.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Reedia spathacea in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 28 Jul 2014 17:09:34 +1000.