In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Samadera bidwillii|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Quassia bidwillii (Quassia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008q) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Quassia bidwillii.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (127) (12/09/2011) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2011b) [Legislative Instrument] as Samadera bidwillii.
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Samadera bidwillii |
|Species author||(Hook.f.) Oliv.|
|Reference||Oliver, D. (1896) Icones Plantarum [Hooker's] Edn. Ser. 4, 5: t. 2449 [comb. nov.]|
|Other names||Quassia bidwillii |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Quassia bidwillii
Common name: Quassia
Quassia bidwillii was originally thought to occur from Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, to north-east NSW. Hewson (1985) stated that Q. bidwillii required revision as it possibly included two or three species. Floyd (1979) noted that the plants recorded as Q. bidwillii in NSW appeared to be different from those in Queensland, having less conspicuous venation, floral clusters growing from the stem, slender flower stalks and larger smooth fruits. It has since been confirmed that the Moonee Quassia (Quassia sp. Moonee Creek (J.King s.n. 1949) NSW Herbarium) of north-east NSW, and Quassia sp. Kennedy River (Clarkson 5645), of Cape York, had been confused with Q. bidwillii (NSW DEC 2005f).
Quassia is a small shrub or tree that grows to about 6 m in height, with red flowers and red fruit occuring from November to March. Branchlets are ribbed, with fine, pale-brown hairs. Its leaves are 4.59 cm long, 612 mm wide, glabrous (hairless) or sometimes silky to pubescent only on the lower surface, with secondary veins numerous and regularly arranged. Leaves are stiff and leathery, narrow-elliptic or lanceolate, blunt or bluntly pointed, the margins bent under. They are green, glossy and hairless above, and sparsely hairy below. Quassia flowers occur in clusters of 14, and each flower has 810 stamens, with filaments densely villous (covered in small hairs) on the outer surface, the sepals are 0.75 to 1 mm long and the red petals are approximately 2.5 mm in length. The fruit are ovid-ellipsoid, 1 cm long, hairy and sometimes appear winged (George 1985; Harden 2000; Williams et al. 1984).
Quassia is endemic to Queensland and is currently known to occur in several localities between Scawfell Island, near Mackay, and Goomboorian, north of Gympie (QDNR 2001). Quassia has been confirmed as occurring in at least 40 sites (QDNR 2001). Included within this range are a number of populations along the Mary River; Tinana Creek, Tallegalla Weir, Teddington Weir pondage, and from Teddington Weir to Tiana Barrage (Belleng Pty Ltd 2004).
Two moderately sized, yet significant, populations of Quassia have been found near Doolong Road South, Hervey Bay. These populations occur in an area of closed swamp box-eucalypt woodland, the centre of which is bisected by an electrical service which fragments these Quassia populations. Another location of Quassia in the Hervey Bay local government area lies on the riverbank at Dunathu (approximately 20 km south-west of the Doolong Road South locality) (Belleng Pty Ltd 2004).
Quassia occurs within the Burnett Mary, Fitzroy, Mackay Whitsunday, and Burdekin (Queensland) Natural Resource Management Regions (TSSC 2008q).
Quassia has been recorded from the following sites (QDNR 2001):
- State Forest 627
- State Forest 832
- State Forest 865
- State Forest 915
- State Forest 957
- State Forest 990
- Timber reserve 170
- South Cumberland Islands National Park.
There are additional unverified records from (QDNR 2001):
- State Forest 944
- State Forest 960
- State Forest 1004
- Eurimbula National Park.
The species has been cultivated at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne (CHABG 1994).
There is no population data available for Quassia.
Of the 40 sites on which Quassia occurs (where the species is confirmed), nine are within state forest, one within a military reserve, and one within a protected area (Stanley & Ross 1983; R. Melzer 1995, pers. comm., cited in QDNR 2001). The remaining sites are on freehold land or roadsides (Queensland Herbarium 2000).
Quassia commonly occurs in lowland rainforest or on rainforest margins (Hewson 1985), but it can also be found in other forest types, such as open forest and woodland (QDNR 2001). Quassia is commonly found in areas adjacent to both temporary and permanent watercourses (Belleng Pty Ltd 2004) in locations up to 510 m altitude. The species occurs on lithosols, skeletal soils, loam soils, sands, silts and sands with clay subsoils (Stanley & Ross 1983).
Commonly associated tree species include (QDNR 2001):
- Spotted Gum (Corymbia citriodora)
- Grey Gum (Eucalyptus propinqua)
- White Mahogany (E. acmenoides)
- Forest Red Gum (E. tereticornis)
- Pink Bloodwood (E. intermedia)
- an ironbark (E. siderophloia)
- Gum Topped Box (E. moluccana)
- Gympie Messmate (E. cloeziana)
- Broad Leaved Ironbark (E. fibrosa).
At Doolong Road South the populations have an understorey dominated by (Belleng Pty Ltd 2004):
- Hockor Wattle (Acacia dispparima)
- Red Ash (Alphitonia excelsa)
- Chian Fruit (Alyxi rusciolia)
- Brush Box (Lophostemon confertus)
- Canary Beech (Polyalthia nitidissima)
- Banana Bush (Tabernaemontana pandacaqui).
At Doolong Road South the populations have a ground layer dominated by (Belleng Pty Ltd 2004):
- Native Wandering Jew (Commelina diffusa)
- Barbed-wire Grass (Cymbopogon refractus)
- Common Couch (Cynodon dactylon)
- Flax Lily (Dianella caerulea var. assera)
- Saw Sedge (Gahnia aspersa)
- Blady Grass (Imperata cylindrica)
- White Root (Lobelia purpurascens)
- Creeping Beard Grass (Oplismenus aemulus)
- Pastel Flower (Pseuderanthemum variabile).
The distribution of this species overlaps with the following EPBC Act-listed threatened ecological communities (TSSC 2008q):
- Semi-evergreen vine thickets of the Brigalow Belt (North and South) and Nandewar Bioregions
- Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla dominant and co-dominant).
Quassia flowers have been recorded in November, December, January and March (QDNR 2000b; Stanley & Ross 1983). Fruit has been recorded from February to April (QDNR 2000b).
The main identified threats to Quassia are soil erosion and habitat clearing as a result of a range of activities including agriculture, forestry, urban development and recreational activities (TSSC 2008q).
The main potential threat to Quassia is inappropriate fire regimes. The response of this species to fire is unknown. However, the spread of Lantana (Lantana camara) and exotic grasses, including Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum) and Rhodes Grass (Chloris gayana), may threaten Quassia. The establishment of these weed species is likely to be enhanced after fire (QDNR 2001; Smyrell 2007).
One site in the Burton Range, north of Moranbah is subject to erosion and degradation due to the proximity of a four wheel drive track leading to a radio tower building area. At this site, weeds introduced by vehicles may be a possible threat (R.J. Fensham 1995, pers. comm., cited in QDNR 2001).
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Quassia bidwillii (Quassia) (TSSC 2008q) outlines the following research priorities:
- More precisely assess population size, distribution, ecological requirements and the relative impacts of threatening processes.
- Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations/occurrences/remnants.
In addition, the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Quassia bidwillii (Quassia) (TSSC 2008q) outlines the following priority actions:
- Identify sites of high conservation priority.
- Where Quassia occurs establish a protective buffer that excludes timber harvesting and clearing (QDNR 2001a).
- Ensure road widening, maintenance, development, recreational and agricultural activities (or other activities involving substrate and vegetation disturbance) in areas where Quassia occurs do not adversely impact on known populations.
- Investigate formal conservation arrangements, such as covenants or inclusion in reserve tenure.
- Develop and implement a management plan for the control of weeds that links with the fire management strategy.
- Ensure chemical or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on Quassia.
- Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for Quassia that links with the weed management plan.
- Prevent fire on sites for Quassia where Lantana invasion is a threat. On other sites, until an appropriate fire regime is determined, maintain current fire management practices (QDNR 2001).
- Provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk register and/or operation maps.
- Raise awareness of Quassia within the local community, including landowners.
- Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
- Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
- Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.
- Monitor sites to identify key threats or progress of recovery.
- Control access routes to suitably constrain public access to known sites on public land.
- Undertake appropriate weed management at known sites.
- Protect known sites from unintentional fires.
The following protective measures for this species were recommended by Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service Forest Management during operations conducted under Queensland's Forestry Act 1959. They are reproduced from the Species Management Manual (QDNR 2001):
- Where Quassia occurs establish a protective buffer that excludes timber harvesting and clearing. Minimum area to be 2500 m² (0.25 ha) with all Quassia at least 25 m inside the buffer boundary.
- Control or eradicate weeds on sites where Quassia occurs.
- No fire on sites for Quassia where Lantana invasion is a threat. On other sites, until an appropriate fire regime is determined, maintain current fire management practices.
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Quassia bidwillii (Quassia) (TSSC 2008q) provides a brief biological overview and management recommendations. In addition, the Species Management Manual (QDNR 2001) and the Weeds of National Significance: Lantana (Lantana camara) Strategic Plan (ARMCANZ 2001a) are available.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Quassia bidwillii (Quassia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008q) [Conservation Advice].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Quassia bidwillii (Quassia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008q) [Conservation Advice].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion||Quassia bidwillii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tw) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Quassia bidwillii (Quassia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008q) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage)||Quassia bidwillii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tw) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass, Green Panic, Hamil Grass)|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Quassia bidwillii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tw) [Internet].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development|
Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ), Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers (2001a). Weeds of National Significance: Lantana (Lantana camara) Strategic Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/xbcr/dpi/IPA-Lantana-Nsplan.pdf.
Belleng Pty Ltd (2004). Proposed Residential Development Lot 3 RP35335 Doolong Road South, Hervey Bay, Preliminary Information (Part 1) for Environmental Assessment & Approval under Chapter 4 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chabg/census/census.html.
Floyd, A.G. (1979). NSW Rainforest Trees Part VIII, Research Note 38. Page(s) 38. Sydney, NSW: Forestry Commission of New South Wales.
George, A., ed. (1985). Melianthaceae to Simaroubaceae. In: Flora of Australia. 25. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Services.
Harden, G.J., ed. (2000). Flora of New South Wales. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press.
Hewson, H.J. (1985). Simaroubaceae. In: Flora of Australia. 25:188-196. Canberra, ACT: AGPS.
NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2005f). Approved Recovery Plan for Quassia sp. Mooney Creek (Moonee Quassia). [Online]. Hurstville, NSW: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/recoveryplanMooneequassiaJul05.pdf.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources (QDNR) (2000b). Updated map prepared from information suuplied by the Queensland Herbarium. Brisbane, Queensland: Environmental Protection Agency.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources (QDNR) (2001). Species management profiles for plants. Species Management Manual. 3.
Queensland Herbarium (2000). Unpublished habitat notes from Queensland Herbarium, EPA, specimen records of Quassia bidwillii (1923-2000).
Smyrell, G. (2007). Indigeaflora, Surveys for Quassia bidwillii in the Hervey Bay region.
Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (1983). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume One. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008q). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Quassia bidwillii (Quassia). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/10094-conservation-advice.pdf.
Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.
Williams, J.B., G.J. Harden & W.J.F. McDonald (1984). Trees and shrubs in rainforests of New South Wales and southern Queensland. Armidale, NSW: Botany Department, University of New England.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Samadera bidwillii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 15:06:16 +1000.