Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bf) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bg) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (17/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (86) (17/11/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009f) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Scientific name Hybanthus cymulosus [2803]
Family Violaceae:Violales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author C.Gardner
Infraspecies author  
Reference Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Western Australia 22 (25 Aug. 1936) 125.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/5217

Scientific name: Hybanthus cymulosus

Common name: Ninghan Violet

The species is conventionally accepted (Gardner 1936).

The Ninghan Violet is an erect perennial herb that can grow to 0.9 m high (Western Australian Herbarium 2006). Leaves are linear to lance-shaped and 2–5 cm long. The flowers are blue to purple. The anterior petals are 9–15 mm long, other petals are 2–4 mm long. The flowering period is from May to July (Adams & George 1982; Western Australian Herbarium 2006).

The Ninghan Violet is endemic to Western Australia, and is known from seven subpopulations in the Mt Singleton area, approximately 380 km south-east of Geraldton. The Ninghan Violet has a very restricted geographic distribution (TSSC 2009bg). The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 140 km² and its area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 1 km²(WA CALM 2005; WA DEC 2006).

The species occurs within the Yalgoo Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia Bioregion and the Rangelands Natural Resource Management region (TSSC 2009bg).

The species occurs on pastoral leases (TSSC 2009bg). The seven subpopulations of the Ninghan Violet do not occur on protected or reserved land, nor are they protected under any conservation covenants with landholders. However, one pastoral station (where the species is known to occur) has changed ownership to a private conservation group that aims to manage the area for conservation purposes (WA DEC 2008).

The population size of the species is approximately 450 mature plants, but could be as high as 600 mature plants based on 2004 data. This figure was calculated using actual counts from populations surveys undertaken in 2002–03 (WA DEC 2009a).

The species' distribution is fragmented, as the known subpopulations are small with considerable distance between them. While there is evidence of a reduction in numbers in some subpopulations, others have increased or remained steady (WA DEC 2006).

The Ninghan Violet occurs along drainage lines and gullies in red clay loam in a rocky doleritic area. It grows in tall shrubland with Allocasuarina and Acacia species. All subpopulations occur high in the landscape on a range of hills in the Mt Singleton area (WA DEC 2006).

Little is known about the levels of flower and fruit production, or the pollinating mechanism of the species (WA DEC 2006).

The Ninghan Violet is most closely related to Hybanthus floribundus, but differs in its much larger flowers, (anterior petal 4–7 mm long in H. floribundus), and in its flat stipules, lanceolate-acuminate sepals and absence of spurs on the lower stamens. It differs from the Spade Flower (H. enneaspermus) in the lateral and upper petals being all similar and shorter than the sepals in the branched inflorescence (WA DEC 2006).

The main identified threat to the Ninghan Violet is grazing, while wildfire may be a potential threat (WA DEC 2006).

Grazing
Grazing has been one of the main threats to the species both in the past and the present (WA DEC 2006). Throughout the 1990s there were large numbers of goats seen in the area, and much evidence of goat grazing. Currently, grazing by sheep and feral goats is the most serious threat affecting the long-term survival of this species (WA DEC 2006). This can be due to lack of fencing, inadequate fencing or instances where sheep and feral goats gain access to sites where they may graze or trample on seedlings.

Fire frequency
Wildfire may be a potential threat to the Ninghan Violet (WA DEC 2006). While the effects of fire on the species are unknown, fire that is too frequent is likely to kill plants before they reach maturity, as well as degrade the surrounding habitat.

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan Decision
The approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats. Therefore, a recovery plan is not considered to be necessary at this time.

The Conservation Advice for Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet) (TSSC 2009bf) list the following research priorities:

  • Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
  • More precisely assess population size, distribution and ecological requirements, including:
    • factors that trigger or influence germination and recruitment
    • factors that influence the levels of flower and fruit production for the species
    • the species' response to disturbance (e.g. fire)
    • other relevant mortality and morphological data for the species.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat during the May to July flowering period to locate any additional populations/occurrences/remnants.
  • Undertake seed germination and seedling establishment trials to determine the requirement for successful establishment.

In addition, the Conservation Advice for Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet) (TSSC 2009bf) list the following priority actions:

  • Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
  • If livestock grazing occurs in the area, ensure land owners/managers use an appropriate management regime and density that does not detrimentally affect this species.
  • Where appropriate, manage total grazing pressure through exclusion fencing or other barriers.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and eradication of feral goats in the region.
  • Develop and implement an appropriate fire management strategy for the Ninghan Violet.
  • Where appropriate, provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk register and/or operation maps.
  • Raise awareness of the Ninghan Violet within the local community, particularly pastoralists, through site visits, signage, and fact sheets/information brochures.
  • Maintain liaison with private landholders and land managers of land on which populations occur.
  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.

The Conservation Advice for Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet) (TSSC 2009bf) contains a brief biological overview and management recommendations.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bg) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bg) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bg) [Listing Advice].

Adams, L.G. & A.S. George (1982). Violaceae. Flora of Australia. 8:106.

Gardner, C.A. (1936). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 22:125-126.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bf). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/2803-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bg). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hybanthus cymulosus (Ninghan Violet). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/2803-listing-advice.pdf.

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2005). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and Rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2006). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC.

Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009a). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: DEC.

Western Australian Herbarium (2006). Florabase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Hybanthus cymulosus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 16 Apr 2014 21:13:26 +1000.