Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Spyridium lawrencei
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009aw) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ax) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (29/04/2014).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Spyridium microphyllum.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under Section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (80) (17/06/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009j) [Legislative Instrument] as Spyridium lawrencei.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS: Listing Statement for Spyridium lawrencei (Small-leaf dustymiller). (Threatened species Section (TSS), 2009) [Internet].
TAS:Spyridium lawrencei (Small-leaf Spyridium): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014hf) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list) as Spyridium lawrencei
Scientific name Spyridium lawrencei [27036]
Family Rhamnaceae:Rhamnales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Hook.f.) Benth.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Flora Australiensis 1: 430 (30 May 1863) as lawrencii.
Other names Spyridium microphyllum [13812]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/SROS-6VJU8L/$FILE/Spyridium%20lawrencei%20listing%20statement.pdf

Spyridium microphyllum was listed as vulnerable under the EPBC Act's predecessor, the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 (ESP Act). S. microphyllum was upgraded to endangered under the ESP Act, and its endangered status was retained when the EPBC Act came into force. After taxonomic study, the species is now known as S. lawrencei (TSSC 2009aw).

Scientific name: Spyridium lawrencei

Common name: Small-leaf Spyridium

Other common name: Small-leaf Dustymiller

The Small-leaf Spyridium is a conventionally accepted species. The species was known as Spyridium microphyllum but this species was considered to be conspecific with S. lawrencei and was thus placed in synonymy of that species by Stones and Curtis (1978) and Buchanan (1999).

The Small-leaf Spyridium is a many-branched shrub, growing to 1.5 m high (Coates 1991a; Curtis & Morris 1975a). In open situations it grows as a compact shrub, tending to be more straggling in shaded situations (Coates 1991a). It has small, thick, leathery leaves 2–4 mm long, and very small cream-coloured flowers clustered at the ends of branches which are surrounded by whitish leaves resembling petels (TSSC 2009aw; TSU 1998g). The flowers are surrounded by conspicuous velvety floral bracts (Coates 1991a; Curtis & Morris 1975a; TSSC 2009aw).

The Small-leaf Spyridium is endemic to Tasmania (Buchanan 2005), occurring on the central east coast and eastern Midlands, with the main populations occurring on the Swan, Apsley and St Pauls Rivers, and an outlying population occurring near Orford (Coates 1991a).

The species is known from 10 locations. It has an extent of occurrence of 2300 km² (Tas. DPIWE n.d.; TSS 2006e).The area of occupancy is thought to range from approximately 0.074km² (TSS 2009) to 0.1 km² (R. Schahinger 2008, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009aw). Populations are separated by at least two kilometres (Tas. DPIWE n.d.).

The Small-leaf Spyridium has been extensively surveyed as part of various assessments, such as botanical assessments of national parks (Kirkpatrick et al. 1980), other proposed reserves (North et al. 1998), private properties suitable for conservation covenants (Tas. DPIWE 1998), recovery programs (TSS 2006e), other associated species (Barker & Johnson 1997; TSS 2006f; Zacharek 2000) and general vegetation mapping (Harris & Kitchener 2005).

The Small-leaf Spyridium has an estimated total number of approximately 11 000 mature individuals (TSSC 2009aw).

The impact that land clearance has had on the distribution of potential habitat along the St Pauls, Swan and Apsley Rivers, along with the current threats of grazing and woody weed invasion and the potential threat of inappropriate fire regimes, suggest that the number of plants is likely to continue to decline (TSSC 2009aw).

The largest population, containing approximately 9200 mature individuals, largely occurs in the Douglas-Apsley National Park, with some plants occurring on adjacent private land. A further population occurs in the Three Thumbs State Reserve with approximately 200 mature individuals, and another in the Apslawn Conservation Area with approximately 10 mature individuals (TSSC 2009aw).

The remaining seven populations occur on private properties along the St Pauls and Swan Rivers, containing numbers of mature individuals ranging from 11 to approximately 500 (TSS 2006e). These populations have been impacted by habitat clearance for agricultural development, and are still subject to limited habitat clearance, particularly the smaller stands on private properties without conservation covenants (TSSC 2009aw).

Population summary for Small-leaf Spyridium (TSS 2009):

  Subpopulation Tenure Year last seen Area occupied (ha) Number of mature
plants
1 Three Thumbs Three Thumbs State Reserve 2004 0.06 200
2 Swan River (south, near Blacks Creek) Private land 1996
(in 2004 a proportion of this subpopulation was observed)
  140
(13 individuals observed in 2004)
3 Swan River (north) Private land 1996   300
4 Apsley River Apslawn Conservation
Area
2000   > 10
5 Blindburn Creek Douglas-Apsley National Park (& private land) 1996
(in 2007 a proportion of this subpopulation was observed)
5.10 > 9200
6 St Pauls River (Township Flat) Private land 1999   > 500
7 St Pauls River (Royal George) Private land 1996 0.003 11
8 St Pauls River (Baileys Marsh) Private land 1999   < 500
9 St Pauls River (River Plains) Private land 1999 0.75 147
10 St Pauls River (causeway) Private land 1999 1.50 > 50
Although all populations are considered to be important to the survival of the species, it is unlikely that any threatening events would affect more than one population at any one time (TSSC 2009aw).

Small-leaf Spyridium is reserved within Douglas-Apsley National Park, Three Thumbs State Reserve and Apslawn Conservation Area (TSS 2009).

The Small-leaf Spyridium usually occurs in the zone between riparian vegetation, woodland or forest and pasture, as a component of shrubby vegetation impacted by regular disturbances such as fire or flooding. It also occurs on rock plates on forested slopes, often restricted to crevices between plates of exposed bedrock, suggesting it is drought tolerant (Coates 1991a). Most populations occur on dolerite rock plates or on generally open ground (TSU 1998g).

Small-leaf Spyridium relies on disturbance for regeneration of soil stored seed and is therefore most abundant in disturbed woodland and open forest (TSU 1998g).

Small-leaf Spyridium populations located on St Pauls River are associated with the Eucalyptus ovata-Callitris oblonga Forest Community which is listed as vulnerable under the EPBC Act (TSSC 2009aw). The Small-leaf Spyridium is also associated with the following EPBC listed species (TSSC 2009aw):

  • Midlands Mimosa (Acacia axillaris)
  • Apsley Heath (Callitris oblonga subsp. oblonga, Epacris apsleyensis)
  • Grand Heath (Epacris grandis)
  • Tasmanian Velvet-bush (Lasiopetalum micranthum)
  • Spreading Stenanthemum (Stenanthemum pimeleoides)
  • Clubmoss Bush-pea (Stonesiella selaginoides)

The Small-leaf Spyridium flowers from November to April, with the flower bracts remaining on the plant for most of the year. Seed is produced after one season's flowering during February to April, develops over winter, but is not released until the following year. Seed development is greatest during October and November, with fruit maturing mostly in January. Most seed is released in February, although some seed is released as early as November, extending through to April (Coates 1991a). Regeneration of soil stored seed is reliant on disturbance (e.g. mechanical or fire) (TSU 1998g).

There are insufficient data to calculate the species' generation length, but is likely to range between 10-30 years (M. Wapstra 2006, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009aw).

The Small-leaf Spyridium is similar in appearance to Creeping Spyridium (Spyridium obcordatum) and Spreading Stenanthemum (Stenanthemum pimeleoides) which also have floral leaves. Small-leaf Spyridium can be distinguished from these two species by its growth habit and distribution. Small-leaf Spyridium is an erect or wiry shrub while the other two species are ground-hugging. Small-leaf Spyridium is found mainly on the central east coast and in the eastern midlands, while Creeping Spyridium is confined to the central north coast (Dans Hill, Asbestos Range, Port Sorell). Spreading Stenanthemum mainly occurs in the east, centred on the Cranbrook area but also extends into the midlands (Tom Gibson Nature Reserve). Neither Creeping Spyridium nor Spreading Stenanthemum have been recorded from sites where Small-leaf Spyridium occurs (TSS 2009; TSU 1998g).

Surveys for the species can be conducted anytime of the year, as identifiable features are present at all times (TSS 2009).

The main threats to the Small-leaf Spyridium are land clearance, inappropriate fire regimes, and degradation of habitat by weeds and grazing (TSS 2006e).

Land Clearing
Historically, land clearance for agricultural development has had a major impact on the distribution of potential habitat (Harris & Kitchener 2005; TSS 2006e, 2006f, 2009).The Small-leaf Spyridium occurs in areas where land clearing for agricultural development has had a major impact on the species' habitat, particularly along the St Pauls, Swan and Apsley Rivers, where the habitat has been reduced to scattered remnants (TSSC 2009aw; TSS 2006e). There is still some risk that limited habitat clearance may occur, particularly for small stands. This must be regarded as a suspected threat for those subpopulations on private property without conservation covenants (mainly those on the St Pauls and Swan rivers) (TSS 2009).

Fire
The Small-leaf Spyridium has the capacity to recover after fire via resprouting, though the response to particular fire intensities is poorly understood. Observations by Barker and Johnson (1997), Coates (1991a) and Coates and colleagues (1999) suggest that frequent fires might eliminate the species if there is too short a period between fires. High intensity summer fires on exposed highly insolated sites have the ability to severely affect the subpopulations, as has been observed at the Three Thumbs subpopulation south of Orford (TSS 2009).

Weeds
Woody weeds, such as Gorse (Ulex europaeus), are having a major impact on populations occurring on private land on the St Pauls and Swan Rivers (TSS 2006e, 2009; TSSC 2009aw).

Grazing
The Small-leaf Spyridium can re-sprout after grazing damage (Coates 1991a), however the level of grazing the species can tolerate is unknown. Grazing of habitat on the St Pauls and Swan Rivers is a potential threat to these populations (TSS 2006e 2009).

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (TSSC 2009ax) outlines the following priority actions:

  • Monitor known populations to identify key threats or the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Identify populations of high conservation priority.
  • Control access routes to prevent public access to known sites on public land.
  • Suitably control and manage access on private land.
  • Manage threats to areas of vegetation that contain populations of the Small-leaf Spyridium.
  • Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on the Small-leaf Spyridium.
  • Manage any changes to hydrology which may result in changes to the water table levels, increased run off or sediment.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements such as the use of covenants, conservation agreements or inclusion in reserve tenure.
  • Continue survey work in potential habitat to locate any additional populations/occurrences/remnants.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
  • Continue weed management actions for the control of Gorse in the local region.
  • Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to the Small-leaf Spyridium, using appropriate methods.
  • Manage sites to prevent introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to the Small-leaf Spyridium, using appropriate methods.
  • Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for Small-leaf Spyridium.
  • Identify appropriate intensity and interval of fire to promote seed germination or vegetation regeneration.
  • Provide maps of known occurrences to local and state rural fire services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plan(s), risk register and/or operation maps.
  • Raise awareness of the Small-leaf Spyridium within the local community.
  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
  • Undertake seed germination and/or vegetative propagation trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Implement appropriate translocation protocols if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.
  • Manage known sites on private property to ensure appropriate cattle and sheep grazing regimes are conducted outside the growing season, i.e. when plants are not fertile.

The Listing Statement for Spyridium lawrencei (small-leaf dustymiller) (TSS 2009) aims to prevent the inadvertent destruction of subpopulations, maintain the viability of existing subpopulations, and promote conditions for its successful recruitment. The listing statement outlines the following recovery actions necessary to decrease the extinction risk to the Small-leaf Spyridium:

  • Provide adequate information and extension support to the relevant natural resource management committees, local councils, government agencies and the local community on the locality, significance and management of known subpopulations and the management of potential habitat of Small-leaf Spyridium.
  • Provide technical assistance to DPIW's Private Land Conservation Program for the protection and management of sites on private land.
  • Continue weed eradication and monitoring on private land sites on the St Pauls and Swan rivers.
  • Assess the success of various weed treatments by trialing various weed management strategies in conjunction with management of Eucalyptus ovata-Callitris oblonga Forest on private land along the St Pauls River.
  • Assess the impact on the species of stock (including grazing and trampling).
  • Monitor occurrences in public reserves and on state forest, and develop ongoing management prescriptions. Monitoring of reproductive capacity will be important to plan for suitable fire intervals for the species.
  • Develop methods for regenerating the species and monitor the success of regeneration in stock-grazed landscapes.
  • Survey known sites to assess the size of subpopulations and condition of habitat. Conduct extension surveys of suitable habitat.

The Draft Greater Freycinet Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan 2006-2010 (TSS 2006e) aims to halt further decline in the extent and quality of habitat on private land. The following are recovery actions specified in this recovery plan for Small-leaf Spyridium:

  • Continue weed eradication and monitoring on private land sites on the St Pauls and Swan Rivers.
  • Monitor populations in public reserves and on state forest, and develop ongoing management prescriptions.
  • Develop methods for regenerating the species and monitor their success in stock-grazed landscapes.
  • Survey existing known sites to assess size of populations and condition of habitat.

The Recovery Plan Eucalyptus ovata-Callitris oblong Forest Community (TSS 2006f), of which the Small-leaf Spyridium is part, has the objectives to protect the forest community from further degradation and reduction, requiring protection and maintenance of all the known locations.

The species is included in the multi-species Recovery Plan - Selected Tasmanian forest associated plants (Barker & Johnson 1998) which has the following objectives:

  • Stop further fragmentation of habitat along the St Pauls and Swan Rivers.
  • Determine the size and condition of stand(s).
  • Locate and determine size and condition of stand(s) along the Apsley River and near Avoca.
  • Trial various strategies of weed management in conjunction with Pigmy Cypress-pine (Callitris oblonga) and Midlands Mimosa (Acacia axillaris) management along the St Pauls River.
  • Negotiate land management plans with landholders.
  • Meet government targets of 30% of core populations protected and a further 50% of core populations managed by prescription.

The Small-leaf Spyridium has a brief biological overview and suggested management objective included in the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (TSSC 2009ax) and the Listing Statement for Spyridium lawrencei (small-leaf dustymiller) (TSS 2009).

The species is included in the multi-species Recovery Plan - Selected Tasmanian forest associated plants (Barker & Johnson 1998), and the draft multi-species, Greater Freycinet Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan 2006-2010 (TSS 2006e). It is also included in the Eucalyptus ovata-Callitris oblonga subsp. oblonga Forest Community Recovery Plan 2006-2010 (TSS 2006f) as a threatened species associated with this ecological community.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ax) [Conservation Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Spyridium microphyllum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006xn) [Internet].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009aw) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ax) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009aw) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze) Spyridium microphyllum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006xn) [Internet].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009aw) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Spyridium microphyllum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006xn) [Internet].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009aw) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ax) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Recovery Plan - Selected Tasmanian Forest Associated Plants (Barker, P.C.J. & K.A. Johnson, 1998) [Report].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Spyridium microphyllum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006xn) [Internet].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ax) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery Plan - Selected Tasmanian Forest Associated Plants (Barker, P.C.J. & K.A. Johnson, 1998) [Report].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Spyridium lawrencei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009aw) [Listing Advice].

Barker, P.C.J. & K. Johnson (1997). Research and Recovery Requirements for the Managment of Threatened Species in Tasmannia's Commercial Forests. Report to the Tasmanian RFA Environment and Heritage Technical Committee.

Barker, P.C.J. & K.A. Johnson (1998). Recovery Plan - Selected Tasmanian Forest Associated Plants. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmanian Forestry.

Buchanan, A.M. (1999). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania & Index to 'The Student's Flora of Tasmania'. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmanian Herbarium Occasional Publication.

Buchanan, A.M. (2005). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania & Index to the Students Flora of Tasmania. Fourth Edition. Tasmanian Herbarium Occasional Publication No. 7. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Coates, F. (1991a). The Conservation Ecology and Management of Five Rare Species in the Rhamnaceae Family. Wildlife Scientific Report. 3. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage.

Coates, F., J.B. Kirkpatrick & P.R. Minchin (1999). Towards an explanation of the causes of the rarity of two Tasmanian Spyridium species. Australian Journal of Ecology. 24:11-17.

Curtis, W.M. & D.I. Morris (1975a). Part 1. Gymnospermae Angiospermae: Ranunculaceae to Myrtaceae. The student's flora of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmaina: Government Printer.

Harris, S. & A. Kitchener (2005). From Forest to Fjaeldmark: Descriptions of Tasmania's Vegetation. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment.

Kirkpatrick, J.B., M.J.Brown & A. Moscal (1980). Threatened Plants of the Tasmanian Central East Coast. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmanian Conservation Trust.

North, A., K. Johnson, K. Ziegler, F. Duncan, K. Hopkins, D. Ziegler & S. Watts (1998). Flora of Recommended Areas for Protection and Forest Reserves of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania: Forest Practices Board, Forestry Tasmania, and Parks and Wildlife Services.

Stones, M. & W.M. Curtis (1978). The Endemic Flora of Tasmania. London: Ariel Press.

Tasmamia Department of Industries, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIWE) (n.d.). Data held by Threatened Species Section, Department of Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmainia.

Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIWE) (1998). Strategic plan for the private land component of the CAR reserve system. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009aw). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Spyridium lawrencei. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/27036-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009ax). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium lawrencei. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/27036-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2006e). Draft Greater Freycinet Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan 2006-2010. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment.

Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2006f). Flora recovery plan: Eucalyptus ovata- Callitris oblonga Community 2006-2010. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment.

Threatened species Section (TSS) (2009). Listing Statement for Spyridium lawrencei (Small-leaf dustymiller). [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries and Water. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/SROS-6VJU8L/$FILE/Spyridium%20lawrencei%20listing%20statement.pdf. [Accessed: 24-Jul-2009].

Threatened Species Unit (TSU) (1998g). Listing Statement Spyridium lawrencei. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment. Available from: http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/SJON-59Z9UN/$FILE/Spyridium%20law.pdf.

Zacharek, A. (2000). Community recovery plan: Eucalyptus ovata-Callitris oblonga Forest. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Spyridium lawrencei in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 30 Jul 2014 12:27:13 +1000.