Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
QLD:Mahogany Glider (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2012f) [Database].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Petaurus gracilis [26775]
Family Petauridae:Diprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Charles De Vis, 1883
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.qmuseum.qld.gov.au/nature/endangered/html/mag_glider.html

Scientific name: Petaurus gracilis

Common name: Mahogany Glider

The Mahogany Glider was first described in 1883 (as Belideus gracilis), and as early as 1888 it was considered a synonym of the Squirrel Glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) (Thomas 1888; Van Dyck & Strahan 2008)

In 1986, staff at the Queensland Museum "discovered" three poorly preserved skins of specimens collected near Cardwell, Queensland (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008). These specimens encouraged a search effort in the Cardwell region which led to new individuals being found and the confirmation, in 1993, of the Mahogany Glider as a full species (Van Dyck 1993b; Van Dyck & Strahan 2008).

Mahogany Gliders are a relatively large arboreal gliding marsupial with adult males weighing 350–500 g and adult females weighing 310–454 g. The head and body length is 230–275 mm for males and 225–270 mm for females; the tail length is between 335–405 mm (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008).

Mahogany Gliders vary in colour from overall mahogany brown (dorsal and ventral), to a buff to apricot belly (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008). The top of the head is pale and has a dark stripe extending to their rump (DEWHA 2008zzm; Qld EPA 2009). The lower half of the Mahogany Glider's tail is black (Van Dyck 1993b). The tail is used for stability during glides and especially during landing (Qld EPA 2009).

General distribution

Mahogany Gliders are endemic to Australia and are restricted to the coastal southern Wet Tropics region of northern Queensland (Qld EPA 2009). The species occurs in an area of coastal lowland forest between Ollera Creek (40 km south of Ingham) and the Hull River (near Tully) (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008). It is now restricted to the coastal foothills of the Paluma, Seaview and Cardwell Ranges, plus fragmented habitat scattered over the Halifax Bay, Herbert, and Murray floodplains (DEWHA 2008zzm).

Specific collections have been made from: Mt Echo, 18 km south-west of Cardwell (Smith 1996); and Barretts Lagoon, 14 km south-east of Tully (DEWHA 2008zzm).

The Mahogany Glider occurs in an area with a north-south distance of about 120 km (DEWHA 2000zzm; Jackson & Claridge 1999). Their east-west range extends 100 km from the coast to the lower Herbert Gorge and foothills of the Mt Fox section of Girringun National Park in the Wet Tropics Bioregion (DEWHA 2000zzm).

Fragmentation and available habitat

Land clearing for agriculture, grazing, forestry, human settlements and infrastructure development has greatly reduced and severely fragmented the Mahogany Glider’s available habitat by 49%, from 276 880 to 141 121 ha (Jackson et al. 2011). Previous estimates of decline of 80% (i.e. from 533 345 to 106 669 ha (DEWHA 2008zzm)) were based on pre-clearing mapping that erroneously grouped grassland and forest together as ‘forest’ habitat.

Also, recent research (Jackson et al. 2011) identifies differential use of habitat by the Mahogany Glider rather than equal use of such habitat across its distribution. As a result, the amount of remaining habitat available for use by the Mahogany Glider is likely to be less than the current estimate. Habitat that can support gliders throughout the year in isolation has been estimated at 51 870 ha and all habitat types that provide food seasonally or throughout the year has been estimated at 141 121 ha (Jackson et al. 2011).

Without remedial action, it is considered that the current estimate of remaining habitat is likely to be further reduced as, a minimum, one third of currently remaining Mahogany Glider habitat will be lost in the future due to its transition to rainforest or sclerophyll thickening (Jackson et al. 2011).

A total population estimate is unavailable, but densities of 0.24 per ha in continuous habitat and 0.16 per ha in fragmented habitat have been measured in a mark recapture study (Jackson 2000a). It is unlikely that these densities apply over the entire range. Instead, actual average densities are probably much lower. Extrapolations from home range data (Jackson 2000c) indicate that maximum densities of 0.1–0.12 per ha are more realistic.

Population viability analysis indicated that a population of 800 individuals or an effective area of 8000 ha was needed to maintain long term stability (Jackson 1999).

The following table identifies areas supporting Mahogany Glider populations (DEWHA 2008zzm):

Large habitat areas Small, isolated and highly fragmented areas
Wharps Holding - Paluma Range Halifax Bay
Lannercos - Henrietta Hull Heads
Yamanie - Cardwell Range west Murray floodplains
Cardwell Range east  
Cardwell coastal area  

Associations with the Squirrel Glider

Jackson and Claridge (1999) modelled the distribution of the Mahogany Glider and Squirrel Glider and, although closely related, they are known to be geographically isolated. The model demonstrated that the predicted Mahogany Glider distribution does not exceed the known range based on sightings. Whilst there is a predicted overlap of Squirrel Glider and Mahogany Glider habitat, the closest known populations of Mahogany and Squirrel Gliders are approximately 25 km apart (Jackson & Claridge 1999).

Captive breeding

In 2001, Mahogany Gliders were born in captivity for the first time at the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Services' David Fleay Wildlife Park on the Gold Coast (QPWS 2001). As part of the reproductive biology research project undertaken at Fleay's Wildlife Park, 24 gliders have been born and reared.

Kemp and colleagues (2006 cited in DEWHA 2008zzm) estimated that about 45% of the Mahogany Glider's essential habitat lies within the protected area estates of Hinchinbrook and Cardwell shires.

Vegetation associations

Mahogany Glider's appear to be restricted to lowland eucalypt woodland in the area between the Herbert River basin to the Tully River basin (Van Dyck 1993b). The woodland vegetation is shaped and maintained by fire and dominated by Bloodwoods (Corymbia and Eucalyptus) and Acacia spp. (Smith 1996). An open vegetation structure needs to be maintained to facilitate gliding (Qld EPA 2009). Gliders avoid rainforest (Qld EPA 2009).

The following habitat types have been identified as being used by the Mahogany Glider (Jackson et al. 2011):

  • Mixed Open Forest with at least one species of bloodwood (Corymbia spp.), Forest Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Large-fruited Red Mahogany (E. pellita), one or two species of Melaleuca, several species of Acacia, Xanthorrhoea johnsonii and Forest Siris (Albizia procera). This habitat type can support the Mahogany Glider throughout the year.
  • Mixed Woodland which contains at least three of the tree species in the Mixed Open Forest, but insufficient diversity to provide food throughout the year. This habitat type provides den sites and important seasonal food requirements.
  • Monotypic Stands which contain one or two of the tree species in the Mixed Open Forest.
  • Emergents at the rainforest edge may provide shelter and food resources, especially for populations living in highly fragmented landscapes.

Climate and altitude

The Mahogany Glider occurs in an area of very high seasonal precipitation (Smith 1996).

Over 98% of Mahogany Glider sightings have been recorded at altitudes below 120 m elevation (Blackman et al. 1994 cited in DEWHA 2008zzm; Van Dyck & Strahan 2008). Sightings above 120 m (maximum 200 m) are limited to spotlight records in Lannercost State Forest and the headwaters of the Stone River, Seaview Range. A three-week trapping survey, over the Mt Fox section of Girringun National Park at altitudes between 80–460 m, detected Mahogany Gliders at only 100–120 m elevation (EPA 2005 unpub. data cited in DEWHA 2008zzm).

Habitat determinants

The main determinants of suitable habitat appear to be the presence of a sufficient variety of flowering plant species to provide year-round food (Van Dyck 1993b).

Available habitat consists of a mosaic of fragments, some connected by corridors, in an area approximately 20% of its potential former range (Qld EPA 1998). Climatic modelling of the species' known range indicates that additional potential habitat might occur on Hinchinbrook and Palm Islands (Jackson & Claridge 1999).

Reproduction

The Mahogany Glider has a long but distinct breeding season with a peak birth time from April to September. Weaning occurs at four to five months and first breeding is at 12–18 months. One litter per year is normal with a second litter produced only if the first is lost (Jackson 2000a). Longevity appears to be 5–6 years (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008).

Den behaviour

Hollows in large eucalypts and bloodwoods are used as dens for sleeping and rearing their young (Qld EPA 2009). They den either alone or in pairs and can use up to ten dens in a single season (Qld EPA 2009). Dens are lined with a thick mat of leaves (Qld EPA 2009).

Diet - general overview

Omnivorous to nectarivorous, the Mahogany Glider feeds primarily on the nectar and pollen from a wide variety of trees and understorey plants, supplemented by arthropods, fruit, plant exudates, Acacia arils and honeydew (Jackson 2001; Van Dyck 1993b). Important food species are sap from Forest Siris (Albizia procera) and other Acacia spp., Pink Bloodwood (Eucalyptus intermedia) and other Eucalyptus spp., Melaleuca spp. and fresh green flower spikes of the Grass-tree (Xanthorrhoea johnsonii) (Dettmann et al. 1995; Van Dyck & Strahan 2008).

Diet - specific studies

Contents of five faecal samples and three intestinal samples of specimens from Barretts Lagoon were analysed for pollen. Pollen volumes ranged from 30–74% of total contents in all intestinal and three of the scat samples, the dominant pollen taxa being from the Myrtaceae family and Xanthorrhoea spp. (Dettmann et al. 1995).

Jackson (2001) studied the foraging behaviour of the Mahogany Glider to determine how it changes seasonally, by extensive observations of radio-collared animals over a two year period. A total of 440 h was spent following Mahogany Gliders, of which 222 h of feeding behaviour was observed. When available, nectar and pollen were clearly the most important food items, comprising 50–99% (mean 72.8%) of the observed feeding time (Jackson 2001). Nectar and pollen were consumed almost exclusively from Myrtaceae species with preference for Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Melaleuca (Jackson 2001). Casual observations of a number of faecal samples showed that about 80% of pollen grains were digested suggesting that pollen is a major source of protein (Jackson 2001). Other food items consumed included sap from Forest Siris (Albizia procera) and Mangium (Acacia mangium), insects, lerps, honeydew, Acacia arils and fruit from mistletoes (Jackson 2001). In using these food items, the Mahogany Glider relied on complex seasonal cycles of food availability, requiring a high diversity of plants, with each species having distinct periods when it provided food during the year (Jackson 2001).

Foraging behaviour

Jackson and Johnson (2002) studied the timing and duration of activity and foraging behaviour of Mahogany Gliders every two months over two years by direct observation. The amount of glider time spent active each night throughout the year ranged from 8–10 hours (or 63–80% of the dark phase) and did not change significantly between the wet and dry seasons (Jackson & Johnson 2002). Although gliders generally had one continuous period of activity, they were observed on eight occasions to return to their dens during the night for a mean of 85 minutes (Jackson & Johnson 2002).

The amount of time spent foraging (i.e. feeding and travelling) ranged from 40% of the time outside the den in January to 77% in September (Jackson & Johnson 2002). The overall mean was 61.1%, with the remainder of the night spent either stationary (mean 24.3%), grooming (mean 11.8%), in the den and then re-emerging (mean 2.5%) or vocalising (mean 0.3%) (Jackson & Johnson 2002). Activity comprised mostly the behaviours associated with foraging: feeding (44.9%), climbing (13.2%) and gliding (3.0%) (Jackson & Johnson 2002). The amount of time spent active and feeding was similar to that observed for other Petauridae such as Yellow-bellied Glider (Petaurus australis), Sugar Glider (P. breviceps) and Squirrel Glider (Jackson & Johnson 2002). There is a general relationship between diet, body size and amount of time spent feeding among the exudivorous (nectar/honeydew eating) gliders and folivorous (leaf eating) possums, with feeding time increasing with increasing body mass in exudivorous possums and decreasing with increasing body mass in folivorous possums (Jackson & Johnson 2002).

Home range

Mahogany Gliders appear to be socially monogamous, with each pair having a home range of approximately 20 hectares, within which they have 6–13 dens where they sleep together or apart (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008). The home range also appears to be defended and each individual travels 600–3400 meters (an average of 1500 metres) per night finding food and patrolling the boundary (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008).

A study by Jackson (2000c) measured the home range of the Mahogany Glider at an average of 19.3 ± 4.3 ha for males and 20.3 ± 8.4 ha for females. Home ranges of a mated pair overlapped by 85.9 ± 11.9% but their combined ranges overlapped only 13.8 ± 9.5% with neighbouring pairs (Jackson 2000c).

Gliding range

In traversing their home range, Mahogany Gliders glide from tree to tree for an average of 30 m (with a glide ratio of 1.9 m horizontal distance per one metre loss in elevation), but glides up to 60 m have been observed (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008).

Mahogany Gliders will use corridors provided they are wide enough to contain sufficient food trees, but are reluctant to cross open ground (Jackson 2000c). They have never been observed to travel through pine plantations (Jackson 2000c).

Nest boxes

Isaac and colleagues (2008) compared artificial nest boxes and hollow bearing trees. It was observed that artificial boxes experienced significantly higher temperatures than natural refuges during tropical summer (Isaac et al. 2008). However, as natural hollows become scarcer due to habitat loss, nest boxes are an important management tool for hollow dependent species (Isaac et al. 2008).

Survey methods

On the basis of previous surveys, the following survey techniques are recommended to detect the presence of the Mahogany Glider in areas up to 5 ha in size (DSEWPaC 2011j):

  • daytime searches for potential den sites in hollow-bearing trees
  • daytime searches for signs of activity, such as gashes or scratches made in upper branches of bloodwoods and large-fruited red mahoganies, chunks of grass tree Xanthorrhoea johnsonii flower stalks lying on the ground, or scats on the ground below trees, particular those considered potential den sites
  • stagwatching surveys at potential den sites
  • spotlighting surveys along transects, tracks or roads, depending on the nature of the site; however, additional surveys from a vehicle may also be made
  • an arboreal cage trapping program may be required if the species is not detected through the aforementioned surveys, or to distinguish the species from other sympatric glider species, for example, by morphological characteristics or DNA analysis from a tissue sample (appropriate licences are likely to be required from Queensland Government authorities).

Further information on the specific techniques is available (DSEWPaC 2011j).

A possible alternative survey method may be the use of hair sampling devices. However, at this stage this method cannot be considered as a standard because the Mahogany Glider is not included among those species known to be distinguishable from hair samples. Identification of the species from guard hairs may be possible in the future on the advice of appropriate experts in this field (DSEWPaC 2011j).

Similar species in range

The Mahogany Glider is sympatric with the Sugar Glider. The Sugar Glider is distinguished by its small size (that is, half the length of the Mahogany Glider), distinctive white underbody, a longer, pointed muzzle, and a distinctive call. Mahogany and Squirrel Gliders are geographically isolated, with the closest known populations being approximately 25 kilometres apart (DSEWPaC 2011j; Jackson & Claridge 1999). The Mahogany Glider can be distinguished from the Squirrel Glider by its larger size, the presence of brown and honey tones and the longer, less bushy tail which is narrow at its base. The Fluffy Glider (Petaurus australis unnamed subsp.) can readily be separated as it is larger, has a predominantly pale yellow underside, frequently utters a diagnostic call and produces diagnostic feeding marks in the trunks and boughs of trees. Due to the difficulty in separating the Mahogany Glider from Squirrel and Sugar Gliders, all identifications should be confirmed by experienced field staff (DSEWPaC 2011j).

Habitat loss

Forty-nine percent of the Mahogany Glider's habitat has been cleared or has transitioned to rainforest (Jackson et al. 2011). An estimated 80% loss had been previously proposed (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008), but recent estimates suggest that grassland had a greater historic extent and that not all habitat types have been used equally (Jackson et al. 2011). Cleared habitat has been replaced by sugar cane, bananas, pineapples, improved pasture, Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribbea) and crustacean aquaculture (Van Dyck & Strahan 2008). The species is considered highly vulnerable to habitat fragmentation (Jackson 2000c). Moreover, the legacy of clearing is severe habitat fragmentation, which predisposes the species to genetic isolation and local extinction (DEWHA 2008zzm).

Rainforest expansion and sclerophyll thickening

The expansion of rainforest into woodland habitat and thickening of sclerophyll is a high risk threat and reduces the suitability of the habitat for gliders (Harrington & Sanderson 1994; Jackson et al. 2011; Werren 1993). Transition to rainforest is difficult to reverse because fire cannot be used to clear the understorey (Jackson et al. 2011). Also, rainforest pioneer species have fire-survival strategies that aid the transition to rainforest as fire frequencies decrease (Jackson et al. 2011).

Without action (fire management), a further 15% of woodland habitat may transition to rainforest or be affected by sclerophyll thickening (Jackson et al. 2011). If this occurred, remnant habitat loss would increase to 64% (Jackson et al. 2011).

Intensive grazing and weed invasion

Cattle grazing occurs in some areas of Mahogany Glider habitat, predominantly on the western distribution of the species. The impact of grazing is unquantified, but intensive grazing may degrade the understorey species' composition, decrease percentage cover and alter long term canopy maintenance (DEWHA 2008zzm). Key food species can be eliminated and weed species can quickly establish in disturbed areas (DEWHA 2008zzm).

Inadequate habitat protection

Less than 20% of the remaining Mahogany Glider habitat is within existing national parks. Several large areas of unreserved or unprotected lands are proposed as critical habitat for conservation (Qld EPA 1998).

Predation

Feral cats are reported to prey on Mahogany Gliders (Jackson 2000a; Qld EPA 1998).

Fence entanglement

Fence entanglement has been reported as a threat. High risk areas include (Van der Ree 1999):

  • highly fragmented areas where animals must regularly cross barbed wired fences
  • regular glider flight paths that are dissected by fences
  • areas of high densities of gliders with fences
  • wetland areas where the barbed wire is exposed above the water level.

Commonwealth Recovery Plan

The Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider (DEWHA 2008zzm) provides a thorough overview of the biology, ecology and threats to the species, and identifies objectives and actions to aid the recovery of the species.

Appropriate fire management

Jackson and colleagues (2011) have stated that the development and implementation of a fire managment program and research into appropriate fire regimes are critical to halting the decline of habitat quality for the Mahogany Glider. Fire management is essential to maintaining woodland structure and halting transition to rainforest and sclerophyll thickening (Jackson et al. 2011).

An 18 month Terrain NRM project will implement controlled burns on 2000 ha of critical habitat by the end of 2013. This fire will help address woody thickening and rainforest invasion. It is aimed that 3500 ha of habitat will be appropriately managed for fire by the mid 2010s (Queensland Regional NRM Groups' Collective 2013a).

Nest boxes

As natural hollows become scarcer due to habitat loss, nest boxes are an important management tool for hollow dependent species (Isaac et al. 2008). Isaac and colleagues (2008) recommend the placement of nest boxes in a northerly aspect in areas of thick canopy cover. These two factors reduce the daytime heat of nestboxes during tropical summer. These factors are applicable to other tropical arboreal marsupials, although the authors recommend further research (Isaac et al. 2008).

Reconnecting habitat with wooden poles

The use of wooden poles have been demonstrated to be an effective measure in connecting fragmented glider habitat and a technique for rapid connection in severely fragmented habitat (Ball & Goldingay 2008; Ball et al. 2011).

Fencing

Fence entanglement has been identified as a high risk threat (DEWHA 2008zzm). Further research into the extent of fencing impact on wildlife has been encouraged (Van der Ree 1999). Alternative fencing styles include (Van der Ree 1999):

  • Plain high-tensile fencing wire, if tensioned correctly, can contain most stock. When a fence is being constructed with new materials, consider using multiple strands of high tensile plain wire or plain wire and ringlock mesh. However, fine mesh may entrap animals or act as a barrier to movement.
  • If additional livestock security is required, investigate the option of electric fencing instead of barbed wire.
  • If using existing fenceposts, consider removing the existing strands of barbed wire and replacing them with plain wire and/or an electrified strand.
  • If a plain wire or ringlock mesh option does not offer sufficient stock security, an electrified strand is not feasible, and the use of barbed wire cannot be avoided, then consider avoiding barbed wire on the top two or three strands of the fence.
  • Design fences to avoid right angles where marsupial gliders may cross diagonally across the corner.

Actions implemented

Actions that have been implemented for the recovery of the Mahogany Glider include (Qld EPA 2009):

  • updated habitat mapping
  • erection of launching poles to enable crossing of the Bruce Highway (at Easter Creek near Ingham) and at Corduroy Creek
  • 45% of surviving Mahogany Glider habitat contained in lands managed by the Queensland Government
  • installation of artifical den boxes on freehold land and Queensland Government estate
  • revegetation projects
  • community awareness programs to facilitate the transition from barbed wire to plain wire.

The Queensland Government's Environmental Offsets Policy allows for habitat loss to be offset through tree planting. This program ties in with the identification of "strategic rehabilitation areas", which are critical landscape linkages that are presently cleared or heavily fragmented (Qld EPA 2009).

Management documents relevant to the Mahogany Glider include:

  • National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (DEWHA 2008zzm).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Habitat modification and disturbance due to fencing National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Storms and Flooding:Natural events such as storms and cyclones leading to habitat destruction and flora/fauna mortality Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Senna obtusifolia (Java Bean, Sicklepod, Foetid Senna, Sicklepod Senna, Sickle Senna, Chinese Senna, Coffee Weed, Habucha, Arsenic Weed, Foetid Cassia, Wild Senna, Stinking Cassia, Peanut Weed, Low Senna) National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Triumfetta bartramia (Chinese Burr) National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Chromolaena odorata (Siam Weed, Chromolaena, Eupatorium, Bitter Bush, Christmas Bush, Devil Weed, Hagonoy, Jack in the Bush, Triffid Weed, Turpentine Weed, Armstrong's Weed, King Weed, Paraffin Weed, Paraffin Bush, Baby Tea, Agonoi, Siam-kraut) National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:pest animal control National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Habitat degradation caused by rainforest encroachment National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Mahogany glider recovery plan 2000-2004 (Mahogany glider recovery team and staff of QPWS, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Road fencing National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Vehicle related mortality National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzm) [Recovery Plan].
Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003 (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA), 1998) [State Recovery Plan].

Ball, T.M. & R.L. Goldingay (2008). Can wooden poles be used to reconnect habitat for a gliding mammal?. Landscape and Urban Planning. 87:140-6.

Bannister, J.L., J.H. Calaby, L.J. Dawson, J.K. Ling, J.A. Mahoney, G.M. McKay, B.J. Richardson, W.D.L. Ride & D.W. Walton (1988). Zoological Catalogue of Australia: Mammalia. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzm). National Recovery Plan for the Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/mahogany-glider/index.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzp). Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.

Dettmann, M.E., D.M. Jarzen & S.A. Jarzen (1995). Feeding habits of the mahogany glider: palynological evidence. Palynology. 19:137-142.

Goldingay, R.L., B.D. Taylor & T. Ball (2011). Wooden poles can provide habitat connectivity for a gliding mammal. Australian Mammalogy. 33:36-43.

Harrington, G.N. & Sanderson, K.D. (1994). Recent contraction of wet sclerophyll forest in the wet tropics of Queensland due to invasion by rainforest. Pacific Conservation Biology. 1:319-327.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org.

Isaac, J.L., M. Parsons & B.A. Goodman (2008). How hot do nest boxes get in the tropics? A study of nest boxes for the endangered mahogany glider. Wildlife Research. 35:441-445.

Jackson, S.M. (1999). Preliminary predictions of the impacts of habitat area and catastrophes on the viability of mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis populations. Pacific Conservation Biology. 5:56-62.

Jackson, S.M. (2000a). Population dynamics and life history of the mahogany glider, Petaurus gracilis, and the sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps, in north Queensland. Wildlife Research. 27:21-37.

Jackson, S.M. (2000c). Home-range and den use of the mahogany glider, Petaurus gracilis. Wildlife Research. 27:49-60.

Jackson, S.M. (2001). Foraging behaviour and food availability of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis (Petauridae: Marsupialia). Journal of Zoology. 253:1-14.

Jackson, S.M. & A. Claridge (1999). Climatic modelling of the distribution of the mahogany glider (Petaurus gracilis), and the squirrel glider (P. norfolcensis). Australian Journal of Zoology. 47:47-57.

Jackson, S.M. & C.N. Johnson (2002). Time allocation to foraging in the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis (Marsupialia, Petauridae) and a comparison of activity times in exudivorous and folivorous possums and gliders. Journal of Zoology. 256(2):271-77.

Jackson, S.M., G. Morgan, J.E. Kemp, M. Maughan & C.M. Stafford (2011). An accurate assessment of habitat loss and current threats to the mahogany glider (Petaurus gracilis). Australian Mammalogy. 33:82-92.

Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA) (1998). Conservation of the mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis 1999-2003. Queensland Environment Protection Agency.

Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA) (2009). Mahogany Glider Petaurus gracilis. [Online]. Brisbane: Queensland Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/nature_conservation/wildlife/threatened_plants_and_animals/endangered/mahogany_glider.html.

Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (QPWS) (2001). Parks, forests and wildlife services performance review. QPWS/EPA Annual Report 2000/01. [Online]. QPWS. Available from: http://www.env.qld.gov.au/environment/about/reporting/ar_parks2001.pdf.

Queensland Regional NRM Groups' Collective (2013a). Fire management on track for endangered mahogany glider. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rgc.org.au/fire-management-on-track-for-endangered-mahogany-glider/?utm_source=Queensland+Regional+NRM+Group%27s+Collective&utm_campaign=c7db4b4da5-Queensland_s_NRM_Rumble_October_201210_22_2012&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_23f30f7312-c7db4b4da5.

Thomas, O. (1888). Catalogue of the Marsupialia and Monotremata in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History). London: Trustees of British Museum (Nat. History).

Van der Ree, R. (1999). Barbed Wire Fencing as a Hazard for Wildlife. The Victorian Naturalist. 116(6):210-17.

Van Dyck, S. (1993b). The taxonomy and distribution of Petaurus gracilis (Marsupialia: Petauridae), with notes on its ecology and conservation status. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 33:77-122.

Van Dyck, S. & R. Strahan (2008). The Mammals of Australia, Third Edition. Page(s) 880. Sydney: Reed New Holland.

Werren, G.L. (1993). Conservation strategies for rare and threatened vertebrates of Australia's wet tropics region. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 34:229-239.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Petaurus gracilis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 02:29:41 +1000.