Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus edouardi (White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fs) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Malurus leucopterus edouardi [26194]
Family Maluridae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Campbell,1901
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Malurus leucopterus edouardi

Common name: White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island)

Other names: Barrow Island Black-and White Fairy-wren

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is a conventionally accepted subspecies of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Driskell et al. 2002; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) measures 10-13 cm in length, and has a mass of 7-8 g (Higgins et al. 2001; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001; Rowley & Russell 1997; Serventy & Marshall 1964). The sexes differ in appearance during the breeding season but these differences are slight, or non-existant, during the non-breeding period.

The adult female has red-brown to grey-brown upperparts, off-white or cream-white underparts, a dull blue-grey tail, and a pink to pinkish-brown bill (Higgins et al. 2001; Rowley & Russell 1997). The adult male appears very similar to the adult female during the non-breeding period (except, most obviously, in having a black, rather than pink to pinkish-brown, bill). However, in breeding plumage, the adult male is predominantly glossy black, with a patch of white across the shoulder and the upper surface of the inner-wing, dark blue-grey colouring on the upper surface of the outer-wing, white on the underside of the wing, and a dark, blue-black tail (Higgins et al. 2001; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Rowley & Russell 1997).

Juvenile and immature White-winged Fairy-wrens (Barrow Island) are similar in appearance to the adult female. However, older immature males can be distinguished from adult females on bill colour, and juveniles may also be distinguishable for a short period after fledging (Higgins et al. 2001).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is usually observed in small groups of three to eight birds, but it can also occur singly or in twos (Bamford & Wilcox 2005; Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001; Sedgwick 1978; Serventy & Marshall 1964).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is endemic to Australia. It is only found on Barrow Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Schodde & Mason 1999), which lies off the coast of Western Australia.

An unidentified subspecies of the White-winged Fairy-wren was recorded on Trimouille Island, in the Montebello Islands group, in 1950 (Sheard 1950), but has not been sighted there since (Burbidge et al. 2000; Garnett & Crowley 2000). The nearest known population of the White-winged Fairy-wren to Trimouille Island occurs on Barrow Island (Higgins et al. 2001) and, if the Trimouille Island record is accurate, it seems likely that the bird or birds seen by Sheard (1950) would have been of the Barrow Island subspecies.

The extent of occurrence is estimated, with high reliability, to be 260 km². The extent of occurrence is currently stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy is estimated, with high reliability, to be 250 km². The area of occupancy is currently stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) occurs at a single location, Barrow Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Schodde & Mason 1999).

There are no known captive populations of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island). No population re-introductions have been attempted or proposed, and none are likely to occur in the near future.

The entire population of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) (estimated, most recently, at 9 336 birds) occurs on Barrow Island (Bamford & Wilcox 2005; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004; Schodde & Mason 1999), which has a land area of approximately 250 km². Based on this information, it is presumed that the distribution of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is not fragmented.

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) population has been studied during general surveys of the Barrow Island avifauna (Bamford & Bamford 2005; Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004; Sedgwick 1978; Serventy & Marshall 1964; Whitlock 1918, 1919) and during a single species-specific survey at the site of a proposed gas processing facility (Bamford & Wilcox 2005).

The population was estimated, in 1976, to consist of 8 150 birds, based on intensive fieldwork conducted in August of that year (Sedgwick 1978). Subsequent surveys of the population in September and October of 2001 (Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004) and in October of 2004 (Bamford & Wilcox 2005) produced estimates of 7 519 birds and 9 336 birds respectively.

Based on surveys undertaken in 2004, the population size of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is estimated to be 9 336 birds (Bamford & Wilcox 2005). This is of the same order as the previous estimate, based on observations made during 2001, of 7 519 birds (Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004), and an earlier estimate, based on observations made during 1976, of 8 150 birds (Sedgwick 1978).

The population was also estimated, in 2000, to consist of 25 000 adult birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000), but the basis for this estimate is unknown and, given the relative parity between the estimates made by Bamford and Wilcox (2005), Pruett-Jones and O'Donnell (2004) and Sedgwick (1978), and that the latter three estimates were based on intensive observations in the field, the estimate of 25 000 adult birds is likely to be erroneous.

The White-winged Fairy-wren occurs in a single, contiguous population (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The population size of the White-winged Fairy-wren is (apparently) stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000). This assessment is supported by a series of population estimates that were derived from surveys conducted between 1976 and 2004 and suggest that the population size has remained relatively stable over the past three decades (Bamford & Wilcox 2005; Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004; Sedgwick 1978).

The population size, extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) are not known to fluctuate.

The long-term survival of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) depends on the persistence of the single population on Barrow Island, which contains all known individuals of this subspecies (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The generation length of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is estimated, with medium reliability, to be two years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is known to occur only on Barrow Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Schodde & Mason 1999). The other subspecies of the White-winged Fairy-wren do not occur on Barrow Island, and are instead confined to the mainland (in the case of M. l. leuconotus), and to Dirk Hartog Island (M. l. leucopterus), which lies off the western coast of Western Australia (Schodde & Mason 1999). Because of the geographical separation between the population of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) and the populations of the other two subspecies, it is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs. Similarly, as the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is the only member of the genus Malurus that occurs on Barrow Island (Higgins et al. 2001; Schodde & Mason 1999; Sedgwick 1978), it is unlikely to cross-breed with any other species.

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) only occurs on Barrow Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Schodde & Mason 1999), which is designated as a class A nature reserve (Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) occurs in grasslands and low shrublands. These habitats consist of a dense ground cover comprised of species of Triodia (such as T. wiseana and T. angusta), usually more than 400 mm in height, with patches of bare ground, and often with scattered clumps of shrubs (especially Acacia bivenosa, A. coriacea and Melaleuca cardiophylla) that are used for shelter and for foraging, nesting and roosting (Bamford & Bamford 2005, Bamford & Wilcox 2005; Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001; Sedgwick 1978; Storr 1984b; Whitlock 1918; Wooller & Calver 1981).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is most common in Triodia-dominated habitats on shallow soil on limestone ridges and rises, but it also occurs on sand dunes in coastal and inland areas (including on sand-loam soils in valleys and on plains), and occasionally on clay pans (Ambrose & Murphy 1994; Bamford & Bamford 2005; Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001; Sedgwick 1978; Whitlock 1918).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) does not occur in any of the threatened ecological communities listed under the EPBC Act 1999. It is not known to associate with any other listed threatened species.

No information is available on the age of sexual maturity, life expectancy or natural mortality in the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island). However, information obtained from the other subspecies of the White-winged Fairy-wren indicate that males reach sexual maturity at one year of age, and that, based on a study of a population near Perth, the annual survival rate of adult birds is about 50% (Rowley & Russell 1995, 1997).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) has been recorded breeding from April to October, with most eggs laid from June to August (Ambrose & Murphy 1994; Butler 1970; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004; Schodde 1982; Sedgwick 1978; Serventy & Marshall 1964; Whitlock 1919). It builds a dome-shaped nest from grass, rootlets, leaves and silky material (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001; White 1918). The nest, which has an entrance on one side (White 1918), is built close to the ground amongst a clump of grass (especially Triodia) (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Sedgwick 1978; Serventy & Marshall 1964; Whitlock 1918, 1919), or in a herb (Serventy & Marshall 1964; Whitlock 1919) or shrub (including the genera Acacia, Melaleuca, Senna and Solanum) (Ambrose & Murphy 1994; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001; Sedgwick 1978; Serventy & Marshall 1964).

The eggs of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) are creamy-white, and have fine spots and blotches of brown that are usually concentrated around the broader end (Schodde 1982). Clutches consist of three or four (mostly three) eggs (Johnstone & Storr 2004). The role of the adults in incubation, and the duration of the incubation period, have not been recorded in the Barrow Island subspecies but, based on a study of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus, it is likely that incubation is by the breeding female only, and that the incubation period is about 14 to 15 days in length (Rowley & Russell 1995).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is a co-operative breeder. The young are fed by the breeding male and female, and by any additional birds (helpers) that are present in the breeding group (Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001; Whitlock 1919). The duration of the fledging period, and the period of post-fledging dependence, have not been recorded but, based on studies of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus, it is likely that the fledging period is about 10 to 11 days in length (Rowley & Russell 1995; Tidemann 1980), and that the fledged young are fed by the adults for another three to five weeks after leaving the nest (Rowley & Russell 1995; Tidemann 1983).

The breeding success of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) has not been quantified, but nests are sometimes raided by unknown nest predators, or parasitised by Horsfield's Bronze-cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis (Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001).

The diet of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) consists of beetles, flies, hymenopteran insects, and other invertebrate prey (Wooller & Calver 1981). Studies on the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus indicate that birds on Barrow Island may also feed on other insects (such as bugs, moths, caterpillars and crickets), spiders, seeds and fruit (Barker & Vestjens, undated(a); Lea & Gray 1935; Tidemann 1983).

There is little published information on the foraging behaviour of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island). It forages on the ground and in shrubs (Sedgwick 1978; Wooller & Calver 1981), and searches for food by hopping and plucking (or gleaning) insects (Wooller & Calver 1981). The mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus and Dirk Hartog Island subspecies M. l. leucopterus of the White-winged Fairy-wren are known to pursue flying insects (Carter 1917; Favaloro 1941; Tidemann 1983) and, although there are no published records for Barrow Island, this behaviour seems likely to occur there.

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is considered to be resident (i.e. present throughout the year) on Barrow Island (Sedgwick 1978). It may also be sedentary given that, with the possible exception of a single unconfirmed record of a White-winged Fairy-wren (of unknown subspecies) on Trimouille Island in the Montebello Islands group (Schodde 1982; Sheard 1950), it has not been recorded on any nearby islands or on the mainland (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; Schodde & Mason 1999). Though dispersal away from Barrow Island appears unlikely, it is possible that the birds could disperse across long distances over the island itself (Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001).

The home range and territories of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) have not been quantified. However, groups of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus, consisting of a breeding pair with or without additional helpers, occupy territories that range in size from about one to eight hectares during the breeding season (Rowley & Russell 1995; Tidemann 1980)

The male White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island), when in full breeding plumage, is very conspicuous if perched or flying in the open. However, outside the breeding season, the fairy-wrens are wary and difficult to approach once alarmed, and when incubating, are very secretive and quiet, remaining in dense cover. Conversely, adults with large nestlings or newly fledged young, may be approached to within a distance of about one metre (Brooker 2006, pers. comm.; Whitlock 1918, 1919).

A study on the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus suggests that the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) is likely to be most vocal before sunrise, and that calls are likely to be more prevalent in the breeding season than in the non-breeding period (Tidemann 1980).

There are no clear immediate threats to the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The subspecies was considered to be vulnerable by Garnett and Crowley (2000) on the basis that some of the natural features of Barrow Island, namely the narrow shape of the island and the uniformity of its habitat, make the resident population of fairy-wrens vulnerable to catastrophic events such as a severe cyclone or an extensive wildfire (Brooker 2006, pers. comm.).

There is a chance that the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) will become exposed to introduced predators or diseases, or to outbreaks of fire. However, the island has strict quarantine measures and effective fire control implemented as part of the management of listed threatened marsupials (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Maxwell et al. 1996).

The development of industrial facilities on Barrow Island may pose some threat to the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) due to the associated clearance of habitat, but the information that is available on existing developments suggest that there is, thus far, little associated risk to the long-term survival of the subspecies. The establishment of the oil-field development on Barrow Island that commenced operation in 1964 and that continues to operate to this day, appears to have had little or no long-term effect on the size of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) population (Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004), with little change in the size of the population as estimated by surveys conducted between 1976 and 2004 (Bamford & Wilcox 2005; Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004; Sedgwick 1978).

There is a proposal to construct a gas processing facility on the east coast of Barrow Island that, if built, will result in the loss of some of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) habitat. This, based on surveys, is estimated to support 315 birds, or approximately 3-4% of the present total White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) population (Bamford & Wilcox 2005). It has been suggested that the loss of this habitat, and of the small resident population of fairy-wrens, is unlikely to affect the overall population status of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) (Bamford & Bamford 2005).

There is very small chance that almost all of the habitat on Barrow Island could be destroyed by a very severe cyclone or an extensive wildfire (Brooker 2006, pers. comm.).

No recovery actions have been introduced for the specific protection of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island). However, the island is subject to strict quarantine measures and stringent fire control as part of the management of five resident marsupials, and it is certain, based on actual or potential threats to fairy-wrens at other locations, that the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) gains some benefit from these procedures (Brooker & Brooker 1995; Brooker 2006, pers. comm.; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Maxwell et al. 1996).

Although no mitigation measures or approaches have been developed specifically for the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island), there is a strictly-enforced policy to preserve the habitat of all wildlife on Barrow island. This policy restricts vehicular traffic to designated roadways with low speed limits, and prohibits habitat from being destroyed (Brooker 2006, pers. comm.).

There has only been one major study on the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island) (Pruett-Jones & Tarvin 2001).

There are no recovery, conservation or threat abatement plans for the White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island), but a brief recovery outline for the subspecies is included in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Malurus leucopterus edouardi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006og) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus edouardi (White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fs) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Introduction of pathogens and resultant disease Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus edouardi (White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fs) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus edouardi (White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fs) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus edouardi (White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fs) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus edouardi (White-winged Fairy-wren (Barrow Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fs) [Conservation Advice].

Ambrose, S.J. & D.P. Murphy (1994). Synchronous breeding of land birds on Barrow Island, Western Australia, after cyclonic summer rains. Emu. 94:54--58.

Bamford, M.J. & A.R. Bamford (2005). Gorgon Development on Barrow Island Technical Report: Avifauna. Report to ChevronTexaco Australia, Perth.

Bamford, M.J. & J.A Wilcox (2005). Gorgon Development on Barrow Island Technical Report: White-winged Fairy-wren (Malurus leucopterus edouardi). Attachment to Avifauna technical report. Report to ChevronTexaco Australia, Perth.

Barker, R.D. & W.J.M. Vestjens (undated(a)). The Food of Australian Birds. Passerines. 2. CSIRO, Canberra.

Brooker, L. (2006). Personal communication. November 2006.

Brooker, L.C. & M.G. Brooker (1995). A model for the effects of fire and fragmentation on the population viability of the Splendid Fairy-wren. Pacific Conservation Biology. 1:344-358.

Burbidge, A.A., J.D. Blyth, P.J. Fuller, P.G. Kendrick, F.J. Stanley & L.A. Smith (2000). The terrestrial vertebrate fauna of the Montebello Islands, Western Australia. CALMScience. 3:95-107.

Butler, W.H. (1970). A summary of the vertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Western Australian Naturalist. 11(7):149--160.

Carter, T. (1917). The birds of Dirk Hartog Island and Peron Peninsula, Shark Bay, Western Australia, 1916-17. Ibis. 5:564--611.

Driskell, A.C., S. Pruett-Jones, K.A. Tarvin & S. Hagevik (2002). Evolutionary relationships among blue- and black-plumaged populations of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Malurus leucopterus). Australian Journal of Zoology. 50:581-595.

Favaloro, N. (1941). Notes on the Blue-and-white Wren. Emu. 40:260-265.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter & W.K. Steele, eds. (2001). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 5: Tyrant-flycatchers to Chats. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (2004). Passerines (Blue-winged Pitta to Goldfinch): Annotated Checklist of Christmas Island Birds. In: Handbook of Western Australian Birds. 2:439-476. Western Australian Museum, Perth.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Maxwell, S., A.A. Burbidge & K. Morris (1996). The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. [Online]. Wildlife Australia, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/action-plan-australian-marsupials-and-monotremes.

Pruett-Jones, S. & E. O'Donnell (2004). Land birds on Barrow Island: status, population estimates, and responses to an oil-field development. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 87:101-108.

Pruett-Jones, S. & K.A. Tarvin (2001). Aspects of the ecology and behaviour of the White-winged Fairy-wrens of Barrow Island. Emu. 101:73--78.

Rowley, I. & E. Russell (1995). The breeding biology of the White-winged Fairy-wren Malurus leucopterus leuconotus in a Western Australian coastal heathland. Emu. 95:175--184.

Rowley, I. & E. Russell (1997). Fairy-Wrens and Grasswrens. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Schodde, R. (1982). The Fairy-Wrens. A Monograph of the Maluridae. Lansdowne Editions, Melbourne.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Sedgwick, E.H. (1978). A population study of Barrow Island avifauna. West Australian Naturalist. 14:85-108.

Serventy, D.L. & A.J. Marshall (1964). A Natural History Reconnaissance of Barrow and Montebello Islands, 1958. Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper. 6. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Sheard, K. (1950). A visit to the Monte Bello Islands. Western Australian Naturalist. 2(7):150--151.

Storr, G.M. (1984b). Birds of the Pilbara Region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement No. 16, Perth, Western Australian Museum.

Tidemann, S.C. (1980). Notes on breeding and social behaviour of the White-winged Fairy-wren. Emu. 80:157-161.

Tidemann, S.C. (1983). The Behavioural Ecology of Three Coexisting Fairy-wrens (Maluridae: Malurus). Ph. D Thesis, Australian National University. Ph.D. Thesis. D Thesis, Australian National University.

White, H.L. (1918). Black-and-White Wren of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Emu. 17:179.

Whitlock, F.L. (1918). Notes on north-western birds. Emu. 17:166--179.

Whitlock, F.L. (1919). Notes on birds breeding in Dampier Archipelago, NW coast of Australia. Emu. 18:240-253.

Wooller, R.D. & M.C. Calver (1981). Diet of three insectivorous birds on Barrow Island, WA. Emu. 81:48--50.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Malurus leucopterus edouardi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Apr 2014 13:37:46 +1000.