Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Ninox novaeseelandiae [695].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
List of Migratory Species - Amendment to the list of migratory species under section 209 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (26/11/2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013af) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Critically Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata [26188]
Family Strigidae:Strigiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Latham,1801)
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata

Common name: Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island)

Other names: Norfolk Island Boobook, Norfolk Island Boobook Owl, Norfolk Island Morepork


A recent comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences from the Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island), Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata, the Southern Boobook (mainland), N. n. novaeseelandiae, and the Southern Boobook (Tasmania), N. n. leucopsis, found little genetic variation between the three subspecies, and very little variation between N. n. undulata and N. n. novaeseelandiae. The lack of variation observed between N. n. undulata and N. n. novaeseelandiae could suggest that the recognition of N. n. undulata as a separate subspecies may not be warranted. However, there are clear differences in the sizes and plumages of the two subspecies and, given the limited amount of mitochondrial DNA sequence data that was available for comparison, it could be argued that N. n. undulata represents a recently derived subspecies of N. novaeseelandiae (Norman et al. 1998b).

The Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) was recognised as a subspecies of the Southern Boobook by both Peters (1940) and Mees (1964). The Norfolk Island birds were also recognised as subspecies, N. n. undulata, by Schodde & Mason (1980), although in this controversial review of the taxonomy, birds on Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island were retained as a subspecies of Ninox novaeseelandiae, whilst the other Australian subspecies were assigned to a separate species, Ninox boobook. Molecular studies conducted since the publication of this review indicate that this split is erroneous, and that only a single species, N. novaeseelandiae, occurs in both Australia and New Zealand (Olsen & Debus 2005).

Schodde and colleagues (1983) then classified the Norfolk Island birds as a separate species, Ninox undulata, based on concepts presented by Peters (1940) and Schodde & Mason (1980). However, this classification was repealed by Schodde & Mason (1997), who reinstated the Norfolk Island birds as subspecies N. n. undulata (but retained the controversial and erroneous separation of N. novaeseelandiae and N. boobook described earlier) (Schodde & Mason 1980).

Hybrid Population

The population of the Southern Boobook that currently occurs on Norfolk Island is a hybrid between N. n. undulata and the closely-related subspecies N. n. novaeseelandiae (Norman et al. 1998b; Olsen 1996). This population was founded when a female bird, the sole remaining member of the subspecies N. n. undulata, successfully cross-bred with one of two males of subspecies N. n. novaeseelandiae that were introduced to Norfolk Island in 1987 (Garnett et al. 2011; Olsen 1996; 1997). The female was last observed in 1995 and, although DNA material from the female persists in the hybrid population, the phenological and genetically pure form of N. n. undulata is now extinct (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Olsen 1997).

This profile refers to the Southern Boobook owls of Norfolk Island in two manners; the first is to the extinct, genetically pure N. n. undulata and the second is to the extant (living), hybrids. For the purposes of the EPBC Act, the Southern Boobook on Norfolk Island retain their Endangered and Migratory status.

Prior to hybridisation, the Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) individuals were about 30—35 cm in height (Higgins 1999). The last genetically pure female had a wingspan of 65 cm and a mass of 213 g (Olsen et al. 1989). There are no published measurements for adult hybrids, but unsexed young from the first two hybrid broods weighed 179—195 g at about four to four and a half weeks of age (Olsen et al. 1994).

Prior to hybridisation, the Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) was dark reddish-brown, with a dark facial mask, white brow, and many white and buff spots, especially on the underparts. It had a blue-grey bill, cream or yellow irides, and orange-buff legs and feet (Hermes 1985; Higgins 1999; Olsen 1989; Olsen et al. 1989). The plumages of the sexes were similar, but females may have had more spotting on the crown and shoulders than males. Females also were slightly larger than males, although the small differences in measurements between the sexes were probably difficult to distinguish in the field (Hermes 1985; Higgins 1999; Olsen 1997). Newly-fledged juveniles could be separated from the adults on the basis of their soft, downy, whitish plumage (Higgins 1999). There is no published description of adult hybrids, but hybrid offspring seem to be more similar in appearance to subspecies N. n. novaeseelandiae than N. n. undulata (Olsen 1996).

The Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) is endemic to the Norfolk Island group (Schodde & Mason 1997). Since hybridisation, all confirmed breeding has occurred in Norfolk Island National Park (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Olsen 1997), but birds have been recorded beyond the boundaries of the national park, especially to the east. It is thought that breeding may be occurring where observations have been made in the Cascade area and at Steele's Point (Olsen 2006, pers. comm.).

The genetically pure subspecies N. n. undulata, probably once occurred across most of Norfolk Island, and in smaller numbers on Phillip Island (Olsen 1997; Olsen et al. 1989). However, from 1908—1996 (the year in which the final remaining member of the pure subspecies N. n. undulata was last observed), it was mostly recorded from the north-west part of the island; mainly around gullies in the foothills surrounding Mount Pitt (De Ravin 1975; Hermes et al. 1986; Hull 1909; Olsen et al. 1989; Rooke 1986; Schodde et al. 1983; Wakelin 1968).

In 1978 the Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) was recorded in four 0.5 km2 squares during an island-wide survey; two near the Captain Cook memorial, one near Mount Pitt and one south of the Norfolk Island airfield (Schodde et al. 1983). It was not recorded during a targeted survey in late 1985, although island residents reported that the subspecies was still present in the Mount Pitt area (including reports from Anson Bay and Mount Bates) from 1983—1985 (Hermes et al. 1986; Rooke 1986). One resident also reported a possible sighting of a single bird in the Cascade area in mid-1985 (Rooke 1986).

The last genetically pure female was located in 1986 near Mount Pitt during a targeted survey, covering all forested areas of Norfolk Island. All records of the subspecies in 1986, and in the preceding few years, were made in an area of forest, less than 2 km2, near Mount Pitt (and mostly within Norfolk Island National Park) (Olsen et al. 1989). The individual was also recorded in 1987 and 1995 (Olsen 1987; 1997).

There are no captive populations of the Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island). The establishment of a captive breeding program for the hybrid population was identified as a potential management option by Olsen (1997), but has not been pursued (Olsen 2006 pers. comm.).

The Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) has been well-surveyed. The population has also been closely monitored since two male N. n. novaeseelandiae were introduced in 1986 (Olsen 1997). The monitoring program, which includes field surveys, banding, and regular inspections of nest-boxes, recorded the post-breeding population size each year from 1986 to at least 1996 (inclusive). The population size has slowly but steadily increased from a single bird (the single genetically-pure female) in 1986 to as many as 17 hybrid birds in 1996 (Olsen 1997). By December 1999, the monitoring program had banded a total of 27 hybrid nestlings (Garnett & Crowley 2000) and by December 2006, the monitoring program had banded a cumulative total of 48 hybrid nestlings (Olsen 2006 pers. comm.). The most recent information suggests that 52 nestlings have now been banded (Garnett et al. 2011).

Genetically pure Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) are now extinct. The trend towards extinction was well-documented, from prior to 1908 to the death of the last remaining female in 1996. The hybrid population consisted of 17 birds in 1996 (Olsen 1997), and is known to be larger now, given that the population increased slowly but steadily from 1986 to 1996 (the years for which population estimates are available), and that by December 2006, a total of 52 hybrid nestlings had been banded as part of the population monitoring program (Garnett et al. 2011). Data is not available on demographic factors such as survivorship or adult mortality, which precludes an accurate estimate of total population size.

All known pairs in the hybrid population breed within Norfolk Island National Park (Olsen 1997). However, it is possible that some pairs may now breed, in very small numbers, beyond the boundaries of the national park (Olsen 2006 pers. comm.; Garnett et al. 2011).

Little information is available on the habitat requirements of the Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island). The genetically pure population probably occurred across all of Norfolk Island. The original vegetation of the island mainly consisted of rainforest species, with emergent Norfolk Island Pines (Araucaria heterophylla), gullies filled with palms and ferns and, in many areas, a fairly open understorey of low trees and shrubs (Hoare 1974; Schodde et al. 1983). The birds also probably occurred in smaller numbers on Phillip Island, the original vegetation of which consisted of scrub, with scattered Norfolk Island Pines, some wetter forest in the deeper valleys, and extensive grasslands (Schodde et al. 1983). Following European settlement, it was known to occur mainly around gullies in the foothills of Mount Pitt (Hull 1909; Olsen et al. 1989), where it inhabited a mosaic of remnant native forest and weed-infested forest, mainly within Norfolk Island National Park (Olsen 1997; Schodde et al. 1983). It also occasionally ventured into plantations of exotic Eucalyptus trees and suburban areas (Olsen et al. 1989; Olsen 1997).

The hybrid population now breeds within Norfolk Island National Park (Olsen 1997) and, therefore, is presumed to occupy the same habitat that was used by the genetically pure birds. These habitats have been extensively modified by weed invasion, selective logging, ongoing forest deterioration and past grazing (Olsen 2006 pers. comm.).

The hybrid population occupies the same habitat, and is vulnerable to many of the same threats, as the Red-crowned Parakeet (Norfolk Island), Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii, and the Golden Whistler (Norfolk Island), Pachycephala pectoralis xanthoprocta, which is both listed as threatened species under the EPBC Act 1999 (Olsen 2006 pers. comm.).

The Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) can breed at two or three years of age. The life expectancy is unknown, but the last genetically-pure female was at least 12 years old, and probably more than 20 years old when last observed (Olsen 1997). The oldest hybrid bird was 18 years of age in 2006 (Olsen 2006 pers. comm.).

Genetically pure birds were known to nest in large tree hollows (Olsen 1997). Hybrids lay a single clutch between late September and early October. Pairs breed in nest-boxes and, occasionally, in hollows in trees (Olsen 1996, 1997, 2006). Clutches consist of two, or occasionally three, white eggs. The eggs are incubated by the female for a period of about 31 days.

The nestlings are mainly brooded by the female; they are fed by the female initially, on food provided by the male, and later by both parents. The nestling period lasts for about 35 days. The nestlings fledge early in December and remain close to their parents for some months after departing the nest. Pairs in the closely monitored hybrid population are provided with nesting boxes (which are actively controlled against other species) and breed very successfully; only one of the first eighteen hybrid nestlings that hatched failed to fledge (Olsen 1997). Despite the high rate of success, some eggs and nestlings are taken by rats (Rattus rattus) (Olsen 2006, pers. comm.). The paucity of natural nesting sites (hollow-bearing trees) forces birds in the hybrid population to compete for hollows with introduced animals including Crimson Rosellas (Platycercus elegans) and Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (Olsen 1996 1997, 2006), and to nest in suboptimal locations where they are vulnerable to predation by cats (Felis catus) (Olsen 2006 pers. comm.). Recent sightings of unbanded young birds suggest that some breeding is still taking place outside of provided nesting boxes (Garnett et al. 2011).

Genetically pure Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) were known to feed on insects (Olsen 1997) and almost certainly took some vertebrate items, for example, one apparent feeding roost contained the remains of White Terns (Gygis alba) (Moore 1981).

Prey remains recorded in nest-boxes and pellets from 1987 to 1996 (from the genetically-pure female and introduced male N. n. novaeseelandiae) contained insects (including moths, crickets, katydids and beetles) and vertebrates (including White Tern, Scarlet Robin (Petroica multicolor), Slender-billed White-eye (Zosterops tenuirostris), Silvereye (Z. lateralis), Common Blackbird (Turdus merula), Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) and rats (Rattus spp.), especially Rattus. exulans). There is probably some seasonal variation in the diet, with vertebrates likely to be taken more frequently during the breeding season (Olsen 1997).

The Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) forages nocturnally from dawn through to dusk. It usually hunts for food in the canopy. Breeding birds tend to forage close to their nests (Olsen 1997).

The Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) is resident or sedentary on Norfolk Island (Olsen 1997; Olsen 2006 pers. comm.; Schodde et al. 1983). Little published information is available on home ranges or territories of the Southern Boobook on Norfolk Island. However, the final genetically-pure female was mainly recorded in an area of less than 200 ha (Olsen 1997; Olsen et al. 1989). The hybrids occur as pairs, singly or in small family groups (DEWHA 2010l; Schodde et al. 1983).

The Southern Bobook (Norfolk Island) is inconspicuous during the day, but active from dusk to dawn (DEWHA 2010l; Olsen 1997). The birds can be detected by their distinctive calls, which are given frequently, especially before the laying season and when feeding young and are audible from more than 1 km away (Hermes 1985). It is also possible to identify roost sites by the whitish excreta and pellets that usually adorn the foliage and ground beneath such sites (DEWHA 2010l).

Recommended Methods

The Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) can be surveyed by conducting area searches, transect-point surveys or broadcast surveys (the use of recorded calls to elicit a response from a bird) in suitable habitat, or by inspecting nest-boxes for birds or signs of recent activity. It is recommended that surveys be conducted just before dusk, with the aid of a flashlight, and just before the start of the breeding season. Detection is by sight, or by identification of the call. Most, if not all, individuals in the hybrid population are banded, and the location of breeding pairs is monitored by the conservation authority on Norfolk Island (Garnett et al. 2011).

Further guidance on survey effort and technique can be found in the Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds (DEWHA 2010l).

The primary cause of the decline and extinction of the genetically-pure Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) was habitat loss, and in particular, the loss of trees bearing hollows suitable for nesting (Garnett et al. 2011). Seventy-five percent of the native forest that formerly occurred on Norfolk Island has been cleared (Olsen 1996; Turner et al. 1975), and woody weeds have invaded much of the remaining forest, which possibly altered the structure of the forest sufficiently enough to make it unsuitable for the subspecies.

Many hollow-bearing trees would have been destroyed during broadscale clearing in the late 1800s and early 1900s, and their availability has continued to decline due to the ongoing selective removal of mature trees for timber. The availability of hollow-bearing trees has probably been further reduced by the introduction of Crimson Rosellas, Common Starlings, Black Rats and Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), which also occupy hollows in trees and probably competed for such sites with the Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) (Olsen 1996, 1997). The successful establishment of the hybrid population through the provision of nest-boxes has confirmed that a lack of suitable hollows for nesting was the major factor in the decline of the subspecies (Garnett et al. 2011).

It is possible that other processes might have played a role in the decline and extinction of the genetically-pure Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island). Cats and Rats are potential predators that are present on Norfolk Island and have been implicated in the extinctions of many island birds. Pesticides such as dieldrin and DDT have been employed on Norfolk Island, and are potential sources of secondary poisoning, although there is no evidence to indicate that poisoning had any affect on the subspecies. Hunting and the collection of specimens for science by humans, prior to the subspecies becoming fully protected in 1970, may have added pressure to the already depleted population (Olsen 1996, 1997).

Because the hybrid population developed from only two breeding individuals, it is possible that the population could suffer from reduced genetic diversity due to inbreeding. The genetically-pure population would have been subject to low genetic diversity because of its restricted distribution, and because of the improbability of new breeding birds arriving from outside populations (Olsen 2006 pers. comm.).

The survival of the hybrid population is currently entirely dependent on the conservation program, which compensates for the paucity of natural breeding sites by providing nest-boxes, and which promotes a high level of breeding success by excluding predators and competitors from the nest-boxes. The survival of the hybrid population is expected to remain dependent on the conservation program for the foreseeable future (Olsen 2006 pers. comm.; Garnett et al. 2011).

In 1987, an intensive conservation effort to breed the last remaining individual of the Norfolk Island subspecies began. It involved introducing two male N. n. novaeseelandiae and this has now resulted in the production of several generations of offspring. Twenty-seven hybrid Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) nestlings were banded between December 1989 and December 1999 (Garnett 1993; Norman et al. 1998b; Olsen 1996; Olsen et al. 1989).

Major studies on the endemic, genetically pure and extinct subspecies N. n. undulata consist of three subspecies-specific surveys (Olsen 1987; Olsen et al. 1989; Rooke 1986), and an investigation of the genetic relationships between N. n. undulata and other two other subspecies of the Southern Boobook (Norman et al. 1998). There are no published major studies on the hybrid population, but the population is subject to intensive monitoring as part of the recovery program (Olsen 1997).

Documentation relevant for the management of the Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island) can be found at the start of the profile.

Another relevant document is The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010 (Garnett et al. 2011) provides a guide to management strategies for the hybrid population of Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Ninox novaeseelandiae undulatain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006re) [Internet].
The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Re-establishment of an engandered subspecies: the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl. Bird Conservation International. 6:63-80. (Olsen, P.D., 1996) [Journal].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest Re-establishment of an engandered subspecies: the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl. Bird Conservation International. 6:63-80. (Olsen, P.D., 1996) [Journal].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Ninox novaeseelandiae undulatain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006re) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Apis mellifera (Honey Bee, Apiary Bee) Ninox novaeseelandiae undulatain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006re) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Status and conservation of the Norfolk Island Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata. Meyburg, B.U. & R.D. Chancellor, eds. Raptors in the Modern World. Page(s) 193-203. (Olsen, P.D., N.J. Mooney & J. Olsen, 1989) [Journal].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata (Olsen, P., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Sturnus vulgaris (Common Starling) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Ninox novaeseelandiae undulatain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006re) [Internet].
Re-establishment of an engandered subspecies: the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl. Bird Conservation International. 6:63-80. (Olsen, P.D., 1996) [Journal].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Platycercus elegans (Crimson Rosella) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Re-establishment of an engandered subspecies: the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl. Bird Conservation International. 6:63-80. (Olsen, P.D., 1996) [Journal].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Ninox novaeseelandiae undulatain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006re) [Internet].
Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].

De Ravin, J.A. (1975). The birds of Norfolk Island. Australian Bird Watcher. 6:4-10.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2010l). Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-birds.html.

Director of National Parks (DNP) (2010). Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan. [Online]. Canberra, Director of National Parks Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/norfolk-island.html.

Environment Australia (EA) (1999b). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.

Garnett, S., J. Szabo & G. Dutson (2011). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. CSIRO Publishing.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Hermes, N. (1985). Birds of Norfolk Island. Wonderland Publications, Norfolk Island.

Hermes, N., O. Evans & B. Evans (1986). Norfolk Island birds: a review. Notornis. 33:141-149.

Higgins, P.J. (ed.) (1999). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Four - Parrots to Dollarbird. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Hoare, M. (1974). The Discovery of Norfolk Island. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Hull, A.F.B. (1909). The birds of Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 34:636-693.

Mees, G.F. (1964). A revision of the Australian Owls (Striigdae and Tytonidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen. 65:1--62.

Moore, J.L. (1981). Norfolk Island notes 1971 to 1980. Notornis. 28:50-56.

Norman, J.A., P.D. Olsen & L. Christidis (1998b). Molecular genetics confirms taxonomic affinities of the endangered Norfolk Island Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata. Biological Conservation. 86:33-36.

Olsen, J. & S.J.S. Debus (2005). A comment on some errors in the literature regarding Australian owls. Corella. 29:97-98.

Olsen, P. (1997). Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata. Botany and Zoology, ANU.

Olsen, P. (2006). Personal communication, February 2006.

Olsen, P., J. Hicks, N. Mooney & D. Greenwood (1994). Progress of the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata re-establishment programme. In: Meyburg, B.-U. & R.D. Chancellor, eds. Raptor Conservation Today: Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls. Page(s) 575-578. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls, London.

Olsen, P.D. (1996). Re-establishment of an engandered subspecies: the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl. Bird Conservation International. 6:63-80.

Olsen, P.D. & Hicks, J. (1989). The very last of the Norfolk Island Boobook. Geo. 11(4):70-77.

Olsen, P.D., N.J. Mooney & J. Olsen (1989). Status and conservation of the Norfolk Island Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata. In: Meyburg, B.-U., & R.D. Chancellor, eds. Raptors in the Modern World. Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls. Page(s) 415-421. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls, London.

Peters, J.L. (1940). Checkl-list of Birds of the World. Volume 4. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Rooke, I. (1986). Survey of the White-breasted White-eye and the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl on Nofolk Island, October-November 1985. RAOU Report 20. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1980). Nocturnal Birds of Australia. Melbourne: Lansdowne.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1997). Aves (Columbidae to Coracidae). In: Houston, W.W.K. & A. Wells, eds. Zoological Catologue of Australia. 37.2. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

Schodde, R., P. Fullagar & N. Hermes (1983). A review of Norfolk Island birds: past and present. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Special Publication. 8.

Turner, J.S., C.N. Smithers & R.D. Hoogland (1975). The conservation of Norfolk Island. Australian Conservation Foundation Special Publication 1.

Wakelin, H. (1968). Some notes on the birds of Norfolk Island. Notornis. 15:156-176.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 22 Aug 2014 03:30:39 +1000.