Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Action plan for South Australian freshwater fishes (Hammer M., S. Wedderburn & J. Van Weenen, 2009) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 42 - Variegated (Ewen Pygmy Perch Nannoperca variegata (Fisher, J.T., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
SA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Action Plan for South Australian Freshwater Fishes 2009 list)
VIC: Listed as Vulnerable (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Nannoperca variegata [26178]
Family Percichthyidae:Perciformes:Actinopterygii:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Kuiter & Allen, 1986
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dse/nrenpa.nsf/FID/-BB611ADDC1E9F8684A2567FC00289020?OpenDocument ;
http://www.fishbase.se/Photos/ThumbnailsSummary.cfm?ID=10592

The Variegated Pygmy Perch is a fish growing to six centimetres. Its colouring is highly variable, ranging from bright green or olive above, to tan or light brown on the sides grading to a whitish or orange belly. The upper part of the head, back and pectoral region are mostly golden. There is a dark spot on the base of the caudal fin, and a series of mid-lateral, dark blotches (Allen 1989a; McDowall 1996).

The Variegated Pygmy Perch is known from 20 locations in South Australia and western Victoria, including: Ewen's Pond (an isolated sink hole), Piccaninnie Ponds and the Eight Mile Creek drainage system near Mt Gambier in south-east South Australia (Allen 1989a); the Deep Creek system in eastern South Australia (Hammer 2002 pers. comm); and several creeks in the Glenelg River system in south-west Victoria.

There are no estimates of the population size of the Variegated Pygmy Perch. Some populations are tiny, such as the '54-foot' pond population in South Australia, where only two specimens were recorded (Saddlier 1992). Others are quite extensive, occurring in permanent waterways such as the Glenelg and Wannon rivers in Victoria (Saddleir & Hammer 2010a). Few of the known populations have been resurveyed since they were first discovered (Saddleir & Hammer 2010a).

The largest Victorian population occurs in the Glenaulin Creek catchment of western Victoria, despite the catchment representing less than 2% of the total accessible area of the Glenelg River basin. The Victorian populations vary considerably in size. Two of the populations contained reasonably large numbers of fish within a small area (more than 15 fish captured per 100 m section of stream sampled), while the remaining five populations occurred at extremely low densities (Saddlier et al. 2013). Population monitoring within the extremely restricted range of this species in South Australia (<4 km2) during 1999, 2006 and 2008 pointed to ongoing declines in the area of occupancy and relative abundance, corresponding to deterioration in spring-flow discharge and habitat quality (Hammer 2009 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013), although post-drought monitoring data is unavailable.

The Variegated Pygmy Perch inhabits relatively shallow freshwater streams with moderate to high water flow and high levels of aquatic vegetation (Saddlier 1992). Although Variegated Pygmy Perch is strongly associated with high cover of submerged and emergent aquatic vegetation and occasional woody habitat, it prefers clear water (Kuiter et al. 1996; Hammer et al. 2000 cited in Saddleir et al. 2013). At Ewen's Ponds (Saddlier 1992), it is most common in creeks between ponds (Allen 1989a). It can be found in fresh and slightly brackish (salty) waters, mostly over substrates of gravel, cobble or boulders in the absence of silt, although at Ewen's Ponds it is associated with large amounts of detritus (Kuiter et al. 1996).

In the wild, the Variegated Pygmy Perch can tolerate a temperature range of 14-26°C and a pH range of 6.8-7.5, although captive specimens survive best in water temperatures of 18-27°C and a pH of 7.2 (Armstrong 1998). Captive specimens also reportedly need well oxygenated water (Kuiter et al. 1996).

Analysis of the critical habitat requirements of sites, supporting existing populations, is needed to better understand the ecology of the species (Saddlier 1992).

Very little information is available on the spawning behaviour and requirements, fecundity, incubation periods and movement of the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Saddlier 1992).

The time of spawning corresponds to that of the Southern Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca australis), which is known to spawn between mid July and mid November (Koehn & O'Connor 1990 in Saddlier 1992). Eggs are deposited demersally (near the bottom of the water) to adhere to aquatic plants, and receive no parental guarding. Based on the different development stages of eggs, it is possible that the Variegated Pygmy Perch could be either a protracted or multiple spawner (Kuiter et al. 1996). Males and females probably mature by the end of their second year. Longevity is estimated to be four years (Saddlier 1992) or 1-5 years (Saddlier et al. 2013).

Preliminary examination of a small number of gravid females, captured from Winnap (western Victoria) during September 1990, revealed that ripe females were carrying about 5000 eggs in varying stages of development. Approximately 10% (500) of these eggs were ready to be deposited in the oncoming spawning season.

In captivity, the Variegated Pygmy Perch has taken Tubifex worms, brine shrimp and mosquito larvae (Leggett & Merrick 1987). Its diet has been described as consisting primarily of insects, insect larvae and microcrustaceans (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983 cited in Saddlier et el. 2013).

The Variegated Pygmy Perch is found in small groups, often co-occurring together and with the Southern Pygmy Perch (Saddleir et al. 2013).

The Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish (DEWHA 2011i) includes survey design principles when planning a fish survey and includes recommendations for survey methods for the Variegated Pygmy Perch and the habitat that it occurs in (DEWHA 2011i).

Major threats to the Variegated Pygmy Perch include wetland drainage, habitat damage through grazing and lack of regeneration, altered hydrology and introduced fish (Saddlier et al. 2013). Only one existing population occurs in some form of reserve (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a). The majority of known populations occur at sites that have little or no formal protection from many of the threats, and those that do have protection are exposed to broader threats affecting freshwater habitats and catchments (e.g. use of groundwater) (Saddlier et al. 2013).

Loss of habitat

The nature of the lowland, shallow freshwater habitat of Variegated Pygmy Perch means it is especially susceptible to a range of practices that result in its degradation and loss, especially where this habitat occurs on private land (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a). Apart from the direct loss of habitat, lateral connectivity between wetlands and to more permanent waterbodies is also reduced. This connectivity is important for maintaining the life cycles of macroinvertebrates and aquatic plants, and consequently for species such as the Variegated Pygmy Perch that relies on these associations (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a).

Altered hydrology

The extraction of groundwater, particularly in the south-east of South Australia is a clear threat to the ecological sustainability of the significant habitats and species of coastal springs in these areas (Hammer 2002), as well as in Victoria. In the 1990s, the depth of the the greater Mt Gambier unconfined aquifer fell significantly, reducing the hydraulic pressure of the system (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a). Spring discharge reductions of 20-30% have been noted in core habitats of Variegated Pygmy Perch in South Australia associated with groundwater extraction (Stadter & Yan 2000 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013). Water is also drawn directly from the Ewen's Pond system (Eight Mile Creek) for irrigation and is partly returned via a complex network of drains from the adjacent farmland (Carmody 2006).

Alteration of natural flood and drying cycles, particularly in shallow creeks, through activities such as catchment clearing, establishing extensive plantations or construction of dams, pose threats to Variegated Pygmy Perch habitat. These activities may alter natural seasonal water levels at critical times of the year or may result in complete loss or permanent alteration of more shallow habitats. Populations occurring in smaller creeks on land where grazing is practiced (constituting the majority of known sites) are particularly susceptible to water abstraction for stock watering (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a).

Extensive plantations of eucalypts and pines in south-eastern South Australia and south-western Victoria pose a major threat to habitat through lowering ground water levels and decreasing runoff into waterways. More wide-scale clearing of catchment vegetation may lead to elevated agricultural runoff that may directly affect water quality (through increased input of sediment, pesticides/herbicides etc) or increase the risk of algal blooms through increased water nutrient levels and sedimentation. Catchment clearing and subsequent tree plantation establishment are also likely to cause altered hydrological regimes (Vertessy et al. 2000 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013) resulting in reduced catchment water yield and direct aquatic habitat loss (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a). Blue-green algae infestation at Ewen's Ponds has been observed, out-competing native, aquatic plants, such as Water Ribbon (Triglochin procerum), leading to extensive dieback of aquatic plants throughout the system (Carmody 2006).

Predation, competition and habitat alteration by fish species

Predation by Redfin Perch (Perca fluviatilis), Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) may be causing decline of Variegated Pygmy Perch (Wager & Jackson 1993). Other pygmy perch's have been detected in the stomach contents of Redfin Perch, suggesting that the Variegated Pygmy Perch may also be targeted (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a). Damage to aquatic vegetation by Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) may also impact on habitat critical to the survival of this species while competition/aggressive behaviour (particularly from Eastern Gambusia Gambusia holbrooki) are also implicated in the decline of this species (Wager & Jackson 1993).

In-stream and riparian habitat degradation

Land clearing and unrestricted stock access to riparian zones is widespread and leads to a reduction in aquatic and riparian vegetation levels (Belsky et al. 1999 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013), increased nutrient run-off, a reduction in bank stability and increased erosion and sedimentation (Belsky et al. 1999 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013; Clary & Kruse 2004 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013), increased summer water temperatures (Arthington & Pusey 2003 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013) and the risk of algal blooms.

Sedimentation has direct effects on fish including asphyxiation, the smothering of eggs, a reduced ability to find food and the smothering of stream beds which leads to a reduction in habitat and flows (Gray et al. 2012 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013; Newcombe & Jensen 1996 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013). Additionally, sedimentation reduces the level and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates and plants (DSE 2007b cited in Saddlier & Hammer 2010a), factors considered critical components of Yarra Pygmy Perch habitat. Decreased overhanging vegetation increases summer water temperatures which in turn may lead (particularly when combined with increased nutrient input) to algal blooms. Further physical disturbance of smaller waters may also occur through practices such as drainage and ploughing after water levels are reduced (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a). Large inputs of sediment following fires can have devastating impacts on stream fish populations (Lyon & O’Connor 2008 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013). Further disturbance to wetlands occurs through practices such as ploughing when wetlands are dry. In some rivers, the development of 'sand-slugs' (i.e. discrete slugs of travelling sand particles) subsequently alters habitat structure with links to declines in regional fish diversity (Howson et al. 2010). Sediment deposition alters habitat structure by decreasing channel depth and changing substrate composition and burying woody debris (Howson et al. 2009).

The identification, protection and restoration of high-quality refuges is a key to reducing extinction risk to freshwater fishes, especially in drought-prone areas (Hoagstrom et al. 2011 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013) and there is an urgent need for this to be undertaken for the Variegated Pygmy Perch. Detailed threat information is not available for the majority of locations where this species occur, particularly in Victoria. Raising landholder awareness about their requirements and threats to the species is also considered a priority action for Vicotiran populations (Saddlier et al. 2013). The low number of isolated populations make the species extremely vulnerable to catastrophic events, and a lack of secure populations available for reintroduction or captive husbandry if localised extinction occurred (Saddlier et al. 2013).

Saddlier and colleagues (2013) reviewed the implemenation of the National Recovery Plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a) against the objectives outlined in the plan:

  • Determine distribution and abundance: recent basic population information is available for South Australian populations (Hammer et al. 2009b cited in Saddlier et al. 2013), but recent distribution data in Victoria is lacking (Saddlier et al. 2013).
  • Determine the genetic and taxonomic status of populations: the status of the species is well defined (Unmack et al. 2011 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013), but assessment of genetic variation below the species level remains to be determined (Saddlier et al. 2013).
  • Determine habitat characteristics and requirements: assessment of the environmental requirements has occurred for the Glenelg River, where a study of the relationship between fish communities and condition of the river between Rocklands Reservoir and Casterton was undertaken (ARI 2003 cited in Saddlier et al. 2013).
  • Identify and manage potentially threatening processes affecting conservation: a review of drainage practices affecting the species in Eight Mile Creek has been undertaken and some recognition of environmental water requirements is included in relevant water-allocation planning (Saddlier et al. 2013).
  • Protect key populations across the range: not identified in the review.
  • Determine population trends at key sites: studies in South Australia have been conducted in a holistic manner, covering all populations, with strong input to management response, in Victoria population monitoring has occurred in a more piecemeal manner (Saddlier et al. 2013).
  • Investigate key aspects of biology and ecology: for the purpose of conservation management, some key aspects of the biology (such as habitat and environmental water requirements) are reasonably well known, and some data on the range of environmental conditions these species are able to tolerate (collated during population surveys) are available and are currently being used to provide management recommendations, particularly under dry inflow conditions (Saddlier et al. 2013).
  • Establish a captive breeding population: no progress
  • Establish new populations: no progress.
  • Increase community and stakeholder awareness and involvement: further work is required for this species.

Management guideance 

Management practices that should be adhered to avoid threatening processes believed to be responsible for the decline in the Variegated Pygmy Perch include (Saddlier & Hammer 2010a):

  • No direct loss of habitat through wetland drainage.
  • No physical alteration habitat as a consequence of incidental works on adjoining land.
  • Applications for water abstraction or dam construction do not compromise flow regimes.
  • Habitat and adjoining riparian habitat are fenced to restrict stock access.
  • Off-stream watering points are provided for stock.
  • Damaged or depleted riparian vegetation is protected and (if necessary) supplemented by active revegetation works.
  • Plans to clear vegetation adjacent to habitat will not impact upon water quality (no increase in sedimentation/nutrient levels/pesticides/herbicides etc).
  • Plans to revegetate with plantation timber/crops will not impact upon overall water yield (and subsequently flow regime of habitat).
  • Proposals to translocate aquatic species into habitat are subject to relevant risk management processes according to relevant national and State guidelines.

River restoration

A study in a 1500 m reach of the Glenelg River has observed Variegated Pygmy Perch within modified spawning substrate (polyvinylchloride (PVC) tubes and small woody debris), but not frequently spawning (Howson et al 2010). Temporal changes have been observed in this species' frequency at rehabilitated sites, but these changes did not differ between rehabilitated and control locations (Howson et al. 2009).

Protection of the stream habitat within the context of managing the Crawford River Regional Park is considered to be a priority for the species (Fisher 1993). Most of the lower reaches and the upper catchment of the Crawford River constitute private land or unreserved Crown Land.  The reservation of areas could help protect the riparian (river bank) vegetation and ensure the long-term viability of stream habitat.  In Victoria, most populations (all except one) occur outside conservation reserves, such as national parks and nature reserves.  Conservation of the species would be made easier if more populations were in reserves, as the flow regimes of rivers and the species' habitat could be better managed (Raadik 2002 pers. comm.).

Plans for the establishment of a softwood plantation in the upper reaches of the Glenaulin catchment were modified in 1990 to minimise the impact on streamside vegetation (Fisher 1993).

Management documents relevant to Ewans Pygmy Perch are the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Personal communication (Raadik, T.A., 2002) [Personal Communication].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Action Statement No. 42 Variegated (Ewen's) Pygmy Perch Nannoperca variegata (Fisher, J.T., 1993) [State Action Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish) Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
A research recovery plan for the Variegated Pigmy Perch Nannoperca variegata in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1992) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
A research recovery plan for the Variegated Pigmy Perch Nannoperca variegata in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1992) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Perca fluviatilis (Redfin, Redfin Perch) Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
A research recovery plan for the Variegated Pigmy Perch Nannoperca variegata in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1992) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Salmo trutta (Brown Trout) Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
A research recovery plan for the Variegated Pigmy Perch Nannoperca variegata in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1992) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Macquaria ambigua (Golden Perch, Yellowbelly, Callop) Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
A research recovery plan for the Variegated Pigmy Perch Nannoperca variegata in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1992) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Cyprinus carpio (European Carp, Common Carp) Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
A research recovery plan for the Variegated Pigmy Perch Nannoperca variegata in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1992) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Algal blooms National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by rats A research recovery plan for the Variegated Pigmy Perch Nannoperca variegata in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1992) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Activities that lead to swamp degradation National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
Personal communication (Raadik, T.A., 2002) [Personal Communication].
National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
A research recovery plan for the Variegated Pigmy Perch Nannoperca variegata in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1992) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of artesian water resources Personal communication (Hammer, M., 2002) [Personal Communication].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of ground water Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Impacts associated with reductions in flooding frequency National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Riparian vegetation degradation National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:drawdown caused by pine plantations National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Reduced habitat shading National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qz) [Internet].
National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pestitcide application and runoff National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata) (Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].

Allen, G.R. (1989a). Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Brookvale, NSW: T.F.H. Publications.

Armstrong, N. (1998). ANGFA's A-Z Notebook of Native Freshwater Fish - Variegated pygmy perch Nannoperca variegata. ANGFA Bulletin (Bulletin of the Australia New Guinea Fishes Association). 40.

Carmody, G. (2006). Save Ewens Ponds. [Online]. Australia New Guinea Fishes Association (ANGFA). Available from: http://www.angfa.org.au/ftp/Save_Ewens_Pond_low_res.pdf.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.

Fisher, J.T. (1993). Action Statement No. 42 Variegated (Ewen's) Pygmy Perch Nannoperca variegata. [Online]. Melbourne: Dept. Natural Resources & Environment. Available from: http://www.nre.vic.gov.au/web/root/domino/cm_da/nrenpa.nsf/frameset/NRE+Plants+and+Animals?OpenDocument.

Hammer, M. (2002). Personal communication.

Howson, T.J., B.J. Robson & B.D. Mitchell (2009). Fish assemblage response to rehabilitation of a sand-slugged lowland river. River Research and Applications. 25(10):1251-67.

Howson, T.J., B.J. Robson & B.D. Mitchell (2010). Patch-specific spawning is linked to restoration of a sediment-disturbed lowland river, south-eastern Australia. Ecological Engineering. 36(7):920-929.

Kuiter, R.H., P.A. Humphries & A.H. Arthington (1996). Pygmy Perches. In: McDowall, R.M., ed. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Rev ed:168-175. Reed Books, Chatswood, Sydney.

Leggett, R. & J.R. Merrick (1987). Australian Native Fishes For Aquariums. Merrick, Sydney.

McDowall, R.M. ed (1996). Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia rev. edn. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books.

Raadik, T.A. (2002). Personal communication.

Saddlier, S. & M. Hammer (2010a). National recovery plan for the Variegated Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca variegata). [Online]. East Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/variegated-pygmy-perch.html.

Saddlier, S., J.D. Koehn & M.P. Hammer (2013). Let's not forget the small fishes: conservation of two threatened species of pygmy perch in south-eastern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research. 64(9):874-86.

Saddlier, S.R. (1992). A research recovery plan for the Variegated Pigmy Perch Nannoperca variegata in south-eastern Australia. Flora and Fauna, CNR, Melbourne.

Wager, R. & P. Jackson (1993). The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes. Canberra, ACT: Australian Nature Conservation Agency.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Nannoperca variegata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Jul 2014 14:05:54 +1000.