In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4
(Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Galaxias tanycephalus |
|Species author||Fulton, 1978|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
The Saddled Galaxias is a greyish-black to olive-green fish growing up to 14.7 cm, but usually reaches about 7 cm, with saddle-like greyish bars across back and sides. It has a silvery-olive belly, sometimes spotted rather than barred, sometimes with sides having a distinctly purplish sheen, and olive to amber fins (Allen 1989; McDowall 1996).
This species is endemic to Tasmania's Central Highlands (Crook & Sanger 1997). Specimens of this species have been collected from Arthurs L., Woods L. and the upper reaches of the Lake R. below the Woods L. Dam (Fulton 1978b). Sanger (1989) noted that this species was extremely rare in Arthurs L. but is more common in Woods L. At present the species is considered moderately abundant in Arthurs L. and very abundant in Woods L. (J. Jackson, pers. comm.).
Described by Fulton in 1978 from specimens collected in the Arthurs L. region of Tasmania's Central Plateau (Fulton 1978b).
Specimens have been collected in shallow water around the rocky shoreline of the abovementioned lakes (Fulton 1978b) and in shoreline macrophyte beds (J. Jackson, pers. comm.). They are rarely found from weed beds near man-made groynes (erosion prevention jetties) (McDowall 1980). It has a free-swimming schooling larval and juvenile stage, which would make it prone to predation in the clear waters of Arthurs L. However, Woods L. has more turbid waters (Sanger 1989) with a large crop of phytoplankton which supports a large zooplankton population, principally of cladocerans (Bosmina sp.). This abundant planktonic food supply favours larval development by greater food availability. The high turbidity may also favour the survival of the benthic adults due to decreased predation by Brown Trout Salmo trutta (Sanger & Fulton 1991). Woods L. is shallow and susceptible to high turbidity caused by wind suspension of sediments.
This species has planktonic larvae that feed on the abundant zooplankton supply in Woods L. Adults feed on a wide range of predominantly benthic aquatic crustaceans and insects, as well as terrestrial insects when available (Sanger & Fulton 1991).
The biology of this species is not well understood (Sanger 1989). The entire life cycle is completed in freshwater, with no marine migratory stage. As is the case with most lacustrine (lake dwelling) populations of galaxiids in Tas., a late winter-early spring spawning is suspected. Evidence for this is the fact that females contain eggs in the first week of Oct. (Fulton 1978b). More intensive studies by found that there is a spring and summer peak of spawning activity, although reproductively ripe individuals are present in the population at all times of the year. Also, the larval population consists of individuals of all sizes at all times of the year (Sanger & Fulton 1991). These observations indicate that this species has an extended spawning season from late autumn to winter (Hardie, S.). The extended spawning season suggested by these data is very unusual in galaxiids, most of which have a very short spawning season controlled by seasonal factors (Sanger 1989). However, there are indications that the Golden Galaxias Galaxias auratus in L. Sorell and L. Crescent may also have an extended spawning season through winter and spring (Hardie, S. pers. comm.). The Woods L. population seems to be dominated by fish one year old or less, and reproductive maturity is reached after about one year. Despite concerted efforts, no spawning sites have been found (Sanger & Fulton 1991). Females produce a relatively large number (up to 5 500) (Sanger unpublished data) of small (1.5 mm) non-adhesive eggs that take about 24 days to hatch at 10°C (J. Jackson, pers. comm.).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Salmo trutta (Brown Trout)||Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish||Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias - 1999-2004 (Crook, D. & A. Sanger, 1997) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality||Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alterations to hydrology through water extraction||Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage||Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias - 1999-2004 (Crook, D. & A. Sanger, 1997) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology due to water diversion||Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias - 1999-2004 (Crook, D. & A. Sanger, 1997) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals|
Allen, G.R. (1989a). Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Brookvale, NSW: T.F.H. Publications.
Australian Fish Collection Records (undated). Collation of records from Australian Fish Collections.
Crook, D. & A. Sanger (1997). Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias - 1999-2004. [Online]. TAS Inland Fisheries Commission. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/tas-galaxids/index.html.
Fulton, W. (1978b). A description of a new species of Galaxias (Pisces: Galaxiidae) from Tasmania. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 29:109-116.
Hardie, S. (2002). Personal communication.
Hydro Tasmania (1999). South Esk- Great Lake Hydro Catchment Environmental Review. Report by Hydro Tasmania Environmental Services.
Jackson, J. (2002). Personal communication.
McDowall, R.M. (1980a). Family Galaxiidae Galaxiids. In: McDowall, R.M., ed. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Page(s) 55-69. Sydney, NSW: Reed Books.
McDowall, R.M. ed (1996). Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia rev. edn. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books.
Merrick, J.R. & G.E. Schmida (1984). Australian Freshwater Fishes - Biology and Management. Netley, South Australia: Griffin Press.
Sanger, A.C. (1989). Endangered Fish Study. Newsletter of the Inland Fisheries Commission of Tasmania. 18(2):4.
Sanger, A.C. & W. Fulton (1991). Conservation of Endangered Species of Tasmanian Freshwater Fish. Occasional Report 91-01. Page(s) 29. Final Report by Inland Fisheries Commission to WWF. Tasmanian Inland Fisheries Commission, Hobart.
Threatened Species Unit (1998e). Listing Statement Saddled Galaxias Galaxias tanycephalus. [Online]. Parks & Wildlife Service, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/RLIG-5428HY?open.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Galaxias tanycephalus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 22 Jul 2014 19:25:07 +1000.