Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Endangered species - eastern freshwater cod (NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI), 2005e) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Fisheries Management Act 1994 (New South Wales): August 2013 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Maccullochella ikei [26170]
Family Percichthyidae:Perciformes:Actinopterygii:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Rowland, 1993
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Clarence River Cod, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

New South Wales: Listed as Endangered under the Fisheries Management Act 1994.

Scientific name: Maccullochella ikei (Rowland)

Common name: Clarence River Cod

Other common name: Eastern Freshwater Cod

The Clarence River Cod is an elongate, slightly compressed, deep-bodied fish with relatively small eyes and a short, rounded jaw (Butler 2009). Its colouration is yellow-green to golden, with black to deep green reticulated markings on its back and sides (McDowall 1996). Its fins are dark grey-green to semi-clear, with pale grey and white margins (Butler 2009).

This species is slow growing. An individual 4—5 years old weighs around 1 kg and is reproductively mature (Rowland 1982 pers. comm. cited in Merrick & Schmida 1984). Clarence River Cod can be aged from opercular bones (bones forming the gill cover) and otoliths (calcareous particles in the inner ear) using the techniques developed for Murray Cod. Mean length and weight at ages 3—8 are as follows:

  • age 3: 35.7 cm, 0.96 kg;
  • age 4: 41.8 cm, 0.98 kg;
  • age 5: 44.5 cm, 1.34 kg;
  • age 6: 44.0 cm, 1.44 kg;
  • age 7: 58.1 cm, 3.43 kg; and
  • age 8: 64 cm (NSW Fisheries 2000).

The largest reported size for this species was 49.5 kg and the species has been recorded as reaching a size of 80 cm standard length (SL), however since the 1960s records have mostly been less than 5 kg (usually 1—2 kg), and less than 66 cm (Allen 1989a; McDowall 1996).

Historically, this species was widely distributed in the Clarence, Richmond and Brisbane River systems of coastal north-eastern NSW and southern Queensland (Rowland 1982 pers. comm. cited in Merrick & Schmida 1984), but naturally occurring populations were probably near to extinction in the Richmond and Brisbane River systems by the end of the 1930s (Rowland 1985, 1993). The last authenticated capture of a Clarence River Cod from the Richmond River system was in 1971 (Bell pers. comm. cited in Rowland 1993).

Since the late 1960s small numbers have been caught from tributaries including the Nymboida, Little Nymboida, Boyd and Mann Rivers, where some pristine habitats remain (Rowland 1993). There are also reports from the Guy Fawkes River (NSW Fisheries 2000). The Mann-Nymboida sub-catchment of the Clarence River harbours the only wild naturally reproducing population of this species (Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999).

Techniques for artificially breeding this species have been developed. During 1988—1989, nearly 29 000 juveniles were stocked into waters previously inhabited by this species in an effort to re-establish self-maintaining populations (Ingram et al. 1990). Survival of some stocked fish to three years of age has been confirmed in both the Richmond and Clarence River systems (Faragher et al. 1993). Between 1996—1999, over 130 000 artificially bred juveniles were released into the Clarence and Richmond River systems, including impoundments (Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999). No large scale surveys of cod distribution have been undertaken since 1993, but anecdotal information indicates that stocked individuals have survived at many locations, particularly the Richmond River, and the Orara River in the Clarence River catchment (Rowland 1982 pers. comm. cited in Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999).

It has been previously proposed that the effective population size of the Clarence River Cod was considerably lower than the 500 suggested for long-term viability of the species (Soule' & Wilcox 1980).

Recent estimates are generally around 50 adult individuals or less in the Clarence River, with an additional 30 or less in the upper Nymboida River and 2—43 in two eastern tributaries. This data suggests that the population is at a high risk of inbreeding and possible extinction (Nock et al. 2011).

This species prefers clear rocky streams (Rowland 1982 pers. comm. cited in Merrick & Schmida 1984) and rivers with low flow velocity and abundant instream cover of rocks, timber or tussocks (Rowland 1996). Research indicates that Clarence River Cod are associated with deeper parts of the river near cover, especially around rocky islands, large boulders and pools in fast-flowing water. Large woody debris and rocky overhangs may provide shelter and important spawning sites (Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999).

The habitat requirements of the various life history stages are largely unknown (Wager & Jackson 1993). Seasonal rises and falls in water level and changes in water temperature act as environmental cues for spawning and migration for a range of aquatic organisms. Maintaining such environmental cues is critical to protecting and restoring the reproductive processes for Clarence River Cod populations (Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999).

The Clarence River Cod is a relatively long-lived species, known to live and reproduce beyond 15 years of age. The species breeds annually, regardless of environmental conditions, in a well defined breeding season; generally in early spring, when water temperatures reach 17°C (Butler & Rowland 2009).

The Clarence River Cod is iteroparous (reproduces multiple times during its life) and reaches sexual maturity at approximately 4—5 years of age (Rowland 1996). Males travel distances up to 30 km in search of a nesting site to hold and utilise for spawning. Pre-spawning competition for nesting sites has been observed between males, with some conflicts resulting in visible injuries to the individuals involved (Butler & Rowland 2009). When a male secures a site, they immediately undertake a period of vigourous cleaning by removing loose sediment and sand from the nest site substrate. This activity is likely to have a role in the pre-spawning ritual where a female will inspect a nest site, leave and then return later to inspect the site again. This process may be repeated up to 5 times and females potentially inspect a number of nest sites of different males, indicating a level of female mate choice in the species (Butler & Rowland 2009).

Once spawning is initiated, large, adhesive eggs, approximately 3 mm in size, are deposited onto hard surfaces, such as rocks and hollow logs (Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999; Rowland 1996). The female leaves after eggs are deposited and the care of the nest is carried out exclusively by the male. Hatching commences after eight days and is complete 12 days after fertilisation at 17—20 °C (Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999; Rowland 1985). The male will continue to defend the nest site and eggs until they hatch. Shortly after hatching, the larvae commence feeding on zooplankton and subsequently leave the nest (Butler & Rowland 2009).

The feeding habits of the Clarence River Cod have led to the species being described as an opportunistic, generalist carnivore (Butler & Wooden 2012). Whilst the species is still considered to be an apex predator in the aquatic environments in which they live, evidence suggests that the species has highly flexible dietary requirements and can take a broad variety of prey in order to survive (Butler & Wooden 2012).

Although the species appears to prefer crustaceans, many other prey are taken, including mammals, insects and reptiles from aquatic and terrestrial environments. Unlike other related species, in times of food shortage, the Clarence River Cod maintains a carnivorous diet and does not consume phytoplankton or plant material (Butler & Wooden 2012).

The species was previously thought to be a benthic ambush predator, however, the recent data suggests that ambush hunting is an important strategy mainly in the early stages of life, but later in life it becomes part of a broader range of techniques, including opportunistic pelagic predation (Butler & Wooden 2012). The Clarence River Cod also takes prey that is smaller than would be expected for a fish of its size. This may be an indicator of the depressed levels of prey available in the environments inhabited by the species. It is also thought that due to the lower levels of aquatic prey, the species is also reliant on the terrestrial species of the riparian zone as a supplemental food source (Butler & Wooden 2012).

Males guarding a spawning site and subsequent nest have not been observed feeding and are thought to fast during this time (Butler & Rowland 2009).

The movement habits of the Clarence River Cod are best described by the 'Home Range Shift' movement model proposed by Crook (2004), in which adult individuals are usually restricted to core areas in which the majority of activities occur (foraging, resting etc.) and home range shifts occur due to factors such as external disturbances, competition or movements associated with the species' life history (Butler 2009). The only significant movement of adults is thought to be that of adult males, who may move up to 30 km prior to the breeding season in search of a suitable nest site.

The Clarence River Cod is very similar in appearance to the Murray Cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii), but the Clarence River Cod has much longer filaments on the pelvic fin tips (Rowland 1982 pers. comm. cited in Merrick & Schmida 1984) and larger orbit length. It is easily confused with the Mary River Cod (Maccullochella peelii mariensis), with the former having a narrower trunk of the tail fin, shorter post-orbital head length, larger orbit, shorter inter-orbital width, more scale rows below the lateral line, longer fifth/sixth dorsal spine, and greater extension of the first anal pterygiophores (the connecting points for the dorsal and anal fin rays towards the vertebral column) (Rowland 1993).

As with many Australian freshwater fish, the Clarence River Cod is a cryptic species and is often found in habitats that are not conducive to direct observation. Camera-based surveys have been trialled and documented by Butler and Rowland (2009) as effective to gathering data on the reproductive behaviour of the species. This technique would also be useful in presence-absence surveying and establishing habitat usage (ie: foraging, breeding etc).

Cameras may be infra-red or white light, depending on the application and environment of use (ie: light availability). In the method described in Butler and Rowland (2009), a video was taken using a submerged, pole-mounted camera transported via canoe downstream, which was then viewed in order to choose optimal locations to leave the static camera/s. This technique removes the possibility of observer influence and increases detectability. Butler and Rowland (2009) demonstrated that the behaviour of the fish did not seem to be affected by the presence of a camera.

Due to the endangered status of the species, destructive sampling techniques are considered inappropriate (Butler & Rowland 2009).

Habitat Degradation

Large declines in population numbers since the early 1900s are thought to be the result of habitat degradation associated with flooding and mining pollution (Rowland 1982 pers. comm. cited in Merrick & Schmida 1984). There were large fish kills in the Clarence River during the late 1920s—1930s associated with long dry periods and natural pollution following extensive bushfires and heavy summer rains (Rowland 1993).

Dynamiting associated with railway construction in the 1920s degraded the habitat of the Orara River, where naturally occurring populations of this species are now presumed extinct (Rowland 1993). Poor land-use practices leading to increased catchment erosion and siltation, damage to or loss of native riparian vegetation, and water pollution have contributed to the loss and degradation of habitat (Wager & Jackson 1993).

Introduced Species

The introduction of Murray River Cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) into the Clarence River catchment (including private farm dams) potentially threatens the survival of the Clarence River Cod (Wager & Jackson 1993). The tropical Banded Grunter (Amniataba percoides) has been introduced into the Clarence River catchment and also potentially poses a significant threat to the Eastern Cod. The Banded Grunter can breed and recruit in large numbers and may induce similar impacts relating to competition and predation, to that of the introduced Redfin (Perca fluviatilis). There are other introduced fish species such as the Mosquito Fish (Gambusia holbrooki) and the Goldfish (Carassius auratus) to the Clarence and Richmond River drainages, but their effects on the Clarence River Cod are unknown. Surveys to determine the extent and spread of introduced/translocated species within the range of the Clarence River Cod are necessary to mitigate adverse effects (Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999).

Potential Threats

Potential threats to this species are loss of genetic variation (which can result in inbreeding), over-fishing, habitat degradation or destruction, competition with or predation by introduced fish, disease, and hybridisation with translocated hatchery-reared Murray Cod (Ingram et al. 1990; Rowland 1988). Additional potential threats to this species include snag removal, flow modification and barriers to migration (Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999). There is a prohibition on the capture of this species from the eastern coastal drainage area of NSW (Ingram et al. 1990), but illegal fishing is still known to occur. Increased law enforcement of fishing operations and implementing public education programs may help to reduce the adverse effects of fishing on this species (Eastern Cod Recovery Team 1999).

Management documentation for the Clarence River Cod are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Habitat modification and negative impacts on species numbers due to recreational fishing Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal take Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Australian Freshwater Fishes - Biology and Management (Merrick, J.R. & G.E. Schmida, 1984) [Book].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Carassius auratus (Goldfish) Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Draft Recovery Plan Page(s) 36. (Eastern Cod Recovery Team, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish) Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Draft Recovery Plan Page(s) 36. (Eastern Cod Recovery Team, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Draft Recovery Plan Page(s) 36. (Eastern Cod Recovery Team, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Eastern Freshwater Cod (Maccullochella ikei): identification, status, conservation and potential threats. In: Rowland, S.J. & R. Barlow, eds. Proceedings of a Fish Genetics Workshop, Cronulla NSW 31st July to 1st August. Page(s) 18-23. (Rowland, S.J., 1988) [Proceedings].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by rats The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Draft Recovery Plan Page(s) 36. (Eastern Cod Recovery Team, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding Australian Freshwater Fishes - Biology and Management (Merrick, J.R. & G.E. Schmida, 1984) [Book].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alterations to hydrology through water extraction Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Draft Recovery Plan Page(s) 36. (Eastern Cod Recovery Team, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Removal of wood snags from waterways Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low fecundity, reproductive rate and/or poor recruitment Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004k) [Recovery Plan].

Allen, G.R. (1989a). Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Brookvale, NSW: T.F.H. Publications.

Butler, G.L. (2009). Biology and Conservation of the endangered eastern freshwater cod Maccullochella ikei Rowland. Ph.D. Thesis. Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.

Butler, G.L. & I.J. Wooden (2012). Dietary habits of a large, long-lived endangered Australian percichthyid, the eastern freshwater cod; Maccullochella ikei. Endangered Species Research. 16:199-209.

Butler, G.L. & S.J. Rowland (2009). Using Underwater Cameras to Describe the Reproductive Behaviour of the Endangered Eastern Freshwater Cod; Maccullochella ikei. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. 18:337-349.

Crook, D.A. (2004). Is the home range concept compatible with the movement of two species of lowland river fish?. Journal of Animal Ecology. 73:353-366.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.

Eastern Cod Recovery Team (1999). Eastern (Freshwater) Cod (Maccullochella ikei) Draft Recovery Plan. Page(s) 36. E. Cod Recov. Team & NSW Fisheries Thr. Sp. Unit. NSW Fisheries Port Stephens Research Ctr, NSW.

Faragher, R.A., P. Brown & J.H. Harris (1993). Population surveys of the endangered fish species trout cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) and eastern cod (M. ikei). Page(s) 22. NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla.

Ingram, B.A., C.G. Barlow, J.J. Burchmore, G.J. Gooley, S.J. Rowland & A.C. Sanger (1990). Threatened native freshwater fishes in Australia - some case histories. Journal of Fish Biology. 37:175-182.

McDowall, R.M. ed (1996). Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia rev. edn. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books.

Merrick, J.R. & G.E. Schmida (1984). Australian Freshwater Fishes - Biology and Management. Netley, South Australia: Griffin Press.

Nock, C. J., J. R. Ovenden, G. L. Butler, I. Wooden, A. Moore & P. R. Baverstock (2011). Population structure, effective population size and adverse effects of stocking in the endangered Australian Eastern Freshwater Cod (Maccullochella ikei). Journal of Fish Biology. 78:303-321.

NSW Fisheries (2000). Eastern (freshwater) cod - a threatened fish in NSW. Page(s) 5. Threatened Species Unit, Port Stephens. NSW Fisheries Offfice of Conservation.

Rowland, S.J. (1985). Aspects of the biology and artificial breeding of the Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii and the Eastern Freshwater Cod, M. ikei sp. nov. Ph.D. Thesis. Macquarie University, Ryde, NSW.

Rowland, S.J. (1988). Eastern Freshwater Cod (Maccullochella ikei): identification, status, conservation and potential threats. In: Rowland, S.J. & R. Barlow, eds. Proceedings of a Fish Genetics Workshop, Cronulla NSW 31st July to 1st August. Page(s) 18-23. Sydney: NSW Agriculture & Fisheries.

Rowland, S.J. (1993). Maccullochella ikei an endangered species of freshwater cod (Pisces: Percichthydae) from the Clarence River System, NSW and Maccullochella peelii mariensis, a new subspecies from the Mary River system, Qld. Records of the Australian Museum. 45:121-125.

Rowland, S.J. (1996). Threatened fishes of the world: Maccullochella ikei Rowland,1985 (Percichthyidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes. 46:350.

Soule', M. E. & B. A. Wilcox, eds. (1980). Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.

Wager, R. & P. Jackson (1993). The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes. Canberra, ACT: Australian Nature Conservation Agency.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Maccullochella ikei in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 12:44:43 +1000.