Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bj) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
List of Migratory Species - Amendment to the list of migratory species under section 209 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (26/11/2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013af) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 8-Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix (Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2003k) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013)
NGO: Listed as Critically Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Lichenostomus melanops cassidix [26011]
Family Meliphagidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Gould,1867)
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Lichenostomus melanops cassidix

Common name: Helmeted Honeyeater

The Helmeted Honeyeater is a subspecies of a polytypic species, the Yellow-tufted Honeyeater (L. melanops), which is endemic to eastern and southeastern Australia, and is widespread from southeastern Queensland, through eastern NSW and Victoria, to southeastern South Australia (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999; Schodde & Mason 1999). Three subspecies of the Yellow-tufted Honeyeater are recognised by Schodde and Mason (1999). The nominate subspecies, melanops, occurs in coastal NSW east of the Great Dividing Range, from the Queensland border region, south to the Victorian border region. Meltoni occurs in the western watershed of the Great Divide and western Victoria from southeastern Queensland, reaching Carnarvon and Dawes Ranges-Blackdown Tableland, to central and northern Victoria. Meltoni has also been recorded in southern Victoria, including at Yellingbo, during the winters of drought years (Quin & Reid 1996).

The Helmeted Honeyeater, L. m. cassidix occurs at Yellingbo, western Gippsland, Victoria, and intergrades with the nominate subspecies melanops east to the NSW border region. Previous taxonomic treatments have recognised four subspecies, including gippslandica (Blakers et al. 1984), by splitting the subspecies melanops into two: melanops on the eastern side of the Great Divide to around Narooma, southern NSW, and gippslandica (or gippslandicus) from Narooma to Noojee, Victoria. However, the analyses undertaken by Schodde and Mason (1999) suggest that although gippslandica often resembles cassidix, the former bridges the morphological differences between the latter and melanops over a long gradient between the upper eastern La Trobe (Avon-Mitchell Rivers) drainage, Victoria, and Eden-Narooma.

Recent genetic screening analyses of the gippslandica and cassidix forms indicates that there is sufficient genetic distinctiveness to warrant the subspecific status of cassidix (Hayes 1999). The Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Team still recognise four subspecies, including gippslandicus, based upon this finding (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.).

The Helmeted Honeyeater is a striking bird, with a broad, glossy black mask across the eyes, ending with a flare of bright golden ear tufts. There is a clear golden yellow throat stripe and a fixed helmet of golden, plushlike feathers on the forehead. The dull golden crown/nape area is sharply cut off by the blackish olive-brown back. The tail of the Helmeted Honeyeater is longer than that of the full species, the Yellow-tufted Honeyeater, and is tipped with white (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Helmeted Honeyeater is confined to an area around Yellingbo, in the middle reaches of the Yarra River Drainage Basin, around 50 km east of Melbourne, southern Victoria (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The Helmeted Honeyeater is confined to a 5 km length of Cockatoo Creek and Macclesfield Creek, together with a few hundred metres of Woori Yallock Creek, which is 2 km to the west of the Cockatoo Creek colonies (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The Helmeted Honeyeater probably always had a restricted and patchy distribution in the mid-Yarra and Western Port catchments of central and southern Victoria (Menkhorst et al. 1999). However, it formerly occurred in much of southwestern Gippsland, in the Upper Yarra Basin and northern and eastern catchments of Western Port, in an area of 2000 to 3000 km², from near Healesville south to Western Port and Outtrim, and from Childers west to Ferntree Gully.

Since 1983, three of the four remaining populations have almost certainly become extinct, and it is now confined to a small section of creekline near Yellingbo, in an area of less than 5 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001).

The captive-breeding and release program run by Healesville Sanctuary is an insurance against catastrophic loss of the wild population, and also provides a stock of Helmeted Honeyeaters for future re-introductions (Menkhorst et al. 1999). During 2001 and 2002, a total of 26 Helmeted Honeyeaters were released into Bunyip State Park, which is around 40 km south east of Yellingbo (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.).

There is annual monitoring of the survival and breeding contribution of colour-banded Helmeted Honeyeaters in the population at Yellingbo, and close monitoring of the formation of new colonies (Menkhorst et al. 1999). Population sizes are monitored by visiting known breeding territories and recording banded and unbanded birds, and adults and begging fledglings, and by mapping territory areas (Menkhorst et al. 1999; B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.).

The Helmeted Honeyeater population declined steadily throughout the 1900s until a recovery effort commenced in 1989. At Yellingbo, estimates of the population size include: up to 270 birds in 1963, 200 in 1966, 166 in 1967, 100-150 in 1979, 40-44 adults in 1984, 32-36 adults in 1987, and 59 birds in the wild, plus a captive population of 28 birds at Healesville Sanctuary in 1991 (Higgins et al. 2001).

At Yellingbo, the population declined to as few as fifteen breeding pairs of Helmeted Honeyeaters and around fifty individuals in late 1989, but it has steadily grown due to recovery efforts (Menkhorst et al. 1999). The number of breeding birds (and fledglings in brackets) were: 1993-1994, 42 (33); 1994-1995, 54 (42); 1995-1996, 53 (45); 1996-1997, 49 (42); 1997-1998, 49 (37); 1998-1999, 39 (30); and 1999-2000, 37 (36) (Higgins et al. 2001). Subsequent figures are: 2000-2001, 40 (33); and 2001-2002, 41 (37) (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.). At the end of the 2001 to 2002 breeding season, the population at Yellingbo was 90 to 100 birds (B.R. Quin, 2002, pers. comm.).

Along Cardinia Creek, the estimated size of the population was: ten pairs along around 8 km of creekline in the upper reaches between 1908 and 1912, a total population of 100 birds in 1947, and six to ten birds in 1979. This colony was destroyed by the Ash Wednesday bushfires of February 1983 (Higgins et al. 2001).

Schodde and Mason (1999) suggest that the more recent specimens of cassidix collected during the last 70 to 80 years approach gippslandica more in form than the very large, intensely-pigmented specimens collected before then. Cassidix-like populations apparently range east to the Tyers-Aberfeldy River system in the upper western La Trobe River basin, with only the crests being marginally shorter, indicating that there has been recent gene flow from gippslandica into cassidix.

The current population of the Helmeted Honeyeater is within the Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The Helmeted Honeyeater is mainly confined to dense riparian vegetation at low altitudes (20-120 m) in areas which receive reliable rainfall. It occupies narrow patches of tall remnant eucalypt forest and woodland along streams or in surrounding swampland, in habitat dominated by Mountain Swamp Gum Eucalyptus camphora, with thickets of Scented Paperbark Melaleuca squarrosa, Woolly Tea-Tree Leptospermum lanigerum and Manuka L. scoparium in the understorey, or with reeds and sedges. These habitats are inundated for a large part of the year (Franklin et al. 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; McMahon & Franklin 1993; Menkhorst et al. 1999; Pearse et al. 1994).

During winter, the Helmeted Honeyeater sometimes moves onto adjacent slopes and terraces supporting more open forest dominated by Swamp Gum E. ovata, mixed Green Scent-bark E. fulgens, Messmate E. obliqua and Narrow-leafed Peppermint E. radiata with a diverse heath understorey (Franklin et al. 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; McMahon & Franklin 1993; Menkhorst et al. 1999; Pearse et al. 1994).

Until recently, it also occurred in tall open riparian Manna Gum E. viminalis forest on less swampy sections of creeks. Attempts were recently made to re-introduce birds into this habitat (Higgins et al. 2001; McMahon & Franklin 1993). In Mountain Swamp Gum habitat, the Helmeted Honeyeater requires an abundance of closely-spaced trees, much decorticating bark, an understorey of tall tea-tree and proximity to surface water. In Manna Gum forest, they require only a dense canopy (Pearse et al. 1994).

Nests of the Helmeted Honeyeater are built in thickets of shrubs (e.g. tea-tree or paperbark), or in tangles of reeds, ferns or other foliage (Franklin et al. 1995; Higgins et al. 2001). At Yellingbo, most nests within Mountain Swamp Gum Woodland occur in four shrub species of the genera Leptospermum or Melaleuca. In Manna Gum Forest, most nests were in Prickly Currant-bush Coprosma quadrifida, whilst some were amongst the foliage or twigs of Mountain Swamp Gum, in saplings, coppice, fallen branches and reedbeds of Common Reed Phragmites australis. Nests are built to 7 m (mean 2.2 m) above the ground, or above standing or running water up to 1 m deep during early season nesting or flood.

The Helmeted Honeyeater forages in the understorey, mid-storey and canopy of Mountain Swamp Gum Woodland, in tea-tree thickets, and on the lower trunk, mid-trunk and canopy of Mountain Swamp Gums (Higgins et al. 2001; Moysey 1997). During the breeding season, it often forages among the foliage, on manna and among exfoliating and decorticating bark on the branches and trunks of riparian trees, mainly Mountain Swamp Gum. During the non-breeding season, it often feeds at the flowers of eucalypts in forests on adjacent slopes and terraces (McMahon & Franklin 1993; Menkhorst et al. 1999).

At Yellingbo, the Helmeted Honeyeater has been recorded roosting in Prickly Currant-bush (Higgins et al. 2001). It perches in trees and shrubs, and shelters from sun and seeks cover from predators in densely foliaged eucalypts and shrubs (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.).

The breeding season of the Helmeted Honeyeater is highly regular and protracted (Franklin et al. 1995, 1999; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999). The first eggs are usually laid in mid August, and the last in mid January to late February. During this period, usually three nesting attempts are made, but some pairs may make as many as nine nesting attempts.

The average clutch size is two, but occasionally one or three eggs are laid, and new clutches may be laid before the young of the previous clutch are independent. The eggs are laid at intervals of around 24 hours, and the incubation period is between twelve and sixteen days. The nestling period is between ten and fourteen days, and most fledglings are independent after six weeks of age, but are fed infrequently until at least fourteen weeks of age, and sometimes remain in the natal territory for two months or more (Franklin et al. 1995, 1999; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999).

At Yellingbo, of 62 nesting attempts, 37 (59.7%) produced at least one fledgling. Where the number of eggs was known, 29 fledglings were produced from 16 of 28 nests containing a total of 57 eggs (Higgins et al. 2001). The mean number of young raised to independence per pair per year is 1.5, although one pair has raised eight (Menkhorst et al. 1999). Survival after fledging is high. At Yellingbo, predation is the main cause of nest failure, and predator-exclusion cages placed around nests produced an increase in nesting success (Franklin et al. 1995; Higgins et al. 2001). Adverse weather also results in nest failure, including nests being flooded and nestlings dying from exposure. Some eggs are also infertile or are abandoned, and chicks occasionally fall from the nest. It is also probable that energy consumed during interspecific aggression, especially towards Bell Miners Manorina melanophrys, reduces breeding success (Higgins et al. 2001).

The Helmeted Honeyeater feeds on invertebrates, lerps, honeydews, manna, nectar and sap (the latter from Tea Tree Leptospermum and Paperbark Melaleuca) (Higgins et al. 2001; McMahon & Franklin 1993; Menkhorst et al. 1999; Moysey 1997).

The Helmeted Honeyeater occasionally feeds on or close to ground level, which presumably predisposes it to the risk of predation by introduced carnivores (e.g. foxes Canis vulpes, and cats Felis catus) (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.).

During the non-breeding season, it may feed aerially more frequently (McMahon & Franklin 1993; Menkhorst et al. 1999). It also licks sap from wounds produced by Leadbeater's Possum Gymnobelideus leadbeateri on the branches and trunks of paperbarks and tea-trees (Higgins et al. 2001).

The Helmeted Honeyeater is sedentary, and usually occurs in discrete colonies (Franklin et al. 1999; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999). Some local movements occur, usually in winter, when birds range more widely, possibly in search of food. Such winter movements usually involve immatures and adults without breeding territories, and a few breeding females. These females disperse up to several kilometres in winter, but usually return to the same territory and partner in the following breeding season.

During the non-breeding season, there is local movement onto the adjacent slopes and territories, associated with feeding at flowers of Swamp Gum, Messmate and Green Scent-bark. Breeding adults are less likely to move than unpaired and first year birds, and females are more likely to move than males. At Yellingbo, between 1984 and 1994, 22 of 24 females left their natal areas, compared to ten of 26 males. This was usually followed by a period of 'floating' before establishment of a territory and breeding, and this period was usually longer for females.

The Helmeted Honeyeater is territorial. Density estimates at Yellingbo include 0.6 birds per ha, 3.18 breeding adults per ha, 0.625 and 0.82 breeding pairs at two sites, up to six breeding birds per ha, and around 2.5 breeding pairs per kilometre of creekline (Higgins et al. 2001).

Recommended Methods
The Helmeted Honeyeater can be surveyed using area searches or transect-point surveys of suitable habitat. These methods detect birds by calls and sightings. Fixed-point count techniques have previously been used to monitor population trends (Menkhorst et al. 1999; B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.). Reported sightings of Helmeted Honeyeaters outside of Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve that appear reliable are usually followed up by an on-site visit by the Department of Natural Resources and Environment's field ornithologist (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm).

Past threats
The decline in the range and abundance of the Helmeted Honeyeater was due to extensive destruction of its habitat, primarily through clearing (for agriculture) and associated drainage, although some remnant patches have been destroyed by fire. Clearing of hillside vegetation also alters patterns of water runoff, subjecting the remaining trees to stress associated with prolonged levels of waterlogging and siltation. Some habitat was formerly grazed and burnt, which may have reduced the density of Mountain Swamp Gum in favour of the growth of Common Reed. There is also substantial weed invasion in some sections of Yellingbo, but most of Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve is in extremely good condition (Blakers et al. 1984; Franklin et al. 1995; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999; McMahon & Franklin 1993; Pearse et al. 1994, 1995).

Predation of eggs, chicks and adults also resulted in some nest failure. The Helmeted Honeyeater was occasionally killed by feral cats (Felis catus), and there was at least one instance of chicks being taken by foxes (Vulpes vulpes). There was likely to be a suite of native avian and mammalian predators that hunted the Helmeted Honeyeater, but predation is no longer considered to be a significant factor in preventing population recovery (Blakers et al. 1984; Franklin et al. 1995; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999; McMahon & Franklin 1993; Pearse et al. 1994, 1995).

Present threats
The pressures associated with changes to the natural hydrological regime and habitat fragmentation make trees more susceptible to infestation with defoliating psyllids, and this in turn encourages the incursion of aggressive Bell Miners. Thus, the remaining colonies of Helmeted Honeyeaters at Yellingbo are threatened by their proximity to Bell Miner colonies, which are thought to result in reduced breeding success, and a reduction in habitat availability and quality. Bell Miners increase the amount of time (and energy) devoted by Helmeted Honeyeaters to territorial defence, and decrease the time that they spend on breeding and feeding. Removal of Bell Miners from areas adjoining Helmeted Honeyeater colonies usually results in the latter immediately expanding their territories into previously Bell Miner occupied areas. The competition between Bell Miners and Helmeted Honeyeaters appears to be for space, as there is little overlap in use of other resources (Pearse et al. 1994).

A shortage of high quality breeding territories near existing colonies is also thought to threaten existing colonies of the Helmeted Honeyeater. The dispersal success of females is limited by a lack of suitable habitat nearby in which to disperse, and by the lack of vegetated corridors to assist in dispersal (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.).

Helmeted Honeyeaters are threatened by the rapidly spreading dieback of eucalypts (especially of Mountain Swamp Gum, but also of tea-trees). As well as resulting from Bell Miners and psyllids, dieback at Yellingbo has resulted from the installation of a levee for agricultural purposes, which has altered the hydrological regime, causing channeling and subsequent erosion and sedimentation to a section of Cockatoo Creek. This also resulted in prolonged inundation of some areas of Mountain Swamp Gum (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.). This levee has been removed, and there is evidence that prolonged inundation has caused dieback, because there has been some recovery of dieback-affected eucalypts during the five years to 2002, associated with dry weather and reduction of inundation (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.). As a result of the dieback in Cockatoo Swamp, twelve Honeyeater territories were abandoned, became non-breeding territories, or became incorporated into much larger breeding territories. Wildfire and eucalypt dieback are now the most potentially destructive environmental processes affecting the Helmeted Honeyeater (Blakers et al. 1984; Franklin et al. 1995; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2001; Menkhorst et al. 1999; McMahon & Franklin 1993; Pearse et al. 1994, 1995).

Genetic problems associated with the small population size at Yellingbo (e.g. inbreeding depression) are no longer thought to constrain population growth (Hayes 1999).

Grazing by domestic stock destroys breeding habitat of the Helmeted Honeyeater, and thus, Franklin and colleagues (1995) recommend that it should cease in some unprotected areas, and continue to be excluded from already protected areas. Menkhorst and colleagues (1999), and Garnett and Crowley (2000) encourage maintenance, management and enhancement of Helmeted Honeyeater habitat at Yellingbo and throughout the former range, by active participation of managers in the land-use planning process, and by encouraging community involvement.

Bell Miners are excluded from suitable habitat in order to protect Helmeted Honeyeater habitat, and facilitate the expansion of Helmeted Honeyeaters into adjacent areas (Menkhorst et al. 1999). Menkhorst and colleagues (1999) recommend a review of the regional fire plan to assess its adequacy for protecting key habitat within and outside of Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve.

Since 1989, there have been considerable revegetation works undertaken inside and outside of Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve by the community group, 'Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater'. This group has undertaken vital revegetation works on private land surrounding the reserve, and in strategic areas within the reserve. There has also been considerable land acquisition in the past (with inclusion into Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve), in order to protect Helmeted Honeyeater habitat (B.R. Quin 2002, pers. comm.).

Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater Inc (Vic) received $12 585 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2005-06, part of which was for control of herbaceous weeds, revegetation of degraded areas adjacent to suitable habitat, and to protect both revegetated sites and sensitive habitat from herbivores.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds and The Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Helmeted Honeyeater (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Menkhorst et. al. 1997, 1999).

There is an updated national draft recovery plan in preparation for the Helmeted Honeyeater.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Reduced rainfall caused by climate change Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for the Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bj) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Habitat loss/conversion/quality decline/degradation Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phragmites australis (Common Reed) National Recovery Plan for the Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bj) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phalaris arundinacea (Reed Canary-grass) National Recovery Plan for the Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bj) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Salix spp. except S.babylonica, S.x calodendron & S.x reichardtii (Willows except Weeping Willow, Pussy Willow and Sterile Pussy Willow) Weeds of National Significance Willow (Salix taxa, excluding S. babylonica, S. x calodendron and S. x reichardtii) Strategic Plan (Agriculture & Resources Management Council of Australia & New Zealand, Australian & New Zealand Environment & Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers, 2001a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National Recovery Plan for the Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bj) [Recovery Plan].
Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by rats Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Habitat modification due to levee construction and associated hydrology changes Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Habitat dieback associated with bell miners Manorina melanophrys (Bell Miner) National Recovery Plan for the Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bj) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Loss of lower stratum vegetation National Recovery Plan for the Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bj) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Vegetation and habitat mortality caused by dieback Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (Menkhorst, P., I. Smales, I. & B. Quin, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Franklin, D.C., I.J. Smales, B.R. Quin & P.W. Menkhorst (1999). Annual cycle of the Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix, a sedentary inhabitant of a predictable environment. Ibis. 141:256--268.

Franklin, D.C., I.J. Smales, M.A. Miller & P.W. Menkhorst (1995). The reproductive biology of the Helmeted Honeyeater, Lichenostomus melanops cassidix. Wildlife Research. 22:173--191.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Hayes, V. (1999). Genetic insights into the taxonomy and conservation of the Helmeted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix) using microsatellites. Hons. Thesis. LaTrobe University, Bundoora.

Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter & W.K. Steele (Eds) (2001). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Five - Tyrant-flycatchers to Chats. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

McMahon, A.R.G. & D.C. Franklin (1993). The significance of Mountain Swamp Gum for Helmeted Honeyeater populations in the Yarra Valley. Victorian Naturalist. 110:230--237.

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Moysey, E.D. (1997). A study of resource partitioning within the Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix during the non-breeding season. Emu. 97:207--219.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Lichenostomus melanops cassidix in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 17 Apr 2014 01:00:04 +1000.