Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Diomedea epomophora epomophora
Listed marine as Diomedea epomophora (sensu stricto)
Listed migratory - Bonn as Diomedea epomophora (sensu stricto)
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Diomedea epomophora (sensu stricto) [1072].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Diomedea epomophora epomophora.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2014 for the incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009t) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Information Sheet - Harmful marine Debris (Environment Australia, 2003ac) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea epomophora (sensu stricto).
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea epomophora (sensu stricto).
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea epomophora (sensu stricto).
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea epomophora epomophora.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 181 - Nine Threatened Seabirds (Holliday, I., 2003c) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Diomedea epomophora epomophora
Scientific name Diomedea epomophora epomophora [25996]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Lesson, 1825
Reference  
Other names Diomedea epomophora (sensu stricto) [1072]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Victoria: At the species level, Diomedea epomophora is listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

Western Australia: At the species level, Diomedea epomophora is listed as Vulnerable under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Diomedea epomophora epomophora

Common name: Southern Royal Albatross

There is significant taxonomic confusion within the albatross group. The Southern Royal Albatross is now recognised as the subspecies Diomedea epomophora epomophora according to Dickinson (2003), CAVS (2006), AFD (2006) and Christidis and Boles (2008) on morphological, biogeographical and molecular grounds. As such, it is one of two subspecies within the species Diomedea epomophora Royal Albatross.

The Southern Royal Albatross was previously considered to be the nominate race of the Royal Albatross and as such, was sometimes referred to as Diomedea epomophora race epomophora (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, established a working group on the taxonomy of albatrosses and petrel. This working group followed Robertson and Nunn (1997) in splitting the Royal Albatross complex and raising the two 'races' to full species status: with Diomedea epomophora representing the Southern Royal Albatross, and D. sanfordi the Northern Royal Albatross.

This profile treats the Southern Royal Albatross as a subspecies, following Christidis and Boles (2008).

The Southern Royal Albatross has a pure white head and body, usually lacking any marks or grey barring. They have a white back and mostly black upperwings close to the body, with the white spreading outwards from the body along the leading edge of the wing with age. The tail is white, except in the immature, where it is tipped with black. Female Southern Royal Albatross are slightly duller and smaller than males (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

During the non-breeding season, the Southern Royal Albatross has a wide and possibly circumpolar distribution, ranging north to about 35°S. The Southern Royal Albatross is moderately common throughout the year in offshore waters of southern Australia, mostly off southeastern NSW, Victoria and Tasmania. Off South Australia, they are mostly seen May to September (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Southern Royal Albatross breeds on Campbell Island and in the Auckland Islands (NZ) (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Southern Royal Albatross breeds on Campbell, Adams, Enderby and Auckland Islands, south of New Zealand. It forages in the Southern Ocean primarily between Western Australia and South America, although it can circumnavigate the Southern Hemisphere (Gales 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

There are estimated to be between 8200 and 8600 breeding pairs of Southern Royal Albatrosses (Garnett & Crowley 2000). All but 70 pairs of the Southern Royal Albatross breed on Campbell Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Twenty pairs of the Southern Royal Albatross breed on Auckland Island and Adams Island (Croxall & Gales 1998).

The breeding population of the Southern Royal Albatross increased during the 1980s, possibly because it was recovering from previous exploitation (Croxall & Gales 1998). The population may now be stable (Birdlife International 2000a).

The Southern Royal Albatross was extirpated from Enderby Island in the 1860s, and recolonised it in the 1940s. The colony of 55 pairs of Southern Royal Albatrosses on Enderby Island is still growing (Croxall & Gales 1998).

The number of Southern Royal Albatross that occur in Australian waters is unknown. It is estimated to have a total population size between 8200 and 8600 breeding pairs (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Southern Royal Albatross is marine and pelagic. It occurs in subantarctic, subtropical and occasionally Antarctic waters (Marchant & Higgins 1990). It has been observed where the water surface temperature is 6 to 20°C (Barton 1977, 1980; Jehl 1973; Szijj 1967). Its preferred temperature range in Chilean waters is 8 to 12°C (Jehl 1973). It flies low or moderately high over open waters, using the updraft from wave fronts for lift (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Southern Royal Albatross nests on flat or gently sloping ground on slopes, ridges, gullies and plateaux of large islands, and on the summits of islets (Bailey & Sorensen 1962; Dawson 1973; Westerkov 1963). Depressions, gullies, lee slopes and vegetation provide shelter for its nests, but exposed sites are also needed nearby so that the Southern Royal Albatross can take off and land. Its nests are placed among vegetation that is sparse enough for easy access (Westerkov 1963).

The Southern Royal Albatross breeds biennially. Its eggs are laid in late November and early December. Males arrive at the breeding Island in October, before the females arrive. They form pairs in November, and the pair-bond usually lasts for life (Richdale 1950). The clutch size is one egg, which is incubated by both sexes. The male takes the first incubation shift (Sorensen 1950).

Nestlings of the Southern Royal Albatross are brooded by both parents in turn for irregular spans of around five weeks, and then fed by both adults. There is no desertion period (Serventy et al. 1971). Chicks fledge when they are between 244 and 236 days old (Sorensen 1950).

The Southern Royal Albatross feeds primarily on squid and fish (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Southern Royal Albatross feeds pelagically (in the open ocean). Because it forages on the continental shelf and the shelf break, it is less vulnerable to capture by longline fishing gear than many other species of albatrosses (Imber 1999).

The Southern Royal Albatross is migratory, and possibly circumpolar (Robertson & Kinsky 1972). It occurs in all sectors of the Southern Ocean (Enticott 1986).

During their first year at sea, juveniles from Campbell Island first disperse to New Zealand and Chilean waters, where most are recovered between November and February. They then move to the southwestern Atlantic near Argentina, where most banded birds are recovered following winter and spring (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Southern Royal Albatross probably moves rapidly across the Pacific Ocean, because there have been several band recoveries in Chile in December. One banded Southern Royal Albatross was recovered in Western Australia four months after fledging, which may indicate that it underwent circumpolar movements within one year of birth. Most immature Southern Royal Albatrosses appear to stay in or return to the southwestern Atlantic for several years, because most one to four-year-old birds are recovered there.

Recoveries of banded Southern Royal Albatrosses in the southern Indian Ocean suggest that birds move back to New Zealand in an eastward direction. Most adult birds seem to overwinter in New Zealand and Chilean waters after a successful breeding season. Some Southern Royal Albatrosses overwinter in the southern Indian Ocean and southeastern Australian waters (Robertson & Kinsky 1972).

The size of the breeding population of the Southern Royal Albatross may currently be increasing, but the size of the population visiting Australian waters is likely to decrease by more than 20% over the next three generations (75 years) as a result of fishing bycatch (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Southern Royal Albatross sometimes drowns in longline fishing gear (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Oceanic longline fishing has been used to target pelagic and demersal fish in the southern oceans since the 1950s, and is used in almost all Australian waters today (DEH 2006). Gales and Brothers (1995) reported that 75% of the birds killed on longlines and retained for identification were albatrosses. Internationally, some longline fishing fleets still operate without substantial by-catch mitigation measures. Therefore, birds breeding within the Australian Fishing Zone are still killed on longlines from vessels operating outside the Australian Fishing Zone (EABG 2001). Hook and plastic ingestion also potentially threaten the Southern Royal Albatross. Hook ingestion by albatrosses and giant-petrels appears to have increased in recent years. Between 50 and 100 million hooks are set each year in the Southern Ocean and as many as 1.1 billion hooks are set globally. Both seabirds and fishing vessels concentrate in areas of high biological productivity (EABG 2001).

The Southern Royal Albatross may also die from collisions with cables and warps used on fishing trawlers. Outside of the Australian Fishing Zone, trawlers carrying netsonde monitor cables or their equivalent may cause substantial mortality in albatrosses. Trolling (trailing a line with baited hooks) for pelagic species such as Albacore Tuna Thunnus alalunga is another potential threat (EABG 2001; Gales 1998; Environment Australia 1999; Weimerskirch et al. 1997; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998). The species may also be shot by fishermen to protect bait or for sport (Environment Australia 1999; Gales 1998). The chick is unlikely to survive if a parent is killed while it is foraging at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

On Campbell Island, grazing by sheep in albatross breeding areas has destroyed tussock grass and allowed the indigenous Ross Lilly Bulbinella rossii to spread, which has affected the breeding habitat of the Southern Royal Albatross. It has been suggested that this may limit the population (Westerkov 1963). However, this change has not necessarily been detrimental, because the number of breeding birds has increased where density of sheep is high, and nesting occurs in pure stands of Bulbinella rossii (Taylor et al. 1970). This may be because grazing has opened up areas of dense tussock grassland for nesting (Westerkov 1963).

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations was listed as a key threatening process on Schedule three of the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. The Department of the Environment and Heritage has developed a threat abatement plan for the Incidental Catch (or by-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. The threat abatement plan aims to reduce seabird by-catch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird by-catch within the Australian Fishing Zone) within five years by:

  • prescribing modifications to fishing practices or equipment (mitigation measures),
  • developing new mitigation measures,
  • educating fishers and the public,
  • improving knowledge of seabird-longline fishery interactions.

The long-term aim is to achieve a zero by-catch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened albatross and petrel species.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds, The Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels and The Threat Abatement Plan for the Incidental Catch (or by-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Southern Royal Albatross (AGDEH 2006q; Environment Australia 2001f; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Diomedea epomophora epomophora in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 30 Sep 2014 20:35:20 +1000.