In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed marine|
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Arctocephalus gazella |
|Distribution map||Species Distribution Map not available for this taxon.|
The current conservation status of the Antarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus gazella, under Australian Government legislation, is as follows:
National: Listed as a marine species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
In the past, the species was internationally listed as a Specially Protected Species under Annex II of the Antarctic Treaty, but was delisted due to a significant increase in the population.
Scientific Name: Arctocephalus gazella
Common Name: Antarctic Fur Seal
This is one of eight species in the genus Arctocephalus (Repenning et al. 1971). Research (skull morphometrics and DNA) undertaken at the end of the 1990s and early 2000s indicates that the taxonomic classification of Arctocephalus may require revision (Brunner 1998; Brunner 2000; Lento et al. 1994; Lento et al. 1997; Wynen et al. 2000).
The Antarctic Fur Seal is a semi-aquatic marine mammal with external ears and long white vibrissae (whiskers). It has the short, wide, flat flippers typical of the Pinniped group that are used for both terrestrial and aquatic movement. Adult males are uniform silver-grey to brown in colour, with dark brown belly fur, a well-developed mane, powerful chest and shoulders, weigh between 125–200 kg, and are 170–200 cm in length. Adult females are variable in colour, being silver-grey to brown dorsally, paler cream to white fur ventrally and with a dark brown abdomen. Females weigh between 25–40 kg, and are 105–135 cm in length. Juveniles have an ash-grey natal coat with grizzled fur around the head and neck, with a pale cream muzzle and belly, weigh between 4–6 kg, and are 60–70 cm in length (Goldsworthy & Shaughnessy 1995b; Strahan 1995).
In the Australian Subantarctic region there are two breeding areas of this species at Macquarie Island, several at Heard Island (Shaughnessy & Goldsworthy 1993), and at least one on McDonald Island (Johnstone 1982). On the basis of these records, Shaughnessy (1992) recommended that it be considered part of the Australian fauna.
Major concentrations of Antarctic Fur Seals are found in the Scotia Arc Region of Antarctica and more generally in the Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra region. Here, the species occurs on Islands (mainly Antarctic) under British, French, South African, Norwegian and Australian control. The Antarctic Fur Seal is found in its largest numbers on South Georgia (where it is estimated that 95% of the species breeds), but is also found on Bouvet, Heard, Prince Edward and the South Orkney, South Sandwich and South Shetland Islands (Cape Shirreff and San Telmo Islets) and the Crozet (Ille de la Possession) and Kerguelen (Courbet Peninsula, Iles Nuageuses) Peninsulas (Bester et al. 2009; Boyd 1993; Gerber & Hilborn 2001; Hofmeyr et al. 2005, 2006).
Globally, the population size of the Antarctic Fur Seal is said to number well over a million animals (Boyd 1993 cited in Hofmeyr et al. 2005). The species is known to breed at approximately ten islands (or island groups) and has recolonised many pre-sealing haulout sites since being on the verge of extinction by the early 1900s (Gerber & Hilborn 2001; Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
Surveys of the Antarctic Fur Seal have been undertaken at the Antarctic (Boyd 1993; Shaughnessy & Burton 1986), Australian (Lancaster et al. 2006; Page et al. 2003; Shaughnessy & Goldsworthy 1990, 1993; Shaughnessy et al. 1988a, 1988b, 1998; Shaughnessy & Shaughnessy 1988), British (Aguayo 1978; Bengston et al. 1990; Bonner 1968; Hucke-Gaete et al. 2004; Laws 1973), French (Bester & Roux 1986 cited in SCAR EGS 2007; Jouventin & Weimerskirch 1990 cited in SCAR EGS 2007), South African (Bester et al. 2003; Hofmeyr et al. 1997; Hofmeyr et al. 2006; Wilkinson & Bester 1990) and Norwegian (Bakken 1991; Haftorn et al. 1981; Hofmeyr et al. 2005; Holdgate et al. 1968) sites.
British Overseas Territory
On South Georgia (with the largest population), the total number of individual Antarctic Fur Seals was estimated at 1 600 000 in 1983 due to its rapid recovery since 1907. In 1990/91 the population was thought to be closer to 2 700 000, and in 1999/2000 it was said to be 4 500 000–6 200 000 individuals. These seasons were found to have a mean annual rate of change of + 6–14% (Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
On the South Sandwich Islands, there were 346 Antarctic Fur Seal pups in 1997/98, and the population is thought to be stable (Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
On the South Orkney Islands, counts are far less current. The rate of change is unknown, and the last population estimate was from 1970/71 with <1000 individuals estimated (Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
On the South Shetland Islands, the population was found to be 10 057 individuals in 2000/01, and the mean annual rate of change (between 1995/96 to 2001/02) was + 0.9% (Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
At Cape Shirreff, there were an estimated 5 313 pups in 1991/92, 8 455 pups in 1999/2000, and 8 577 in 2001/02. As a result, the mean annual rate of change for these years was + 14%, + 6% and + 4.6% respectively, indicating a maturing phase of population growth. In the 2001/02 surveys, total population numbers for the site were estimated at 21 190 individuals (SCAR EGS 2007).
At the Cape Shirreff and San Telmo Islets, the maturing population trends are even more evident. There were an estimated 8 911 pups in 2002/03, 8 997 in 2003/04, 9 067 in 2004/05, 8 018 in 2005/06, 9 156 in 2006/07 and 6 099 in 2007/08. Total population estimates show a similar trend, with 21 815 in 2002/03, 21 652 in 2003/04, 22 470 in 2004/05, 21 299 in 2005/06, 23 167 in 2006/07 and a substantially smaller 14 244 individuals in 2007/08. As a result, the mean annual rate of change (this time in total population numbers when compared to the period immediately prior to the season) is - 0.7% in 2002/03, + 3.8% in 2003/04, - 5.2% in 2004/05, + 8.8% in 2005/06 and - 38.5% in 2006/07 (SCAR EGS 2007).
Norwegian Dependent Territory
The population size of the Antarctic Fur Seal at Nyrøsa, on Bouvet (or in Norwegian Bouvetøya) Island, was estimated at 66 128 individuals in 2001/02, with a mean annual rate of change of + 0.1%. However, in 2007/08, there were only an estimated 10 994 pups and 46 834 total population size, with a mean annual rate of change of - 5.6% (from 2001/02 to 2007/08). This site is the second largest population of the species (Hofmeyr et al. 2005; SCAR EGS 2007).
Australian Antarctic Division Territory
On Heard Island, records of Fur Seal numbers have been increasing since breeding was first reported in 1963. In 1965 there were 500 individuals, in 1969 there were 3000, in 1980 there were 4500, in 1990 there were 15 000 estimated and by 1992 there was a total of 21 280 Fur Seals counted on the Island (Gerber & Hilborn 2001). In 1987-88, 248 pups were recorded (Shaughnessy & Goldsworthy 1990). In 2000/01, there were 1 012 pups alone, and a mean annual rate of change (1962/63 to 2000/01) was calculated at + 20% for the site (Hofmeyr et al. 2005). In the 2003/04 season, there were an estimated 1 278 pups with a mean annual rate of change of + 8.1% from 2000/01 to 2003/04 (SCAR EGS 2007).
On the McDonald Islands, little is known of the status of the Antarctic Fur Seal due to rare visits to the Islands (Strahan 1995). Johnstone (1982) counted "up to 100" pups in March 1980 and implied that these sightings were on the eastern beaches, without specifying the location(s). Johnstone also estimated the total population size (1979/80) at approximately 300, and believed the population was increasing (Hofmeyr et al. 2005). In January 1971, Budd (1972) reported 46 pups on the northern beach of the east coast. Adult male fur seals were also seen on the southern beach of the east coast, but no pups were recorded (breeding fur seals may have been using caves there).
On Macquarie Island, the Fur Seal population was estimated at between 800–1000 animals in 1981, with Antarctic (and New Zealand) Fur Seal breeding colonies re-established (Gerber & Hilborn 2001). In 2003/04, there were 165 pups (mixed populations of Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals) counted on the Island (Hofmeyr et al. 2005). In the 2006 season, there were 133 Antarctic Fur Seal pups estimated, resulting in a mean annual rate of change of + 7.1% (SCAR EGS 2007). Antarctic Fur Seals have been reported from the coast of the Australian Antarctic Territory at the Mawson and Davis stations, and at sea in the Southern Ocean (Shaughnessy & Burton 1986; Tynan 1996). However, despite being capable of travelling large distances, the species has only been reported once from Australia, at Kangaroo Island (Strahan 1995).
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
On Iles Nuageuses, there were an estimated 5000 pups in the year 2000 (Hofmeyr et al. 2005), with numbers said to be increasing.
On Courbet Peninsula, there were an estimated 1500–1700 pups in the year 2000 (Hofmeyr et al. 2005) with numbers also said to be increasing.
On Ile de la Possession, there were an estimated 234 pups in 1999/00, with a mean annual rate of change of + 16.9% from 1992 to 1999. In the 2003/04 season, however, there were an estimated 295 pups with a mean annual rate of change of + 5.9% (Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
South African National Antarctic Programme
Prince Edward Islands
On Marion Island, there were estimated to be 759 Antarctic Fur Seal pups, with a total population size of 3644 individuals in 2003/04. This site has a mean annual rate of change of + 13.8% from 1994/95 to 2003/04. In the 2007 season, this population growth had slowed, with an estimated 1105 pups and 5 302 total population size on the Island, with a mean annual rate of change of + 13.9% (Hofmeyr et al. 2005; SCAR EGS 2007).
On Prince Edward Island, there were 400 pups with a total population size of 2000 in 2001/02 resulting in a mean annual rate of change of + 16.2% (Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
The Antarctic Fur Seal has seen a large resurgence in population numbers since over exploitative sealing operations were ceased in 1931. In 1933, the largest population of the species (South Georgia) was thought to be extinct. In the late 1980s, the population saw a rapid growth, and this is likely to have resulted in emigration to other sites. Patterns of demographic change experienced by fur seals have been described (Hofmeyr et al. 2005) in four phases: survival, establishment, rapid recolonisation and maturity. The South Georgia population, like all populations, experienced the rapid recolonisation phase, attributable to large mean annual rates of change in pup production and large population growth. Once this phase is complete, the mature phase of population growth begins, with minimal increases in population numbers and low mean annual rates of change in pup production. Populations at the South Shetland Islands and Boutvetøya sites are thought to be at this stage, but most other populations remain in the recolonisation phase (Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
Antarctic Fur Seals are known to interbreed with Subantarctic and New Zealand Fur Seals at Macquarie Island, and interbreeding with just Subantarctic Fur Seals occurs at Prince Edward Islands (Shaughnessy et al. 1988a; Goldsworthy et al. 1999).
Macquarie Island is managed as a nature reserve by Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. In 2002, the Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve was declared a Commonwealth reserve under the EPBC Act. The marine reserve is 65 000 km². In addition, the Heard Island Wilderness Reserve Management Plan came into effect on the 14th of February 1996 and gives a legal framework for the conservation of the site. Heard Island is therefore managed as a wilderness reserve by the Australian Antarctic Division. Antarctic Fur Seals are protected at Macquarie and Heard Islands and on the Australian coast (Shaughnessy 1999).
When not in subantarctic waters, Antarctic Fur Seals are known to utilise a range of habitats. On Heard Island, the species makes use of flat grassy meadows, usually within 60 m of the beach (Shaughnessy & Goldsworthy 1990). On the McDonald Islands, the species is known to use beaches that are backed by cliffs (Johnstone 1982). On Macquarie Island, breeding of the species occurs on open cobble-stone beaches, and non-breeding animals are found to utilise the tussock slopes above the colonies (Shaughnessy et al. 1988a). In addition, where Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals are sympatric on breeding beaches on the Island, females of the former species prefer cobble beaches while Subantarctic Fur Seal female prefer rocky shores (Goldsworthy et al. 1999).
Adult males of the Antarctic Fur Seal begin hauling-out and contesting for territories in late October and early November. Females haulout about a day prior to parturition, and come into oestrus and are mated 7 days post-partum. At birth, pups weigh 4–6 kg, and are 60–70 cm in length. Females then nurse their pups on the shore, between foraging trips to sea, until they wean in April. Animals then abandon colonies and do not haul out again until the next breeding season. From April to November, colonies of this species are almost deserted, except for occasional males (Goldsworthy & Shaughnessy 1995b).
At Heard Island in the late 1980s, 90% of pups were born over a 26 day period with the 11th of December as the median date of birth (Shaughnessy & Goldsworthy 1990). At Macquarie Island, the median date of birth of a mixed colony of Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals was the 10th of December (Shaughnessy et al. 1988a). Mothers feed pups for over 4 months.
At Heard Island, females alternate between foraging at sea for an average of 5.9 days and 1.5 days suckling their pups onshore (Goldsworthy & Shaughnessy 1995b). On Macquarie Island, extended foraging trips average 3.6 days and long attendance bouts average 1.8 days. In addition, cows make overnight foraging trips and short attendance bouts that both average 11 hours (Goldsworthy 1999).
On the McDonald Islands, breeding seals may have been utilising cave systems on the Islands (Budd 1972). On Macquarie Island, in the 1995–96 season, there were 9 pups with mixed phenotypes (Goldsworthy 1996).
Hybrids have been found in small numbers at Marion and Macquarie Islands and are likely to continue to occur at low levels (Hofmeyr et al. 2006). This hybridisation is thought to be anthropogenically induced (at least on Macquarie Island) and quite recent, with the more extensive current hybridisation rates (as compared to those occurring pre-sealing) being a result of sealing pressure (Lancaster et al. 2006). At Macquarie Island the hybridisation occurs between Antarctic, Subantarctic and New Zealand Fur Seals (the latter being just males). However, at this site the proportion of hybrids has fallen over time. This is due in large part to increased immigration of pure Antarctic and Subantarctic individuals and non-random mating (caused by biological resistance to complete homogenisation) (Goldsworthy et al. 1998). At Iles Crozet, Bouvetøya and Marion and Prince Edward Islands hybridisation occurs between Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals at very low rates (approximately only 2% of pups born per year at Crozet). Low rates may be due to species specific male calling patterns, differences in seasonal haulout patterns and breeding sites (despite small overlaps) and limitation due to possible pup mortality as weaning times for the species differ (causing hybrid pups born to Antarctic Fur Seal females to be weaned prematurely) (Lancaster et al. 2006; St Clair Hill et al. 2001).
At both Heard and Macquarie Islands, Antarctic Fur Seals feed mostly on pelagic myctophid (lantern) fish (Electrona sp. and Gymnoscopelis sp.). Robinson and colleagues (2002) found that both Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals on Macquarie Island fed specifically on Electrona subaspera (occurring at a 99% frequency in scats) and the Gymnoscopelis nicholsi-G. piabilis complex (found in 19.7% of samples).
In addition, at Heard Island, the species also feeds (to a lesser extent) on squid (Green et al. 1989; Green et al. 1990) and the proportion of squid in their diets increase during late autumn and early winter (Green et al. 1991). At Macquarie Island, during summer and autumn of 1990-91, 12 species of myctophid fish were identified in scats of Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals, most of which being E. subaspera (Goldsworthy et al. 1997). At South Georgia, Antarctic Fur Seals feed almost exclusively on Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (Doidge & Croxall 1985).
Robinson and colleagues (2002) found that both Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals dive for food almost exclusively at night. These were short, quite shallow (averaging 9.9–15.8 m and 0.65–0.87 minutes) dives, and seals were submerged for 12% of the available night. For example, at Macquarie Island, this feeding behavior corresponds with the movements of their prey (myctophid fish) which make daily vertical migrations from deeper water (Strahan 1995).
During the same study, it was found that foraging female fur seals would travel a mean maximum distance of 58.2 (±3.4) km from the colony for a mean of 3.4 (±0.2) days. In addition, it was found that differences in foraging behavior between and within species (Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals) at different locations is most likely mediated by environmental rather than phylogenetic factors, and that generally the foraging behaviours of the fur seals are flexible (Robinson et al. 2002).
Because few adult Antarctic Fur Seal females haul out on islands over winter, it is assumed that they migrate. However, the locations are unknown. Males are thought to remain in the vicinity of breeding colonies throughout this time (Strahan 1995). Large numbers (up to 15 000) of non-breeding male seals were reported hauling out onto Heard Island to moult after the summer breeding season of 1987-88 (Shaughnessy & Goldsworthy 1990). This number was much greater than that expected from the size of the breeding population (only approximately 1 100 animals). It is therefore theorised that these extra seals may have travelled from the large concentration of Antarctic Fur Seals at South Georgia (approximately 6 600 km from Heard Island). It is possible that these immigrants may have come from a large, undiscovered population on the west coast of the Kerguelen Islands (a French Overseas Territory) (Shaughnessy & Goldsworthy 1990; Strahan 1995).
Antarctic Fur Seals are closely related to Subantarctic Fur Seals, but are differentiated by male coats. In Subantarctic Fur Seals, male coats are chocolate-brown to black dorsally with contrasting yellow-cream face and chest, and they have a tuft of long hairs that form a crest (of varying prominence) on the head. Antarctic Fur Seals, on the other hand, are uniform silver-grey to brown with a dark-brown belly, with no crest. Non-morphological characteristics of the two species also differ. This includes the suckling period (four months for Antarctic and ten months for Subantarctic Fur Seals), breeding habitat (Antarctic Fur Seals prefer grassy plains, whereas Subantarctic Fur Seals prefer rocky beaches), seasonal haulout patterns and male calls (St Clair Hill et al. 2001; Strahan 1995).
Hybridisation between Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals (and occasionally New Zealand Fur Seals for example on Macquarie Island) occurs in small numbers, and hybrid individuals have intermediate morphometric and external characteristics. In addition, hybrid males make some intermediate communicative guttural challenges (St Clair Hill et al. 2001).
Historically, Antarctic Fur Seals were hunted almost to extinction due to uncontrolled harvesting. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries numbers of the species dropped considerably due to sealing in the Southern Ocean. While a partial recovery of numbers occurred in the mid nineteenth century, the resurgence of intensive sealing practices in the 1870s caused numbers of Antarctic Fur Seals to plummet, bringing the species close to extinction once more (Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
Approximately 1.2 million Antarctic, Subantarctic (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and New Zealand (A. forsteri) Fur Seals were taken from the largest population, on South Georgia, in 1825. Smaller scale hunting continued until 1907, by which time the population was thought to be locally extinct. Since this time, the population has grown rapidly at the site (Gerber & Hilborn 2001).
On the South Shetland Islands, approximately 320 000 Fur Seals were harvested between 1820 and 1822, at which time the population was thought to be virtually locally extinct. The first pre-exploitation pups were reported in 1959, and the species appears to be recovering and recolonising rookery sites (Gerber & Hilborn 2001).
On Macquarie Island, between 1810 and 1820, approximately 193 300 Fur Seals were harvested. By 1850, Fur Seals were overharvested almost to extinction on the Island (Gerber & Hilborn 2001).
On Heard Island, the harvesting of Fur Seals occurred later, first reported in 1855-1856 and only around 500 individuals were harvested. In the 1870s, harvesting ceased but the population on the Island was thought to be locally extinct. Between 1947 and 1955 the number of Fur Seals on Heard Island was 51 individuals, and it was not until the first record of breeding was reported (1963) that the population grew (Gerber & Hilborn 2001).
There are two fisheries operating in the Australian Subantarctic, both of which are managed by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA). They are the Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fisheries (HIMI), and the Macquarie Island Fishery. Both are directed at Patagonian Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), however Mackerel Icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) are also targeted in the HIMI. Both fisheries use demersal trawling and, to a lesser extent, mid-water trawling. Two vessels operate in the HIMI and one operates in the Macquarie Island Fishery. Fishery observers are present, and information on these fisheries is collated by the AFMA (2001). Few seals have been caught by these fishing vessels. In four years of fishing, the HIMI has caught two seal skeletons, one dead Antarctic Fur Seal and a live specimen that was released.
In the Macquarie Island Fishery, no Fur Seals have been caught. However, it is considered likely that there are unreported deaths of seals caused by the illegal fishery operating in the Australian Subantarctic (AFMA 2001).These fisheries and their likely effects on high level predators were the topic of a workshop held at the Australian Antarctic Division in late April and early May of 1997. The workshop concluded, among other things, that "existing information is not sufficient to identify whether fishing is likely to have any substantial impacts on seals and penguins" (Australian Antarctic Division 1997). Nevertheless, it recommended that "conservation objectives for high level predators should be included among the objectives of the long-term management plans for these fisheries" (Australian Antarctic Division 1997).
At Heard and McDonald Islands, oil spills are of relatively low potential threat to the Antarctic Fur Seal, mainly due to the small number of visits made to the area by ships. However, several ships visit Macquarie Island each summer to re-supply the Australian Antarctic Division base. The large quantities of fuel pumped ashore near the main seal colony (at Secluded Beach), just north of the base, presents a possible hazard. Tour ships also visit these Islands and are another potential source of oil spills. Visits to Heard Island are less frequent and, unlike Macquarie Island, its Antarctic Fur Seal colonies are spread over much of the coastline (Shaughnessy 1999).
If Antarctic Fur Seals were to haul out on the coast of mainland Australia and were rehabilitated, it is possible that these animals may inadvertently introduce diseases from other captive animals to breeding stations in Subantarctic Islands (Shaughnessy 1999).
With increased commercial fisheries near Australian populations of the Antarctic Fur Seal, the threat of entanglement in marine debris increases. Cases of fishing gear entanglement has occurred on the Heard and Macquarie Islands (Shaughnessy 1999).
Hybrids between the Antarctic, New Zealand and Subantarctic Fur Seal has occurred at a number of sites (including Macquarie Island) and may threaten the integrity of the species (Shaughnessy 1999).
At Heard Island breeding sites, some pups die in vigorous storms and others are taken by Leopard Seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) (Shaughnessy & Goldsworthy 1990; Shaughnessy et al. 1998).
Management documents for the Antarctic Fur Seal can be found at the start of this profile. Other management documents relevent to the species include:
- Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan (AAD 2005).
- Macquarie Island Nature Reserve and World Heritage Area Management Plan (Tas PWS 2006).
- Non-Native Species Manual (CEP 2011).
No threats data available.
Aguayo, A. (1978). The Present Status of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella at South Shetland Islands. Polar Record. 19:167-176.
Australian Antarctic Division (1997). Report of the workshop on predator-prey-fisheries interactions at Heard Island and McDonald Islands and at Macquarie Island. Page(s) 37. Australian Antarctic Division, Kingston, Tasmania.
Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) (2005). Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan. Kingston, Tasmania: Australian Antarctic Division.
Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) (2001). Background Paper Bycatch Action Plan Sub-antarctic Fisheries. Page(s) 29. Australian Fisheries Management Authority: Canberra.
Bakken, V. (1991). Fugle og selundersokelser pa Bouvetoya i desember/januar 1989/90. Norsk Polarinst Medd. 115:1-30.
Bengtson, J.L., L.M. Ferm, T.J. Harkonen, B.S. Stewart (1990). Abundance of Antarctic Fur Seals in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, during the 1986/87 austral summer . Page(s) 265-270. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Bester, M.N., P.G. Ryan, B.M.Dyer (2003). Population numbers of fur seals at Prince Edward Island, Southern Ocean. African Journal of Marine Science. 25:549-554.
Bester, M.N., P.G. Ryan, J. Visagie (2009). Summer survey of fur seals at Prince Edward Island, southern Indian Ocean. African Journal of Marine Science. 31:451-455.
Bonner, W.N. (1968). The Fur Seal of South Georgia. British Antarctic Survey Scientific Reports no. 56.
Boyd, I.L. (1993). Pup production and distribution of breeding Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at South Georgia. Antarctic Science. 5:17-24.
Brunner, S. (1998). Cranial morphometrics of the southern fur seals Arctocephalus forsteri and A. pusillus (Carnivora: Otariidae). Australian Journal of Zoology. 46:67-108.
Brunner, S. (2000). Cranial morphometrics of fur seals and sea lions (Family: Otariidae) - systematics, geographic variation and growth. Ph.D. Thesis. Sydney: University of Sydney.
Budd, G.M. (1972). Breeding of the fur seal at McDonald Islands, and further population growth at Heard Island. Mammalia. 36:423-427.
Budd, G.M. & Downes, M.C. (1969). Population increase and breeding in the Kerguelen fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis gazella, at Heard Island. Mammalia. 33:58-67.
Commitee for Environmental Protection (CEP) (2011). Non-Native Species Manual. [Online]. Buenos Aires : Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty. Available from: http://www.ats.aq/documents/atcm34/ww/atcm34_ww004_e.pdf.
Doidge, D.W. & Croxall, J.P. (1985). Diet and energy budget of the Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, at South Georgia. In: Siegfried, W.R., Condy, P.R. & Laws R.M., eds. Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Page(s) 543-550. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
Gerber, L.R. & R. Hilborn (2001). Catastrophic events and recovery from low densities in populations of otariids: implications for risk of extinction. Mammal Review. 31:131-150.
Goldsworthy, S. (1996). Progress report on Australian research on fur seals. Page(s) 22-24. SCAR Group of Specialists on Seals.
Goldsworthy, S. (1999). Maternal attendance behaviour of sympatrically breeding Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus spp., at Macquarie Island. Polar Biology. 21:316-325.
Goldsworthy, S.D. & Shaughnessy, P.D. (1995b). Antarctic fur-seal Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875). In: Strahan, R., ed. The mammals of Australia. Page(s) 678-680. Chatswood, Reed Books.
Goldsworthy, S.D., D.J. Boness & R.C. Fleischer (1999). Mate choice among sympatric fur seals: female preference for conphenotypic males. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 45:253-267.
Goldsworthy, S.D., L. Wynen, S. Robinson & P.D. Shaughnessy (1998). The population status and hybridisation of three sympatric fur seal species (Arctocephalus spp.) at Macquarie Island. New Zealand Natural Sciences. 23 Suppl:68.
Goldsworthy, S.D., M.A. Hindell & H.M. Crowley (1997). Diet and diving behaviour of sympatric fur seals Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis at Macquarie Island. In: Hindell, M. & Kemper, C., eds. Marine mammal research in the Southern Hemisphere. Page(s) 151-163. Chipping Norton, Sydney, Surrey Beatty & Sons.
Green, K., Burton, H.R. & Williams, R. (1989). The diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella (Peters) during the breeding season at Heard Island. Antarctic Science. 1:317-324.
Green, K., R. Williams, K.A. Handasyde, H.R. Burton & P.D. Shaughnessy (1990). Interspecific and intraspecific differences in the diets of fur seals, Arctocephalus species (Pinnipedia: Otariidae), at Macquarie Island. Australian Mammalogy. 13:193-200.
Green, K., Williams, R. & Burton, H.R. (1991). The diet of Antarctic fur seals during the late autumn and early winter around Heard Island. Antarctic Science. 3:359-361.
Haftorn, S., L. Somme, J.S. Gray (1981). A census of penguins and seals at Bouvetoya. Norsk Polarinst Skr. 175:29-35.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G, M.N. Bester, A.B. Makhado, P.A. Pistorius (2006). Population changes in Subantarctic and Antarctic fur seals at Marion Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 36:55-68.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G, M.N. Bester, F.C. Jonker (1997). Changes in population sizes and distribution of fur seals at Marion Island. Polar Biology. 17:150-158.
Hofmeyr. G.J.G, B.A. Krafft, S.P. Kirkman, M.N. Bester, C. Lydersen, K.M. Kovacs (2005). Population changes of Antarctic fur seals at Nyroysa, Bouvetoya. Polar Biology. 28:725-731.
Holdgate, M.W., P.J.Tilbrook, R.W. Vaughan (1968). The biology of Bouvetoya. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin. 15:1-7.
Hucke-Gaete, R., L.P. Osman, C.A. Moreno, D. Torres (2004). Examining natural population growth from near extinction: the case of the Antarctic fur seal at the South Shetlands, Antarctica. Polar Biology. 27:304-311.
Johnstone, G.W. (1982). Zoology. Veenstra, C. & Manning, J. (compilers), eds. Division of National Mapping Technical Report. 31:33-39. Division of National Mapping.
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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Arctocephalus gazella in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 12 Jul 2014 11:38:25 +1000.