In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Zyzomys maini (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006o) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zyzomys maini (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008xt) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (43) (14/08/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006g) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Zyzomys maini |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
|Commonwealth attributions||Connection to APII is unavailable.|
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
Scientific name: Zyzomys maini
Common name: Arnhem Rock-rat
The Arnhem Rock-rat is a conventionally accepted species. It was previously known as the Large Rock-rat and was thought to belong to the same species as the Kimberley Rock-rat (Z. woodwardi), until Kitchener (1989) undertook a comprehensive revision of the genus and divided the two into separate species.
The Arnhem Rock-rat is a large (100150 g) grey rat distinguishable from most other Northern Territory rodents by its large whiskers, typically swollen tail (especially at the base), and the characteristic Roman nose. The tail is up to 15 cm long, and the tip is covered in long hairs. These features are similar to those of the much smaller (3070 g) Common Rock-rat (Z. argurus), but the species can be can be distinguished by size, colour (the Arnhem Rock-rat is typically more grey than brown), and the higher density of long hairs on the tail (Fleming 1995; Woinarski 2006).
Rock-rats have fragile tails and fur, and many individuals may have no or greatly reduced tails, presumably as a consequence of predator attack (Woinarski 2006).
The Arnhem Rock-rat is endemic to the sandstone massif of western Arnhem Land (Woinarski 2004c).
The extent of occurrence of the Arnhem Rock-rat is unknown. The sandstone plateau of western Arnhem Land covers an area of 34 100 km². However, a very high proportion of this area comprises habitat which is not suitable for the Arnhem Rock-rat (Woinarski 2004). The preferred habitat of the Arnhem Rock-rat consists of monsoon rainforests (Begg 1981; Woinarski et al. 1992), however many monsoon rainforest patches are probably unsuitable for this species because they are floristically poor (Russell-Smith et al. 1993) and do not provide suitable food for this species, and some do not coincide with the rocky habitat also required by Arnhem Rock-rats.
The area of occupancy of the Arnhem Rock-rat is not known, but is estimated to be less than 2000 km² (Woinarski 2006) and is likely to be between 100 km² and 1000 km² (J. Woinarski 2004, pers. comm.).
The distribution of the Arnhem Rock-rat is considered to be highly fragmented because of the topographic complexity of the deeply dissected plateau of western Arnhem Land. This landscape is characterised by a mix of very narrow steep-sided gorges, escarpments, boulder fields and extensive sandstone pavements. The preferred vegetation type for Arnhem Rock-rats, monsoon rainforest, has a highly patchy distribution within this environment (Russell-Smith & Bowman 1992; Russell-Smith et al. 1993).
Even within patches of its preferred habitat, there are many sites where sampling has demonstrated absence of Arnhem Rock-rats. Over the last 15 years, fauna surveys in Kakadu National Park have included mammal sampling in 488 quadrats (typically 50 x 50 m, but with some quadrats 80 x 20 m; with each quadrat sampled by 72 trap-nights), spaced across the distribution of sandstone habitats of the western Arnhem Land plateau (Watson & Woinarski 2003, 2004; Woinarski & Braithwaite 1991). Arnhem Rock-rats are readily trappable where present, but were reported from only 33 (6.8%) of these quadrats, illustrating their highly patchy distribution across their range. Further, the number of individuals captured per quadrat indicated a highly clumped dispersion, with local abundance of individuals interspersed with uninhabited areas.
Survey effort has been substantial in the part of the Arnhem Rock-rat's range that falls within Kakadu National Park (comprising about 15% of the area of the plateau of western Arnhem Land) (TSSC 2006o). This effort has included general inventory surveys (such as Calaby 1973), targeted species ecological studies (Begg 1981), and systematic local inventories (Kerle & Burgman 1984). Systematic Park inventories (such as Braithwaite 1985; Woinarski & Braithwaite 1991; Woinarski et al. 1992; Watson & Woinarski 2003, 2004) have surveyed almost 500 quadrats, with a total trap effort of over 35 000 trap-nights.
In contrast, there has been far less survey effort outside of the Kakadu National Park. Surveys for the Arnhem Rock-rat outside of the park include limited reconnaissance survey work in localised areas (Brennan et al. 2003; Churchill 1997; Yibarbuk et al. 2001).
Substantial surveys in other Top End sandstone ranges and plateaus away from that of western Arnhem Land have consistently failed to record this species. The species has not been found in the Litchfield National Park (Griffiths et al. 1997a), Bradshaw (Fisher & Woinarski 2002), ranges in the central Mary River catchment (Armstrong et al. 2002), the Mitchell and Parsons Range of eastern Arnhem Land (Brennan et al. 2003), the ranges of the Gulf Falls and Uplands bioregion (Griffiths et al. 1997), or on any of the rocky islands off north-eastern Arnhem Land (Woinarski 1998) and Groote Eylandt (Webb 1992). Nor are there any incidental records away from the plateau of western Arnhem Land (Parker 1973; Woinarski 2000). The survey effort is considered to be sufficient to confidently claim that this species is restricted to the isolated sandstone plateau of western Arnhem Land (Woinarski 2006).
There are no estimates of total population size of this species. All studies that have considered the Arnhem Rock-rat have used percentage-trap success rate (percentage of occupied traps against empty ones) as their measure of abundance, except the 197779 study at Little Nourlangie Rock (Begg 1981). This latter study used a 'Known To Be Alive' index (total number of tagged individuals re-caught over the course of a trapping session). However, as this index was not area-based, it is impossible to translate this to any measure of density and hence total population size. Where present, the Arnhem Rock-rat can be locally common (Begg 1981; Woinarski et al. 1992).
Survey data indicates that the Arnhem Rock-rat occurs in subpopulations, with very little genetic exchange between locations (Woinarski 2006).
There are three measures of trends in the abundance of the Arnhem Rock-rat, all from within Kakadu National Park, but widely separated within that Park area (Woinarski 2004c). All indicate substantial decline in the last 1020 years (Woinarski 2006).
NAWURLANDJA (Little Nourlangie Rock).
An intensive study of this species was undertaken in four habitats at Nawurlandja from 197780 (Begg 1981; Begg et al. 1981). This study serves as a good baseline for ongoing monitoring. The sampling regime was replicated in 2002 (Watson & Woinarski 2003). The results are summarised in Table 1.
Table 1: Mean abundance of Arnhem Rock-rat (% trap success) in 4 habitats at Nawurlandja (March-May sampling).
Around Jabiluka, Kerle and Burgman (1984) sampled 40 sites over the period 197981; these sites were revisited in 2003 (Watson & Woinarski 2004). See Table 2.
Table 2: Mean abundance (% trap success) of Arnhem Rock-rat across 40 sites around Jabiluka.
KAKADU NATIONAL PARK
In Stage III (Mary River district) of the flora and fauna surveys in the Park, 263 quadrats were sampled in 198890 and again in 2001 (Woinarski et al. 2002). The results are summarised in Table 3.
Table 3: Mean abundance of Arnhem Rock-rat (% trap success) across 263 quadrats in Stage III.
The Arnhem Rock-rat is not known to be prone to extreme population fluctuations. However, the species does show rapid response to fire, declining severely soon after a fire and remaining at low abundance for at least a further 12 months (the recovery time is unknown beyond this period) (Begg et al. 1981).
The generation time of the Arnhem Rock-rat is estimated to be one to two years (Begg 1981; Calaby & Taylor 1983).
About 15% of the sandstone plateau of western Arnhem Land lies within Kakadu National Park, with almost all of the rest located within the Arnhem Land Aboriginal Land Trust. Although the reserved area is not actively managed for the Arnhem Rock-rat, biodiversity conservation is recognised as an explicit goal, with a main component of management including a fire management plan for the Park (Kakadu Board of Management & Parks Australia 1998).
The Arnhem Rock-rat occurs in rugged sandstone environments, typically where there are many caves, crevices or boulders. The species occurs in association with monsoon rainforest, typically in areas which are floristically-rich and provide the fleshy fruits and seeds that form its principal food items (Begg 1981; Begg et al. 1981; Begg & Dunlop 1985; Kerle & Burgman 1984; Woinarski 2000, 2004c; Woinarski et al. 1992).
The Arnhem Rock-rat has only been recorded on sandstone, and preferentially in steeply sloping areas where there are large boulders, or cliff faces with cracks, caves and crevices (Begg 1981; Calaby 1973; Woinarski et. al. 1992; Woinarski 2004). This environment offers some topographic protection from fire, and because of this often supports a fire-sensitive rainforest community (Russell-Smith et al. 1993). Arnhem Rock-rats are particularly associated with this community (Begg 1981). Dominant plant species in this community can be very diverse (Bowman et al. 1990; Dunlop & Begg 1981; Russell-Smith et al. 1993), with the most extensive dominant tree in the plateau of western Arnhem Land being the myrtaceous evergreen Allosyncarpia ternata (Russell-Smith et al. 1993).The total area of monsoon rainforest patches dominated by Allosyncarpia ternata in the sandstone plateau of western Arnhem Land covers about 1140 km² (Russell-Smith et al. 1993). Other monsoon rainforest types on the plateau are far less extensive and probably add to less than 100 km² (J. Woinarski 2004, pers. comm.).
Arnhem Rock-rats may also use other habitats adjoining rainforest, including sandstone heathlands and hummock grasslands (Begg 1981; Woinarski et al. 1992). The intricate mix of these environments, as a consequence of the complex topography of western Arnhem Land, may be an important factor in defining habitat suitability and persistence of Arnhem Rock-rats. A range of locally available environments may help maintain access to resources across the year (Begg 1981; Freeland et al. 1988). Arnhem Rock-rats do not occur in rainforests outside of rocky areas (Menkhorst & Woinarski 1992), possibly because these offer less shelter to the entirely terrestrial rock-rats.
The Arnhem Rock-rat often co-occurs with the smaller Common Rock-rat (Z. argurus), but this latter species has a far broader ecological range and geographic distribution (Begg 1981; Calaby 1973; Kerle & Burgman 1984; Woinarski et al. 1992).
The Arnhem Rock-rat may be especially vulnerable to fire, and may use scree slopes as refugia during and after fire. For example, a study that examined the species' response to an experimental fire found that the Arnhem Rock-rat was most common in rainforest habitats prior to fire. A single experimental fire was then allowed to burn. The fire had a major impact on plants in this environment, but a less severe impact in adjacent scree slopes. In the 12 months after the fire, this species declined dramatically in the burnt rainforest, but increased in the less severely burnt scree slope (Begg 1981).
More broadly, the Arnhem Rock-rat's entire current range can be considered refuge habitat, as it is associated with rainforest pockets that are largely remnants of a wetter climatic period, but are now almost entirely restricted to sites offering unusual moisture availability and/or protection from frequent fire (Bowman & Woinarski 1994; Russell-Smith et al. 1993).
The Arnhem Rock-rat is not part of any currently listed threatened ecological community. However, it is associated (co-occurring and in similar habitat) with the following EPBC Act listed threatened species:
Flora - Boronia quadrilata, B. viridiflora, Sauropus filicinus.
Fauna - Masked Owl (northern) (Tyto novaehollandiae kimberli), Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae) and Golden-backed Tree-rat (Mesembriomys macrurus).
The Arnhem Rock-rat is also known to occur in association with the following species listed as threatened under Northern Territory legislation:
Flora - Cephalomanes obscurum, Hibiscus brennani.
Fauna - Arnhemland Egernia (Egernia obiri), Oenpelli Rock Python (Morelia oenpelliensis), Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), Red Goshawk (Erythrotriorchis radiatus), White-throated Grasswren (Amytornis woodwardi), Northern Quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus), Northern Brush-tailed Phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa pirata), Arnhem Leaf-nosed Bat (Hipposideros inornata) and Brush-tailed Rabbit-rat (Conilurus penicillatus) (Woinarski 2004).
Young Arnhem Rock-rats become sexually mature at five to six months, and may live for two years, although few survive a second breeding season (Fleming 1995). Reproductive output may be dramatically reduced for at least a year after fire (Begg et al. 1981). It has been noted that the minimum monthly survival (proportion of animals that survived from one month to the next) exceeded 80% for all but four months of a 23-month study period (Begg 1981).
There have been only two studies of the life history of the Arnhem Rock-rat. In these studies, pregnant and lactating females were recorded in every month of the year, but with a pronounced peak in March-May. Reproductive output appears to be unusually low for a rodent, with the average litter size being two to three. Most females probably reproduce only once per year (although some have two litters) (Begg 1981; Calaby & Taylor 1983).
The diet of the Arnhem Rock-rat comprises fruits and seeds collected on the ground. Seeds from at least 11 plant species have been reported in the diet, mostly from plants occurring in rainforests. Seed availability was lowest in the wet season (Begg & Dunlop 1980).
The Arnham Rock-rat may collect and eat seeds in a secure location, but is not known to stockpile (Begg 1981; Begg & Dunlop 1980, 1985). Fires may greatly reduce the store of seeds on the ground, and delay or reduce subsequent fruiting and seeding (Begg et al. 1981).
The Arnhem Rock-rat is not migratory. Some immatures are transient, and may leave their natal area to attempt to establish territories elsewhere (Begg 1981).
There is little information on the size of home ranges of the Arnhem Rock-rat. The mean distance between captures of marked individuals was low (4044 m), suggesting that home ranges may be small (Begg 1981).
The Arnhem Rock-rat is distinctive, and should be able to be distinguished from other species. However, juveniles may possibly be confused with the smaller Common Rock-rat (NT DIPE 2006).
Where present, the Arnhem Rock-rat is readily trappable, using conventional Elliott and cage traps. Trapping success is reportedly lowest in April and from September to November (Begg 1981). The presence of Arnhem Rock-rats is often identified by piles of partly-chewed seed-husks under rock overhangs (Fleming 1995).
There are a number of threatening processes operating in monsoon rainforest in the sandstone plateau area. The condition of this area was assessed by Russell-Smith and Bowman (1992). These authors noted that 67% of the sandstone monsoon forests within reserved areas were "severely disturbed" by fire, 47% "severely disturbed" by feral buffalo and/or cattle, and 27% "severely disturbed" by feral pigs. The Arnhem Rock-rat may also be threatened by predation by feral cats (Felis catus) and competition with, or disease from, the exotic black rat (Rattus rattus), but the severity of these impacts upon populations is unknown (Woinarski 2008, pers. comm., in TSSC 2008xt).
Fire and fire-free intervals
The major threat to this species is fire. Fire is a threat to individual animals, can reduce food resources, and has caused longer-term vegetation change across the plateau of western Arnhem Land (TSSC 2006o). The fire regime has changed from the previous fine-scale patchy fires to a current regime dominated by frequent, more extensive and typically more intense (hotter) fires. This change coincides with the decline in Aboriginal settlement in the area and the consequent loss of traditional fire management, mostly since the 1950s (Bowman 1998; Bowman et al. 2001; Russell-Smith et al. 1998; Yibarbuk et al. 2001). Fire is believed to be responsible for the marked and continuing reduction in the region's plant diversity and extent of the two most endemic-rich components of the sandstone environments - heathlands and monsoon rainforests (Russell-Smith & Bowman 1992; Russell-Smith et al. 1993, 1998, 2002, 2003). Fire is also believed to be responsible for the marked and continuing reduction in the abundance of individual fire-sensitive plant species (Bowman 1994; Bowman & Panton 1993; Bowman et al. 2001; Price & Bowman 1994). Russell-Smith and colleagues (1998) consider that over the period 19801994, 40% of sandstone vegetation in Kakadu National Park was burnt at frequencies of at least one year in three and that this current regime would lead to further loss of biodiversity. In particular, these authors suggest that too frequent fires are leading to a loss of obligate seeder species, which comprise 54% of the sampled shrubby heath flora (an obligate seeder species is one that can regenerate only from seed once aerial stems are killed by fire). A minimum of three years (and preferably longer) fire-free interval has been recommended for the persistence of obligate seeder heath plants. Rainforest persistence probably requires a minimum of at least a 510 year fire-free interval. Begg and colleagues (1981) recommend that a three to five year interval between fires would probably be suitable for sandstone-dwelling mammals such as the Arnhem Rock-rat.
Arnhem Rock-rats are affected both by individual fires and the longer-term consequences of fire, including changes to habitat. In describing the response to a single fire event in the Arnhem Rock-rat's preferred monsoon rainforest habitat, Begg (1981) noted that not only did the numbers of rock-rats decline, but that the fire also induced changes to both reproduction and habitat use. Of all mammals in this study, the Arnhem Rock-rat was the most affected by fire, with populations falling to their lowest levels in the wet season following the fire. Two years after the fire (when the study was terminated), the population of Arnhem Rock-rats had not yet recovered (Kerle & Burgman 1984).
The results of the three re-sample surveys for Arnhem Rock-rats (summarised in tables 13 in Population Information) all indicate substantial declines in population numbers, consistent with regional trends for the fire-sensitive vegetation on which this species depends.
Increased resourcing and coordination of Aboriginal Traditional Owners in western Arnhem Land has focused particularly on attempting to re-impose more traditional regimes, and has achieved some local successes (Russell-Smith et al. 2003). However, the increased spread of at least some exotic pasture grasses can be expected to sustain and contribute to future higher intensity fires (Russell-Smith et al. 2003).
It is possible that the Arnhem Rock-rat will benefit from the invasion of cane toads, because this is likely to lead to substantially reduced predation by northern quolls and possibly some snake and goanna species (NT DIPE 2006).
The Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC 2006aj) recommended the following recovery and threat abatement actions for the species:
- Continue to improve the current fire management practices operating on the sandstone plateau of western Arnhem Land in Kakadu National Park to promote the availability of this species' habitat; and
- Develop and implement fire management regimes for areas outside the Kakadu National Park to promote the availability of the species' habitat.
The threat of fire is currently being addressed through the operation of fire management planning in Kakadu National Park, and this has resulted in a reduction in the average proportion of area burnt each year in that Park from 45% in the period 198095 to 40% in the period 19952000 (Edwards et al. 2003). Management of fire for biodiversity conservation is recognised and supported in the Kakadu National Park Plan of Management (Kakadu Board of Management & Parks Australia 1998).
In the majority of the plateau area outside Kakadu National Park, the resources available for natural resource management are limited. Through the Northern Land Council, other local Aboriginal agencies, and the Bushfires Council of the Northern Territory, a community-based fire management program for this region is currently being developed, which will have an explicit aim to reduce fire frequency and extent in order to achieve biodiversity conservation goals (J. Russell-Smith 2006 pers. comm.)
Major studies have been carried out on taxonomy by Kitchener (1989), diet and foraging behaviour by Begg and Dunlop (1980, 1985), habitat, breeding and general life history by Begg (1981), distribution and habitat by Woinarski and colleagues (1992), and response to fire by Begg and colleagues (1981).
The Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2006o, 2006aj, 2008xt) provides brief management recommendations for the species. Additional recovery actions are recommended in Woinarski (2004) for Kakadu National Park.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Zyzomys maini (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006o) [Listing Advice].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Zyzomys maini (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006o) [Listing Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zyzomys maini (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008xt) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zyzomys maini (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008xt) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Bubalus bubalis (Water Buffalo, Swamp Buffalo)||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Zyzomys maini (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006o) [Listing Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Sus scrofa (Pig)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle)||NON-APPROVED Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zyzomys maini (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006aj) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||NON-APPROVED Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zyzomys maini (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006aj) [Conservation Advice].|
Armstrong, M., J. Woinarski, C. Hempel, G. Connors & K. Beggs (2002). A Plan for the Conservation of Biodiversity in the Mary River Catchment, Northern Territory. Darwin: Parks and Wildlife, Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Environment.
Begg, R.J. (1981). The small mammals of Little Nourlangie Rock, Northern Territory. IV. Ecology of Zyzomys woodwardi, the large Rock-rat, and Z. argurus, the Common Rock-rat (Rodentia: Muridae). Australian Wildlife Research. 8:73-85.
Begg, R.J. & C.R. Dunlop (1980). Security eating, and diet in the large rock-rat, Zyzomys woodwardi (Rodentia: Muridae). Australian Wildlife Research. 7:63-70.
Begg, R.J. & C.R. Dunlop (1985). Diet of the large rock-rat, Zyzomys woodwardi, and the common rock-rat Z. argurus (Rodentia: Muridae). Australian Wildlife Research. 12:19-24.
Begg, R.J., K.C. Martin & N.F. Price (1981). The small mammals of Little Nourlangie Rock, Northern Territory V. The effects of fire. Australian Wildlife Research. 8:515-527.
Bowman, D.M.J.S. (1994). Preliminary observations on the mortality of Allosyncarpia ternata stems on the Arnhem Land Plateau, northern Australia. Australian Forestry. 57:62-64.
Bowman, D.M.J.S. (1998). The impact of Aboriginal landscape burning on the Australian biota. New Phytologist. 140:385-410.
Bowman, D.M.J.S. & J.C.Z. Woinarski (1994). Biogeography of Australian monsoon rainforest mammals: general implications for the conservation of rainforest mammals. Pacific Conservation Biology. 1:98-106.
Bowman, D.M.J.S. & W.J. Panton (1993). Decline of Callitris intratropica R.T. Baker & H.G. Smith in the Northern Territory: implications for pre-and post-European colonisation fire regimes. Journal of Biogeography. 20:373-381.
Bowman, D.M.J.S., B.A. Wilson & R.J. Fensham (1990). Sandstone vegetation pattern in the Jim Jim Falls region, Northern Territory, Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology. 15:163-174.
Bowman, D.M.J.S., O. Price, P.J. Whitehead & A. Walsh (2001). The 'wilderness effect' and the decline of Callitris intratropica on the Arnhem Land plateau, northern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany. 49:665-672.
Braithwaite, R.W. (1985). The Kakadu fauna survey: an ecological survey of Kakadu National Park. Canberra: Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service.
Brennan, K., J. Woinarski, C. Hempel, I. Cowie & C. Dunlop (2003). Biological inventory of the Arafura Swamp and catchment. Darwin, Northern Territory Department of Infrastructure Planning and Environment.
Calaby, J.H. (1973). Wildlife - Alligator Rivers Region. Canberra, CSIRO.
Calaby, J.H. & J.M. Taylor (1983). Breeding in wild populations of the Australian Rock-rats, Zyzomys argurus and Z. woodwardi. Journal of Mammalogy. 64:610-616.
Churchill, S. (1997). Habitat use, distribution and conservation status of the Nabarlek, Petrogale concinna, and sympatric rock-dwelling mammals in the Northern Territory. Australian Mammalogy. 19:297-308.
Dunlop, C.R. & R.J. Begg (1981). The small mammals of Little Nourlangie Rock, Northern Territory I. Description of study site. Australian Wildlife Research. 8:51-56.
Edwards, A., R. Kennett, O. Price, J. Russell-Smith, G. Spiers, J. Woinarski (2003). Monitoring the impacts of fire regimes on vegetation in northern Australia: an example from Kakadu National Park. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 12(4):427-440.
Fisher, A. & J. Woinarski (2002). Assessment of the vertebrate fauna of the Bradshaw (Juliki) field training area, Northern Territory. Report to the Australian Heritage Commission. Darwin, Parks and Wildlife Commission of Northern Territory.
Fleming, M.R. (1995). Arnhem Land rock-rat Zyzomys maini. In: Strahan, R., ed. The mammals of Australia. Sydney, Reed.
Freeland, W.J., J.W. Winter & S. Raskin (1988). Australian rock-mammals: a phenomenon of the seasonally dry tropic. Biotropica. 20:70-79.
Griffiths, A.D., C.M. Materne & D.J. Sherwell (1997). Biological Survey of the Proposed Limmen Gate National Park Technical Report 61. Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin.
Griffiths, A.D., J.C.Z. Woinarski, M.D. Armstrong, I.D. Cowie, C.R. Dunlop & P.G. Horner (1997a). Biological Survey of Litchfield National Park. Technical Report no. 62. Darwin, Parks and Wildlife Commission of Northern Territory.
Kakadu Board of Management & Parks Australia (1998). Kakadu National Park Plan of Management. Darwin, Parks Australia.
Kerle, J.A. & M.A. Burgman (1984). Some aspects of the ecology of the mammal fauna of the Jabiluka area, Northern Territory. Australian Wildlife Research. 11:207-222.
Kitchener, D.J. (1989). Taxonomic appraisal of Zyzomys (Rodentia, Muridae) with descriptions of two new species from the Northern Territory, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 14:331-373.
Menkhorst, K.A. & J.C.Z. Woinarski (1992). Distribution of mammals in monsoon rainforests of the Northern Territory. Wildlife Research. 19:295-316.
Northern Territory Department of Infrastructure Planning and Environment (NT DIPE) (2006). Threatened species of the Northern Territory: Information Package.
Parker, S.A. (1973). An annotated checklist of the native land mammals of the Northern Territory. Records of the South Australian Museum. 16:1-57.
Price, O. & D.M.J.S. Bowman (1994). Fire-stick forestry: a matrix model in support of skilful fire management of Callitris intratropica R.T. Baker by north Australian Aborigines. Journal of Biogeography. 21:573-580.
Russell-Smith, J. (2006). Personal Communication.
Russell-Smith, J. & D.M.J.S. Bowman (1992). Conservation of monsoon rainforest isolates in the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation. 59:51-63.
Russell-Smith, J., C. Yates, A. Edwards, G.E. Allan, G.D. Cook, P. Cooke, R. Craig, B. Heath, & R. Smith (2003). Contemporary fire regimes of northern Australia, 1997-2001: changes since Aboriginal occupancy, challenges for sustainable management. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 12:283-297.
Russell-Smith, J., D.E. Lucas, J. Brock & D.M.J.S. Bowman (1993). Allosyncarpia-dominated rain forest in monsoonal northern Australia. Journal of Vegetation Science. 4:67-82.
Russell-Smith, J., P. G. Ryan, D. Klessa, G. Waight and R. Harwood (1998). Fire regimes, fire-sensitive vegetation and fire manage ment of the sandstone Arnhem Plateau, monsoonal northern Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology. 35 (6):829-846. British Ecological Society, Blackwell Press.
Russell-Smith, J., P.G. Ryan & D.C. Cheal (2002). Fire regimes and the conservation of sandstone heath in monsoonal northern Australia: frequency, interval, patchiness. Biological Conservation. 104:91-107.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2006aj). NON-APPROVED Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zyzomys maini. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/zyzomys-maini-conservation.pdf.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2006o). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Zyzomys maini. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/zyzomys-maini-listing.pdf.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008xt). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zyzomys maini. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/25906-conservation-advice.pdf.
Watson, M. & J. Woinarski (2003). Vertebrate monitoring and resampling in Kakadu National Park, 2002. Report to Parks Australia North. Page(s) 2002. Darwin: Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory.
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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Zyzomys maini in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 16 Mar 2014 12:18:26 +1100.