Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Conospermum undulatum [24435]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Lindley
Infraspecies author  
Reference Edwards's Botanical Register -- Appendix to Vols 1-23: A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony (1 Dec. 1839) xxxi.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Conospermum undulatum

Common name: Wavy-leaved Smokebush

Conventionally accepted as Conospermum undulatum (CHAH 2010).

The Wavy-leaved Smokebush is an erect shrub growing to 1.5 m tall with distinctive fibrous, longitudinally fissured stems and hairless leaves growing to 12 cm long and 3.8 cm wide. Leaves taper towards the base and have three distinct, parallel veins and characteristic wavy margins. The woolly, white flowers have long hairs, and are produced in inflorescences (flower heads) held well above the leaves. The fruit are covered with tan orange hairs (Brown et al. 1998; WA DEC 2009g).

The Wavy-leaved Smokebush is found in a restricted area between the suburbs of High Wycombe and Martin, in the foothills of the Darling Scarp, Perth, Western Australia (Bennett 1995; Brown et al. 1998; Sainsbury 1991). The species is found in fragmented remnant bushland in an area of approximately 72 km2 (WA DEC 2009g).

The population trend of the Wavy-leaved Smokebush can be considered to be declining, as suitable habitat is still being lost or degraded across the range of the species (WA DEC 2009g).

In 1990–2005, a series of surveys for the Wavy-leaved Smokebush were undertaken in known and suitable habitat by the Western Australian Department of Conservation and the Wildflower Society of Western Australia. Nine previously unknown populations were found during these surveys (Close et al. 2006; WA DEC 2009g).

Approximately 25 Wavy-leaved Smokebush populations have been recorded, comprising 83 subpopulations. The following table presents population data (WA DEC 2009g):

Population number Land tenure Number of individuals (year of survey)
1a Maida Vale Recreational Reserve 1592 (2005)
1b Gooseberry Hill Shire Road Reserve 362 (2002)
1c Maida Vale Shire Road Reserve 508 (1998)
1d Maida Vale Shire Road Reserve 11 (2002)
1e Maida Vale Water Authority land 57 (2002)
1f Maida Vale Private 33 (2005)
1g Maida Vale Private 0 (2006)
1h Maida Vale Private 80 (2002)
1i Maida Vale Private 177 (2005)
2 High Wycombe Private 139 (2006)
3 High Wycombe Shire Recreational Reserve Extinct (2006)
4a High Wycombe Private 62 (2005)
4b High Wycombe Private 30 (1997)
4c High Wycombe Private Extinct (2006)
4d High Wycombe Private 2 (1997)
4e High Wycombe Private Extinct (1997)
4f Maida Vale Shire Road reserve Extinct (2006)
4g Forrestfield Main Roads Road Reserve 2 (2002)
4h High Wycombe PlanningWA 76 (2006)
4i, 4j, 4k High Wycombe Private 300 (1997)
4l High Wycombe Private (road verge) 20 (2006)
4m High Wycombe Shire Road Reserve 7 (2006)
4n High Wycombe Private 103 (2005)
4o High Wycombe Private 161 (2005)
4p High Wycombe Private 142 (2005)
4q High Wycombe Shire Parkland Reserve 120 (2005)
4r High Wycombe Shire Parkland Reserve 7 (2003)
4s High Wycombe Private 35 (2003)
4t High Wycombe Private Unknown
5 High Wycombe School grounds 15 (2000)
6 High Wycombe Private 11 (1997)
7 High Wycombe Private Extinct (2006)
8a Maida Vale Private 4 (2001)
8b Maida Vale Private 4 (2005)
9 Forrestfield Shire Extinct (2006)
10a Forrestfield Shire Recreational Reserve 30 (2000)
10b Forrestfield Shire Recreational Reserve 0 (2000)
10c Wattle Grove Shire Recreational Reserve 331 (2006)
10d Forrestfield Shire Road Reserve 80 (2000)
10e Wattle Grove Shire Recreational Reserve 10 (2006)
10f Forrestfield Shire Recreational Reserve 0 (2006)
10g Forrestfield Shire Recreational Reserve 13 (2006)
11a Wattle Grove Private 0 (2005)
11b Wattle Grove Private 7 (2006)
11c Wattle Grove Private 100 (2005)
11d Wattle Grove Private 107 (2005)
11e Wattle Grove Private 12 (2006)
12 Wattle Grove Private 72 (2005)
13a Maddington Main Roads 655 (2006)
13b Maddington Main Roads 10 (1997)
13c Maddington Main Roads Extinct (1997)
14a, 14b Martin City Road Reserve, Shire Reserve Extinct (2006)
15 Welshpool Private Extinct (2005)
16a Orange Grove Regional Park 463 (2006)
16b Orange Grove City lands 80 (2006)
16c Orange Grove City lands 209 (2006)
16d Orange Grove City lands 120 (2006)
16e Orange Grove City lands 8 (2006)
16f, 16g Orange Grove Western Australian Planning Commission 911 (2006)
16h Orange Grove Private 236 (2006)
16i Orange Grove Private See 4i
16j Orange Grove Private 17 (2005)
16k Orange Grove City of Gosnells 31 (2006)
17 High Wycombe Main Roads Road Reserve 94 (2006)
18a Forrestfield Sanitary processing 1159 (2006)
18b Forrestfield Private 0 (1997)
18c Forrestfield Private 97 (2006)
18d Forrestfield Western Australian Planning Commission 15 (2006)
18e Forrestfield Agriculture Western Australia 42 (2006)
18f Forrestfield Agriculture Western Australia 134 (2006)
18g Forrestfield Fire and Emergency Services Authority fire training school 750 (2002)
18h Forrestfield Agriculture Western Australia food experimental farm 200 (1997)
18i Forrestfield Shire rubbish tip 50 (1990)
18j Forrestfield Main Roads Road Reserve 61 (2002)
18k Forrestfield Shire rubbish tip 90 (1997)
18m Kewdale Main Roads Road Reserve 7 (2000)
18n Forrestfield Main Roads Road Reserve 232 (2006)
18o Forrestfield Nature Reserve 416 (2006)
18p Forrestfield Main Roads Road Reserve 151 (2006)
19a Wattle Grove Private 0 (2001)
19b Wattle Grove Unallocated Crown land 63 (2005)
19c Wattle Grove Western Australian Planning Commission 25 (2005)
19d Wattle Grove Private 12 (2005)
19e Wattle Grove Main Roads Road Reserve 7 (2005)
20a Maida Vale Private 28 (2000)
20b Maida Vale Shire 2 (2000)
21 Maida Vale Main Roads Road Reserve 1 (2001)
22a, 22b Forrestfield Shire Road Reserve, private 3 (2003)
23 Maida Vale Private 39 (2005)
24a Perth International Airport International Airport 0 (2004)
24b Perth International Airport International Airport 200 (2005)
25 Lesmurdie Private 13 (2005)

The Wavy-leaved Smokebush grows on sand and sandy clay soils, often over laterite, on flat or gently sloping sites between the Swan and Canning Rivers. The species is known from Banksia and jarrah/marri woodland, with a few records from slightly swampy habitat (Brown et al 1998; WA DEC 2009g).

Associated species include the Firewood Banksia (Banksia menziesii), Candlestick Banksia (B. attenuata), Bull Banksia (B. grandis), Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata), Marri (Corymbia calophylla), Western Australian Sheoak (Allocasuarina fraseriana), Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea preissii), Graceful Grass Tree (X. gracilis), Isopogon drummondii, Shell Leaved Hakea (Hakea conchifolia), Honey Bush (H. lissocarpha), Couch Honeypot (Dryandra lindleyana), Many-flowered Honeysuckle (Lambertia multiflora var. darlingensis), Yellow Buttercup (Hibbertia hypericoides), Woollybush (Adenanthos cygnorum), Red and Green Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos manglesii) and Blueboy (Stirlingia latifolia) (WA DEC 2009g).

The Wavy-leaved Smokebush can be found in habitat with Keighery's Macarthuria (Macarthuria keigheryi) and Summer Honeypot (Banksia mimica), which are both listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act (WA DEC 2009g). Also, the species is found as part of the following listed Ecological Communities (WA DEC 2009g):

Ecological commuinity Western Australia ranking EPBC Act
Banksia attenuata woodland over species rich dense shrublands Endangered  
Eucalyptus calophylla - Xanthorrhoea preissii woodlands and shrublands Critically Endangered Endangered
Banksia attenuata and/or Eucalyptus marginata woodlands of the eastern side of the Swan Coastal Plain Endangered Endangered
Herb rich shrublands in clay pans Vulnerable  

The Wavy-leaved Smokebush is considered a long-lived shrub that resprouts from rootstock following disturbance such as fire (Brown et al. 1998; WA DEC 2009g).

The Wavy-leaved Smokebush flowers between August–October (WA DEC 2009g). The species has a low seed set, a low capacity to attract pollinators and a physiological imposed dormancy of seed; attributes that are similar to other species that rely on fire for germination (Close & Dixon 2005 cited in WA DEC 2009g). The species is also has a low dispersal (Close & Dixon 2005 cited in WA DEC 2009g).

The Wavy-leaved Smokebush differs from the Tree Smokebush (C. triplinervium) in its smaller habit, wavy margined leaves and emergent inflorescences with longer hairs. The species never develops a thick, single trunk and is typically multi-stemmed.

The following table presents a summary of threat to the Wavy-leaved Smokebush:

Threat Details
Habitat loss and degradation Most populations are located in degraded natural vegetation remnants. Approximately 23% of known plants are located on subdivided blocks and many other populations are affected by clearing for urban development. Three populations and five subpopulations are known to have become extinct due to land clearance. A further 16% of plants are located on road reserves or near border firebreaks. These plants are threatened by maintenance activities and spraying of verge vegetation with herbicides (Brown et al. 1998; WA DEC 2009g).
Lack of fire The vegetation remnants in which some populations occur have not been burnt for a long period of time. Existing plants are senescing (coming to the end of their lifespan), causing a decline in reproductive output (Brown et al. 1998; WA DEC 2009g).
Weeds Weeds threaten most populations of the Wavy-leaved Smokebush. Weed species compete for resources and weed competition reduces seedling survival (Brown et al. 1998; WA DEC 2009g).
Recreational activities Horse riding, motor biking and four-wheel driving threaten several populations. These activities directly damage plants and also cause soil disturbance that encourages weed invasion (Brown et al. 1998; WA DEC 2009g).
Rabbit grazing The species is susceptible to grazing by Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and, while mature plants have some capacity to resprout, seedlings are particularly vulnerable (Brown et al. 1998; WA DEC 2009g).

The National Wavy-leaved Smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (WA DEC 2009g) identifies actions to assist in the protection and enhancement of the species, including:

  • monitor populations and conduct further surveys in areas of potential habitat
  • liaise with relevant land managers regarding management of bushland containing the species
  • install Declared Rare Flora markers to prevent accidental damage to plants or their habitat
  • fence subpopulations
  • collect seed and other material to preserve genetic diversity
  • undertake weed control
  • develop and implement a rabbit control strategy
  • reassess population numbering and size based on tenure to ensure that tenure boundaries are accurately reflected
  • increase the number of populations of the Wavy-leaved Smokebush in the conservation estate
  • develop and implement fire and soil disturbance trials
  • develop and implement a fire management strategy
  • improve knowledge of the biology and ecology of the species to provide a better scientific basis for its management
  • map habitat critical to the survival of the Wavy-leaved Smokebush.

The biology, ecology and genetics of the population at Perth Airport has been researched. This population exhibits variations in leaf form to other populations and no genetic differentiation was identified in the population (Close et al. 2006; WA DEC 2009g).

Management documents relevant to the Wavy-leaved Smokebush include:

  • National Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (WA DEC 2009g).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Conospermum undulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ft) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Inappropriate disturbance regimes Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat degradation associated with recreational activities such as horse riding Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Conospermum undulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ft) [Internet].
Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by marine invertebrates Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Conospermum undulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ft) [Internet].
Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure Conospermum undulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ft) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Conospermum undulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ft) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009g) [Recovery Plan].

Bennett, E.M. (1995). Conospermum. In: Orchard, A.E. & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 16:214-271. ABRS, Canberra/CSIRO, Melbourne.

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Close, D.C., G. Messina, S.L. Krauss, D.P. Rokich, J. Stritzke & K.W. Dixon (2006). Conservation biology of the rare species Conospermum undulatum and Macarthuria keigheryi in an urban bushland remnant. Australian Journal of Botany. 54:583-593.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.

Sainsbury, R.M. (1991). A Field Guide to Smokebushes and Honeysuckles (Conospermum and Lambertia). Nedlands: University of Western Australia Press.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009g). Wavy-leaved smokebush (Conospermum undulatum) Recovery Plan. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/conospermum-undulatum.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Conospermum undulatum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 21 Sep 2014 23:11:03 +1000.