Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Caladenia busselliana
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia busselliana.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia busselliana.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia busselliana.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Caladenia busselliana
Scientific name Caladenia busselliana [24369]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Hopper & A.P.Br.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Hopper, S.D. & Brown, A.P. (2001), Nuytsia 14(1/2): 57-59
Other names Arachnorchis busselliana [78684]
Caladenia busselliana Hopper & Brown ms. [67224]
Caladenia busselliana Hopper & A.P.Brown ms. [67349]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of Bussell's Spider-orchid, Caladenia busselliana, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

The species is currently listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Scientific name: Caladenia busselliana

Common name: Bussell's Spider-orchid

Bussell's Spider-orchid is 20–30 cm high and has a single hairy leaf, 10–20 cm long and 5–10 mm wide. Each plant displays one to three pale yellow flowers that are similar in size and shape to those of the Dunsborough Spider-orchid (Caladenia viridescens) and also the common Swamp Spider-orchid (Caladenia paludosa) (Stack et al. 2002). Bussell's Spider-orchid differs from these species in having paler yellow flowers, a wholly pale yellow broader labellum and longer, narrower clubs on the sepals (Hoffman & Brown 1992).

Bussell's Spider-orchid is endemic to Western Australia and is known from three subpopulations in the Busselton area, approximately 250 km south of Perth. It is known from two areas near the northern end of the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge between Vasse and Yallingup, and a third location further north-east near Capel, Western Australia (Brown et al. 1998; Hoffman & Brown 1992, 1998; Hopper & Brown 2001b).

The extent of occurrence is calculated to be 92 km². The extent of occurrence was calculated by drawing a boundary around all the known populations to create a polygon. The computer program Arcview GIS and a dataset taken from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's (WA DEC) Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each population) was used to determine the area of the polygon. There is insufficient data to indicate a decline in extent of occurrence of this restricted species (WA DEC 2007).

Survey in similar habitat has failed to locate any additional subpopulations (WA DEC 2007).

The species distribution is considered to be fragmented as the known subpopulations are scattered with considerable distances between them (WA DEC 2007).

The first collection of Bussell's Spider-orchid housed at the Western Australian Herbarium was made in 1954 from an unknown location and exhibited in a flower show. The species then escaped detection until 1990 when it was rediscovered by a Busselton orchid enthusiast (Stack et al. 2002).

The species has been surveyed regularly by DEC staff at its known locations.

Table 1. Survey effort of all subpopulations of Bussell's Spider-orchid (WA DEC 2007).

Subpopulation Survey History Number of Plants Recorded Area
1a









1a & 1b
1991
6/7/1992
15/10/1993
13/10/1994
30/9/1997
14/10/1998
14/10/1999
3/10/2000
4/10/2001
20/9/2002
22/11/2002
11/10/2003
12/10/2006
30
16
63
15
1
5
16
6
6
8
4
6
2
Not recorded
3900 m²
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded

Not recorded
1b 06/7/1992
15/10/1993
04/10/2001
22/11/2002
11/10/2003
0
0
0
1
0
Not recorded
100 m²
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
1c 22/11/2002 3 Not recorded
2 6/7/1992
15/10/1993
7/10/1997
14/10/1998
14/10/1999
3/10/2000
4/10/2001
20/09/2002
22/11/2002
12/10/2006
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
3
3
0
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
3 10/10/1991 Herbarium Specimen Not recorded

The total population size for this species is six plants across three subpopulations (WA DEC 2007).

The species is known from three locations, some of which are split into subpopulations. Subpopulations are defined by differences in land tenure and management, as well as location.

During surveys in 1993, 63 flowering plants were recorded south-east of Dunsborough (subpopulations 1a, b, c). However, the number of flowering plants had declined to just two in 2006. Just two flowering plants were recorded from subpopulation 2 near Carbunup in 1990 and 1997 and none in 2006. A third, unconfirmed population of two flowering plants was recorded from forest, near Capel in 1991. By 2001 this third population had been confirmed and consisted of one plant only. Subpopulation 1 occurs in a small unvested reserve and subpopulation 2 occurs in a Parks and Recreation Reserve vested in the Shire of Busselton (Hopper & Brown 2001b; Papenfus et al. 1997a; Williams et al. 2001).

Subpopulation 1a has experienced a substantial decline in extent of occurrence based on reductions in subpopulation size from 63 plants in 1993 to eight plants in 2002 and two plants in 2006 (WA DEC 2007).

All subpopulations have experienced a substantial decline in extent of occurrence based on reductions in subpopulation sizes (WA DEC 2007).

Bussell's Spider-orchid appears to flower better in the season following summer fire (Williams et al. 2001).

Individual plants are long-lived and are capable of producing seed annually that, under ideal conditions, may germinate and develop into new plants. It takes between two and three years for a seedling to develop into a flowering plant (WA DEC 2007).

As the species is only known from three extant subpopulations, all of these subpopulations would be considered essential for the species recovery and long-term survival (WA DEC 2007).


Bussell's Spider-orchid has been known to hybridise with other Caladenia species. There is a record of a hybrid with Caladenia lorea occurring (WA DEC 2007).

Given the precarious status of the known subpopulations they may at some point in the future become incorporated into a reserve system. Subpopulation 1a occurs in an Unvested Parkland Reserve, subpopulation 1b occurs on a shire road verge and subpopulation 2 occurs in a Shire Reserve (WA DEC 2007).

This species grows over a small geographic range south-east of Dunsborough, suggesting that it is naturally restricted with specific habitat requirements (Papenfus et al. 1997a).

Specifically, this species grows near the margins of winter-wet swamps in Marri (Eucalyptus calophylla) and Jarrah (E. marginata) woodland, in association with Green Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos viridis) and Caladenia paludosa, growing in sandy loam over clay (Brown et al. 1998; Hoffman & Brown 1992; Hopper and Brown, 2001b; Papenfus et al. 1997a).

Near Capel, the single plant recorded was associated with dense weedy herbs and Caladenia lorea, C. flava (Cowslip Orchid), C. latifolia (Pink Fairies) and Diuris aff. amplissima in Tuart woodland with a Peppermint understorey. Soils were calcareous grey sandy loam with scattered limestone rock (Hopper & Brown 2001b).

Bussell's Spider-orchid occurs in the margins of winter-wet swamps in Jarrah and Marri woodland, in association with Green Kangaroo Paw and Dunsborough Spider-orchid (WA DEC 2007). It grows in sandy loam over clay soils (CALM 1999a; WA DEC 2007).

The species grows in association with the critically endangered species Dunsborough Spider-orchid and Caladenia procera in different locations (WA DEC 2007).

Bussell's Spider-orchid has a growing phase from April through to late November. During the summer the orchid remains below ground as a dormant tuber which resprouts in autumn. Following the first seasonal rains a single leaf appears above ground and mycorrhizal associations with soil fungi are active. Orchid seedlings are dependent on specific mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination and nutrition. During winter, the replacement tuber which is essential for survival over the next summer, is initiated and continues to develop until late in the growing season. The survival of the plant to the following growing season is dependent on the presence of this tuber at the end of the growing season and on the tuber's survival of the period of summer dormancy (Stack et al. 2002). Further research is needed to understand what stimulates tuber production, and the interactions between leaves and tubers as 'sinks' for resources. It seems likely that tubers must reach a critical size to sustain dormancy throughout the summer (Patten et al. 2005).

Bussell's Spider-orchid flowers from September to October (Brown et al. 1998; Papenfus et al. 1997a).

Not all plants will produce flowers in any one year. Generally, for every plant in flower, a number of vegetative plants will be present. The proportion of flowering to non-flowering individuals is influenced by environmental conditions including the presence or absence of summer fire and the amount of rainfall received during winter and spring (Stack et al. 2002).

Flowering individuals will produce a bud when tubers resprout in autumn. This bud then quickly develops mid-way through the growing season and continues to grow until flowering. Plants flower for approximately two weeks or until pollination occurs, after which flowers collapse and, if pollination was successful, a seed capsule develops. The capsule swells as the seed matures, which can take from six to eight weeks to develop depending on climatic conditions. If temperatures are higher than average seeds may mature faster. Prior to seeds being released, the green capsule turns yellow and then brown. Small slits develop in the capsule from which the seed is dispersed. Up to 30 000 seeds can be produced in the one capsule (Patten et al. 2005).

Seeds will remain dormant in the soil over summer until rain occurs the following year. Once wet, the seeds imbibe water and the seed coat splits. At this point infection by a suitable fungus is required for germination to occur, which will result in a protocorm and a seedling developing. Not all of these seedlings will mature, as those that fail to produce a tuber will not survive dry summer conditions. If no fungus is present, seed remains in the soil throughout the growing season, and those that are not eaten are killed by dry summer conditions (Batty et al. 2000 cited in Stack et al. 2002).

Orchid seedlings are very small for the first growing season and are difficult to locate. Leaves are typically less than 20 mm long and only a few millimeters wide. It appears that leaf and tuber size will then increase over the next two to five years until they become adult plants capable of flowering (Patten et al. 2005).

The species is most evident during flowering in September and October (Brown et al. 1998). Each plant displays one to three pale yellow flowers that are similar in size and shape to those of Dunsborough Spider-orchid and also the common Swamp Spider-orchid (Caladenia paludosa ) (Patten et al. 2005). Bussell's Spider-orchid differs from these species in having paler yellow flowers, a wholly pale yellow broader labellum and longer, narrower clubs on the sepals.

The species is distinguished from most other members of the Grand Spider-orchid (Caladenia huegelii) group by the lack of a red tip on the labellum and the stiffness of the petals and sepals. Its flowers are also a paler yellow, with a broader labellum and longer, narrower clubs on the sepals than those of its nearest relatives Dunsborough Spider-orchid and Swamp Spider-orchid (Brown et al. 1998).

Surveys for Bussell's Spider-orchid should be conducted during the flowering period of September and October when the species is at its most evident. Climatic factors may affect the timing of flowering. Previous survey efforts have shown that an early October survey should capture flowering plants.

Flowering is stimulated by summer fires and an accurate record of population numbers may be best obtained following such an event (Hopper & Brown 2001b; Papenfus et al. 1997a).

Any additional survey should be focused on the known subpopulations and remnant vegetation in similar soil and vegetation types (WA DEC 2007).

Threats to this species include weed invasion, fire, trampling of plants and picking of flowers, and grazing by kangaroos, rabbits and stock (Papenfus et al. 1997a).

Table 2. Past, present and potential future threats for Bussell's Spider-orchid (WA DEC 2007).

Subpopulation Number Current Condition Past Present Potential Future
1a Healthy Land clearing Weed invasion, grazing, trampling, fire, poor recruitment, rubbish dumping Weed invasion, grazing, trampling, fire, poor recruitment, rubbish dumping
1b Healthy Land clearing Road maintenance, weed invasion, grazing, fire, poor recruitment Road maintenance, weed invasion, grazing, fire, poor recruitment
1c Healthy Land clearing Weed invasion, grazing, fire, poor recruitment Weed invasion, grazing, fire, poor recruitment
2a Healthy Land clearing Firebreak maintenance, weed invasion, grazing, quenda diggings, fire, poor recruitment trampling from recreational use Firebreak maintenance, weed invasion, grazing, quenda diggings, fire, poor recruitment trampling from recreational use.
3 Disturbed Land clearing Land clearing, weed invasion, grazing, fire, poor recruitment Weed invasion, grazing, fire, poor recruitment

Fire
Fire during late autumn, winter and early spring can limit regeneration potential by killing flowering plants and preventing seed set. Too frequent fires can exacerbate weed invasion. However, some orchids respond to summer fire (when the plant is dormant) by flowering well the following spring (Stack et al. 2002). Undergrowth can become excessively dense and orchids can be out-competed if an area is left unburnt for too long. However, fire that occurs when the orchid is in its above ground growth phase will prevent seed set and possibly kill the new tuber if it has not fully developed (Stack et al. 2002).

Recruitment
Poor recruitment threatens all populations with few plants developing seed without artificial assistance, due possibly to the rarity of natural pollinators. It is suspected that low orchid recruitment rates from seed dispersed in their natural environment may, in part, be due to the patchy distribution of mycorrhiza in soils. It is also possible that natural recruitment of terrestrial orchids may only occur in years when a longer growing season results from above average spring rainfall prior to the onset of summer dormancy. Climatic conditions during this time are more conducive to the formation of tubers (Stack et al. 2002).

Habitat Degradation
In the past land clearing would have been one of the main threats to this species in the South West Region. Bussell's Spider-orchid is particularly vulnerable to accidental destruction by road and rail works, too frequent fire or fire at certain times of the year, grazing and weed invasion. Degraded habitat of this species is currently being rehabilitated. Rubbish dumped in the areas has been removed and a weed control program has been implemented.

Southern Brown Bandicoots (Isoodon obesulus), obtain much of their food by digging with their strong claws and have been known to disturb populations through their diggings (WA DEC 2007).

Disease
Bussell's spider-orchid has also displayed poor survival of offspring and deaths of some adult plants due to disease. The species' susceptibility to Phytophthora is unknown, however, there is no evidence that Caladenia species are susceptible (WA DEC 2007; Williams et al. 2001).

Bussell's Spider Orchid (Caladenia busselliana) and Dunsborough Spider Orchid (Caladenia viridescens) Interim Recovery Plan No. 121, 2002–2007 (Stack et al. 2002) lists the following future recovery actions. These actions will be montiored by the Western Australian DEC through the South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (SWRTFCRT).

Coordinate Recovery Actions
This will be undertaken by the South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (SWRTFCRT).

Stimulate seed set
Flowers of the species will be artificially hand pollinated to stimulate seed set. This is necessary to allow for in situ germination and to produce enough seed for collections.

Collect seed and fungal material
Preservation of germplasm is essential to guard against extinction if wild populations are lost. Some seed and fungal material which are needed to propagate plants for translocations have been collected. The collection of seed and endophytic material is important for monitoring and assessing fungal diversity through DNA studies. The Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) and DEC will be responsible for collecting specimens.

Conduct further surveys and Monitor Populations
Community volunteers will be encouraged to participate in further surveys during the floweing period of Bussell's Spider-orchid under DEC staff supervision. Populations will be monitored for factors such as habitat degradation (for example weed invasion, salinity and plant diseases such as Phytopthora cinnamomi).

Finalise the fire management strategy
A coordinated fire response plan has been developed for the South West Region and incorporated in to the Fire Control Working Plan. It includes strategies for fire control for the habitat of each subpopulation.

Obtain biological and ecological information
Improved knowledge of the biology and ecology of Bussell's Spider-orchid will provide a better scientific basis for its management in the wild.

Undertake translocation
As the number of extant plants is very low and subpopulations are not secure from threats, a translocation proposal is currently being developed.

Stimulate flowering
Numbers of flowering specimens in most subpopulations have been declining recently. Where species occur in a habitat that has not recently been subjected to disturbance, such as fire, numbers of flowering individuals have declined. In order to stimulate flowering, selected areas will be subject to small trial recovery burns or to other disturbance such as raking. To ensure that no above ground parts of Bussell's Spider-orchid are damaged, these processes will be undertaken during the non-flowering period, between mid November and April.

Continue weed control
As a consequence of weed control undertaken in previous years, the current level of threat from weeds is low. If monitoring indicates that the threat from weeds has increased, weed control will be undertaken in consultation with the relevant landholders.

Control rabbits
A number of subpopulations have been fenced off after grazing by rabbits was recorded. If monitoring indicates that the rabbits are impacting on other populations through grazing and digging, rabbits will be controlled using appropriate control methods, in consultation with the landholders.

Liaise with land managers
Staff from DEC's Blackwood District will continue to liaise with land managers and owners to ensure that subpopulations are not accidentally damaged or destroyed.

Seek to improve the security of subpopulations
Subpopulation 1b is currently located in a Shire reserve. DEC will continue to seek to have the reserve transferred to the Conservation Commission to be managed by DEC as an 'A' Class Nature Reserve. Subpopulation 1c is located on private land.

Promote awareness
The importance of biodiversity conservation and the need for the long-term protection of wild populations of this species will be promoted to the community through poster displays and local print and electronic media. Information sheets have been produced and distributed in an effort to identify any new populations of Bussell's Spider-orchid.

Rehabilitate habitat as required
DEC will undertake habitat restoration if it is identified as being required during monitoring. Restoration methods may include modifying the distribution of leaf litter and the potential re-introduction of local native plant species that can be identified to provide other needs for pollinators, such as habitat (Stack et al. 2002).

Landowners have been made aware of the occurrence of this species on their property. Where appropriate, road markers have been installed (WA DEC 2007).

Bussell's Spider-orchid taxonomy was originally described by Hopper and Brown (2001b).

Bussell's Spider Orchid (Caladenia busselliana) and Dunsborough Spider Orchid (Caladenia viridescens) Interim Recovery Plan No. 121, 2002–2007 (Stack et al. 2002) and Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region - Wildlife Management Program No. 33 (Williams et al. 2001) provide brief biological and management recommendations for Bussell's Spider-orchid. A new Interim Recovery Plan is being prepared for this species (Patten et al. 2005).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Caladenia bussellianain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cv) [Internet].
Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Caladenia bussellianain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cv) [Internet].
Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Caladenia bussellianain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cv) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Caladenia bussellianain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cv) [Internet].
Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Caladenia bussellianain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cv) [Internet].
Bussels Spider Orchid (Caladenia busselliana ms), Interim Recovery Plan 1996-1999 (Papenfus, D., Brown, A. & Bunny, F., 1997a) [Recovery Plan].
Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Caladenia bussellianain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cv) [Internet].
Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Caladenia bussellianain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cv) [Internet].
Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Caladenia bussellianain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cv) [Internet].
Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Caladenia bussellianain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cv) [Internet].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Caladenia busselliana (Bussell's spider orchid) National Recovery Plan (Patten, J., A. Webb & A. Batty, 2008) [Recovery Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM) (1999a). Bussell's Spider Orchid. [Online]. WA Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/tec/posters/5busorch.pdf.

Hoffman, N. & A. Brown (1992). Orchids of South-west Australia 2nd edn. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.

Hoffman, N. & A. Brown (1998). Orchids of South-west Australia Rev. 2nd edn. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.

Hopper, S.D. & A.P. Brown (2001b). Contributions to Western Australian orchidology: 2. New taxa and circumscriptions in Caladenia (Spider, Fairy and Dragon Orchids of Western Australia). Nuytsia. 14(1/2):27-314. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation & Land Management.

Papenfus, D., Brown, A. & Bunny, F. (1997a). Bussels Spider Orchid (Caladenia busselliana ms), Interim Recovery Plan 1996-1999. Waneroo, WA Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Patten, J., A.P. Webb & A. Batty (2005). Bussell's Spider Orchid (Caladenia busselliana) Interim Recovery Plan No. 214, 2005-2010. Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Stack, G., A. Batty & M. Spencer (2002). Bussell's Spider Orchid (Caladenia busselliana) and Dunsborough Spider Orchid (Caladenia viridescens) Interim Recovery Plan No. 121, 2002-2007. [Online]. Wanneroo, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/cal_bus_vir_irp121.pdf.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia busselliana in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 23 Jul 2014 08:04:47 +1000.