In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus argutifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008np) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Goats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999d) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eucalyptus argutifolia |
|Species author||Grayling & Brooker|
|Reference||Nuytsia 8(2) (1992) 215.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Eucalyptus argutifolia
Common name: Yanchep Mallee
Other names: Wabling Hill Mallee
Conventionally accepted as Eucalyptus argutifolia (CHAH 2010).
The Yanchep Mallee is a small, multi-stemmed mallee tree growing to 4 metres in height. The bark is smooth, and grey to pale copper in colour. Adult leaves are thick, glossy green and alternate. They are 7.3–12 cm long, 1.2–3 cm wide and are broadly lanceolate (lance-shaped). Leaf stems are 1.8–2.5 cm long. Juvenile leaves are 4–7 cm long and 3–5.5 cm wide. Comparative to adult leaves, the base, and sometimes tip, of the juvenile leaf is rounded. Juvenile leaves are opposite for a few nodes of each branch and then alternate (EUCLID n.d.; Grayling & Brooker 1992; Patrick & Brown 2001).
Yanchep Mallee flowers are white. The buds are either stalkless or on a short stalk and in groups of 7–9 (sometimes 11). Each bud is egg-shaped to cylindrical, up to 1.2 cm long and 0.6 cm wide, with a hemispherical cap. The fruit are ribbed, cup-shaped to cylindrical, and on stout stalks onto which the ribs often extend. The seeds are shiny and ruby red to reddish-brown, 1.5–3.2 mm long, flattened, egg-shaped with a somewhat angular outline (EUCLID n.d.; Grayling & Brooker 1992; Patrick & Brown 2001).
The Yanchep Mallee is endemic to Western Australia. Where it is known from two locations: a narrow 120 km long coastal strip between Wanneroo and Guilderton in the Perth area; and at Lake Clifton near Mandurah (WA DEC 2008).
The extent of occurrence of the species is 1940 km2 (WA DEC 2008).
The Yanchep Mallee is known from 18 populations, with approximately 730 plants known in total (WA DEC 2008).
In 2006, 13 of the 18 known populations were surveyed and approximately half of the populations showed a decline in plant numbers, and the others showed an increase. However, there are insufficient data available to determine any trends in the overall population. Given that the species occurs on a substrate that is commonly mined, it is likely that the area of occupancy will decline in the future (WA DEC 2008).
No populations of the Yanchep Mallee are found in conservation reserves. Seven populations occur in State Forest, two occur in unallocated Crown land and nine occur on private properties (WA DEC 2008).
The Yanchep Mallee occurs on slopes or gullies near the coast and, to a lesser extent, close to the summits of limestone ridges. Soils at these sites are shallow, well drained and grey with outcrops of limestone (Brown et al. 1998; EUCLID n.d.; Grayling & Brooker 1992; WA DEC 2008). One population is found on limestone soils near a river on both a cliff and within a gully.
The Yanchep Mallee is commonly associated with heath and thicket species including Parrot Bush (Banksia sessilis), Chenille Honey-myrtle (Melaleuca huegelii), Spider Net Grevillea (Grevillea thelemanniana), Native Wisteria (Hardenbergia comptoniana) and Acacia sp. (Brown et al. 1998; Patrick & Brown 2001).
Associated coastal eucalypts include the Freemantle Mallee (Eucalyptus foecunda), E. decipiens and E. petrensis (Brown et al. 1998; Kelly et al. 1995; Patrick & Brown 2001).
Yanchep Mallees may occur in locations considered part of Shrublands and Woodlands on Muchea Limestone of the Swan Coastal Plain an ecological community listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act.
The species may survive for extended periods (up to 2000 years) through clonal growth. Fire or strong wind can destroy above-ground growth, however the underground lignotuber is capable of surviving such events due to the vegetative buds and nutrients contained inside it (Nicolle 2006). Post fire regeneration has been observed approximately three to four years after fire events (Patrick & Brown 2001).
The Yanchep Mallee is thought to mature at approximately five years of age and the species is said to flower 'profusely', producing thousands of mostly insect pollinated flowers per year (Grayling & Brooker 1992; Kennington & James 1997b). Flowering occurs from March to April (Grayling & Brooker 1992), but much of the seed produced is either aborted in early stages of development or is non-viable (Grayling & Brooker 1992; Kennington & James 1997b). Growth is therefore mainly clonal in nature and originates from underground lignotubers (Kennington & James 1997b). This means that, in many populations, the true number of genetically distinct individuals may be much lower than numbers of stems or trunks counted. Estimates from a study by Kennington and James (1997a) suggests that the entire species may consist of less than 500 genets (an individual from which all stems come from). Several populations are recorded as having clonal groups spanning areas larger than 100m2 and the largest clonal group is estimated to be 306m2 in area (Kennington & James 1997a).
Hybridisation of the Yanchep Mallee with other eucalypt species has been noted, but these hybrids do not survive as seedlings (Kennington & James 1997b).
The White Mallee (E. phenax) and the Dongara Mallee (E. obtusiflora) are similar to the Yanchep Mallee within its range. The Yanchep Mallee is known to have rounder juvenile leaves, broader glossy green adult leaves with fewer oil glands, non-glaucous buds and fruit with shorter, stouter pedicels (stem attaching flowers to main stem) than the White and Dongara Mallee (Brown et al. 1998; EUCLID n.d.; Grayling & Brooker 1992).
The glaucous Ribbon-barked Gum (E. sheathiana) may also be mistaken for the Yanchep Mallee, but has a different distribution as it occurs to the east, near Wongan Hills (Brown et al. 1998; EUCLID n.d.; Grayling & Brooker 1992).
Mining for limestone is a threat to ten known populations of Yanchep Mallee, which are located adjacent to or within existing limestone quarries (WA DEC 2008).
Grazing and Weeds
Grazing by Cattle (Bos taurus) and Goats (Capra hircus) is a threat to three populations of the species (WA DEC 2008).
Weeds have also been recorded at three populations. Weeds have the potential to alter fire and grazing patterns and suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light (WA DEC 2008).
Road and Firebreak Maintenance
Four populations are threatened by road and firebreak maintenance activities including grading, chemical spraying, and the mowing of roadside and firebreak vegetation (WA DEC 2008).
Land clearing for mining and housing is a potential threat to the species due to loss of habitat (WA DEC 2008).
Inappropriate Fire Regimes
The lack of fire management could have a detrimental impact on the species due to its relatively small (effective) population size and its clustered distribution. While fire resistant, the species is not immune to fire devastation (WA DEC 2008).
Recreational activities in and around the sites of Yanchep Mallee populations may affect the viability of the populations, threatening established trees and seedling viability (WA DEC 2008).
Management documents for the Yanchep Mallee include:
- Interim Recovery Plan for the Shrubland and Woodlands on Munchea Limestone 2000-2003 (English & Blyth 2000j).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus argutifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008np) [Conservation Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus argutifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008np) [Conservation Advice].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus argutifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008np) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Capra hircus (Goat)|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure||Eucalyptus argutifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006il) [Internet].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals||Eucalyptus argutifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006il) [Internet].|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
English, V. & J. Blyth (2000j). Interim Recovery Plan for the Shrubland and Woodlands on Munchea Limestone 2000-2003. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/muchea-limestone-woodlands/index.html#download.
Environment Australia (EA) (1999d). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Goats. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/goats08.html.
EUCLID (n.d.). Eucalyptus argutifolia. [Online]. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/Euclid/sample/html/ARGUTI.htm.
Grayling, P.M. & Brooker, M.I.H. (1992). Four new species of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) from Western Australia. Nuytsia. 8(2):209-218. Como, WA; Western Australian Herbarium.
Kelly, A.E., A.C. Napier, & S.D. Hopper (1995). Survey of rare and poorly known eucalypts of Western Australia. CALM Science. Suppl. 2. Waneroo Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM).
Kennington, W.J. & S. H. James (1997a). Contrasting Patterns of Clonality in Two Closely Related Mallee Species from Western Australia, Eucalyptus argutifolia and E. obtusiflora (Myrtaceae). Australian Journal of Botany. 45(4):679-689.
Kennington, W.J. & S.H. James (1997b). The effect of small population size on the mating system of a rare clonal mallee, Eucalytpus argutfolia (Myrtaceae). Heredity. 78:252-260.
Nicolle, D. (2006). A classification and census of regenerative strategies in the eucalypts (Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus-Myrtaceae), with special reference to the obligate seeders. Australian Journal of Botany. 54(4):391-407.
Patrick, S.J. & A.P. Brown (2001). Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 28. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008np). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus argutifolia. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/24263-conservation-advice.pdf.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus argutifolia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 12:25:43 +1000.