Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata (Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2010j) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Environment Australia (EA), 1999a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Goats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999d) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
ACT:Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata): An endangered species, Action Plan No. 22. Environment ACT, Canberra (ACT Government, 1999b) [State Action Plan].
ACT:Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata). An endangered species (Environment ACT, 2010) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby - endangered species listing (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2003f) [Internet].
NSW:Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005iu) [Internet].
NSW:Recovery plan for the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2008h) [State Recovery Plan].
NSW:Warrumbungle Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Endangered Population Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2003m) [State Recovery Plan].
QLD:Enhancing biodiversity hotspots along Western Queensland stock routes (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Qld DERM), 2009a) [Management Plan].
VIC:Action Statement No. 19 Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby, Petrogale penicillata (Hill, R. & D. Baker-Gabb, 2003) [State Action Plan].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
The action plan for threatened Australian macropods 2011-2021 (World Wildlife Fund for Nature - Australia (WWF), 2011).
State Listing Status
ACT: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1980 (Australian Capital Territory): 2013)
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013)
Scientific name Petrogale penicillata [225]
Family Macropodidae:Diprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Gray,1827)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.npws.nsw.gov.au/wildlife/thr_profiles/brutwal.pdf

The current conservation status of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby, Petrogale penicillata, under Australian and State Government legislation is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Australian Capital Territory: Listed as Endangered under the Nature Conservation Act 1980.

New South Wales: Listed as Endangered under Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Queensland: Listed as Vulnerable under the Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 1994.

Victoria: Listed as Critically Endangered under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

Scientific name: Petrogale penicillata

Common name: Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby

Other names: This species was originally described as Kanagarus penicilattus in 1825 and became Petrogale pencillata in 1837.

The Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby is brown above, tending to be rufous on the rump and grey on the shoulders. The chest and belly is paler and in some individuals there is a white blaze on the chest. There is a white to buff cheek stripe and a black dorsal stripe from the forehead to the back of the head. The exterior of the ears is black, and inside the ears is buff. There is a black auxiliary patch often extending as a dark stripe to the margin of the hind-legs. There is a pale grey side-stripe sometimes present. The feet and paws are dark brown to black. The tail darkens distally with a prominent brush. The pelage is long and thick, particularly about the rump, flanks and base of the tail. Individuals from the north of the species' range tend to be lighter and have a less prominent tail brush (Eldridge & Close 1998).

Males grow to 529–586 mm and females to 510–570 mm in head and body length. The tail length of the male is 510-700 mm and 500-630 mm for females. Males reach a weight of 5.5–10.9 kg and females a weight of 4.9–8.2 kg (Eldridge & Close 1998).

Rock-wallabies are highly agile animals that are able to move swiftly by means of highly precise bounds through rugged and precipitous areas. The agility has been attributed to their long flexible tail used for balance and their short, flexible, well-padded, rough-textured feet which provide traction (Sharman & Maynes 1983).

The Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby was once widespread and abundant in southeastern Australia. It was formerly found along the Great Dividing Range from Nanango in south-east Queensland through to east Gippsland in Victoria (Connolly 1995; Eldridge & Close 1992; Short & Milkovits 1990). However, there has been a reduction in the species' range and numbers with the decline being greatest in Victoria and southern NSW (DEC 2005c) and the last confirmed sighting of this species in the ACT was at Wallaby Rocks in Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve in 1959 (Ormay 1996). Despite this range contraction, the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby is still the most widespread Petrogale in eastern Australia (Eldridge & Close 1992). The species is known from 962 nationally-recorded sites; 876 of these sites are in NSW (DEC 2005c).

In this profile, the term 'population' is used to describe a subset of individuals of the species occupying a defined area and potentially interbreeding. It is extremely rare for animals from different populations to exchange individuals or interbreed, so populations can be readily identified genetically. For example, there is a distinct population of Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies in the Warrumbungle National Park in NSW, 150 km from the nearest surviving population at Narrabri (NSW NPWS 2003a). Genetically separate populations of Brush-tailed Rock Wallabies can be much closer together than this; a remnant population at Taralga in NSW is distinct from one at Wombeyan Caves, only 14 km away (Eldridge et al. 2004). Within a population, the term 'colony' describes an aggregation of individuals in a patch of suitable habitat, surrounded by unoccupied habitat. For example, within the Warrumbungle National Park population, there are seven colonies, each containing around seven individual wallabies. Two colonies each occur on a discrete hill, and five occur on sections of long cliff-lines (NSW NPWS 2003a). A colony might use 800 m of cliff, or around 35 ha (Hazlitt et al. 2004). Each discrete colony is susceptible to local extinction and recolonisation through dispersal of new animals from other nearby colonies. Colonies of Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies may be subdivided into even smaller family units (Hazlitt et al. 2004).

ACT
A captive population is being managed at Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve (ACT), however the species is presumed to be extinct in the wild (Ormay 1996). Findings of Rock-wallaby bones and evidence of the species in predator scats along the Orroral Ridge in Namadgi National Park may suggest a more recent occurrence of the species (Reside & Martin 1996) but no records have been made. The nearest known extant populations to the ACT occur at Taralga (136 km north-northeast of Canberra) and in Kangaroo Valley (187 km east-northeast of Canberra) (ACT Government 1999b).

NSW
Surveys in 1993 located 47 existing colonies, in central, southern and western regions of NSW, most of which also constituted isolated populations. In the northeastern region, most Brush-tailed Rock-Wallabies were in one of three main populations; one consisting of more than 50 colonies in the Macleay Gorges system, one consisting of more than 20 colonies on the Cataract River, and one consisting of more than 20 colonies on the Clarence River (Dovey et al. 1997). Altogether, Dovey and colleagues (1997) identified 100 colonies in the north-eastern region of NSW. A survey of the species in 1995 located 15 colonies within one population in Yengo National Park and the Parr State Recreation Area (Rummery et al. 1995). Brush-tailed Rock-Wallaby populations in northern NSW are less fragmented than in southern NSW. For example, colonies along the Apsley-Macleay River and the Clarence River (where most of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies in NSW occur) form near-continuous populations (DEC 2005c). The species is now absent from the western slopes and plains of NSW except for the population in the Warrumbungle National Park (Maxwell et al. 1996; NSW NPWS 2003a).

Historical research into the timing and causes of decline in the Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies in NSW has extended the historical range of the species and indicated greater continuity in its distribution than previously recorded (Lunney et al. 1997).

Queensland
Populations of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby occur, or did occur, throughout the Great Dividing Range from the border with NSW to Nanango, 100 km northwest of Brisbane (where it forms a hybrid zone with Petrogale herberti) (Eldridge & Close 1992). Although there are no recent surveys published from Queensland, this species is considered to be declining and vulnerable (Clancy & Close 1997). It appears that the population in Lamington National Park is now extinct (Maxwell et al. 1996).

Victoria
There were six populations of the Brush-tailed Rock-Wallaby in Victoria, and there are currently five. There was a small population at Red Rock in the Grampians, 550 km away from the nearest population in East Gippsland (Close et al. 1988). The Grampians population is thought to be extinct (J. Seebeck, as cited in DEC 2005c). In 1986, Norris and Belcher found a population of Brush-tailed Rock-Wallabies at Rocky Plains Creek, which is a tributary of the Suggan Buggan River in the upper Snowy River area of East Gippsland, and determined that there were four other extant populations in the East Gippsland region (Close et al. 1994; Norris & Belcher 1986).

Captive populations

Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby are held in Australia and have been used as a focus of behavioural, management and genetic research. Two separate populations have been managed in zoos through the Australian Species Management Program (the species management arm of the Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria, ARAZPA) (DEC 2005c).

Animals taken from the wild in East Gippsland, Victoria, founded one of these populations. Management of this population has been coordinated through Healesville Wildlife Sanctuary in close cooperation with the Victorian Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby recovery team. Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve (ACT) and Adelaide Zoo (SA) have also been involved in this program (DEC 2005c).

A second population has been managed through Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve in close cooperation with the NSW Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby recovery team (DEC 2005c). This population is the largest captive population in Australia (ACT Government 1999b). Animals in the population were sourced from Kawau Island in New Zealand, and have been held in Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, Taronga Zoo (NSW) and Gorge Wildlife Park (SA) (DEC 2005c).

The captive population of Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby housed at the Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve is part of a public display of wildlife (ACT Government 1999b). Besides playing a role in public education, other objectives of the captive management program for the species are to:

  • Maintain a manageable captive population and to ensure long-term genetic integrity of the population.
  • Contribute to the conservation and re-establishment of the species within its former and present range (Underwood 1997).

To date, these regionally managed populations have been used to develop husbandry protocols and to establish and refine techniques for rapid population expansion (Bell & Close, 1994; Taggart et al. 2005). Also, locally derived animals are held at Jenolan Caves, and Macquarie University (NSW) holds a range of Petrogale species (DEC 2005c).

The Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby was successfully introduced to Hawaii and New Zealand. On the island of Oahu, a small population of rock-wallabies, descended from two animals, has existed since 1916. In New Zealand, where the species was introduced in the 1870s, the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby is found on Kawau, Rangitoto and Motutapu Islands. On some of these islands the species has reached pest proportions and is regularly culled (Eldridge & Close 1998).

Historical, ecological and genetic surveys have been conducted on the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby by a number of researchers (Close et al. 1994; Eldridge et al. 2004; Joblin 1983; Lunney et al. 1997).

Research into the genetics of Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby is reported in Close and colleagues (1988; 1994), Eldridge and Close (1992), and Eldridge and colleagues (1988; 2004). Research and studies on the behaviour and ecology of Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby have also been undertaken, and publications on this work include Bayne (1994), Jarman and Bayne (1997), Joblin (1983), Scholz (1980), and Short (1980).

The following is a summary of the surveys to date, divided according to location:

ACT
After the last confirmed sighting in the ACT in 1959, the first comprehensive survey work was undertaken by Ormay in 1982 and 1985, with 38 sites checked and five of these showing traces of former occupation (ACT Government 1999b; Ormay 1996).

In 1994, Connolly (1995) assessed sites for suitability for the reintroduction of Petrogale penicillata and surveyed additional sites using colour and aerial photographs. Connolly located a further 13 sites and selected six study areas for assessing their suitability (ACT Government 1999b). However, both Ormay (1996) and Connolly (1995), concluded that there were no sites suitable in the ACT for re-introduction of the species, the main reasons being the accessibility of sites, presence of predators and proximity of sites to cleared land (ACT Government 1999b; Connolly 1995).

Reside and Martin (1996) also searched 13 sites in the ACT and found evidence of previously unknown prior occupation, at seven of these sites. These results provide further indications that the species is extinct in the ACT. In addition, this study classified the ACT sites on the basis of habitat qualities and predator susceptibility (high, medium or low); providing a useful basis for assessment of suitability for re-introduction of the species (ACT Government 1999b).

NSW
A major survey of the species' distribution in south-eastern Australia was carried out in 1990 (Short & Milkovits 1990). The species was located at 37 sites where it had occurred within the previous 20 years, and was presumed extinct at a further thirty sites investigated during the survey (NPWS 2003a).

In 1993, a more comprehensive survey was conducted by Wong and collegues (1994) which located 47 colonies in 18 localities in central, southern and western NSW, and more than 100 colonies were located at 15 localities in northern NSW. The survey covered a further 14 sites where the species had become extinct. Since the 1993 survey, rock-wallabies in at least four of the identified sites have become locally extinct (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Shelley (1992) surveyed the Warrumbungles in 1991, but found no signs of the species' presence. A series of extensive ground surveys was then conducted from 1993 to 1999, locating six colonies (NSW NPWS 2003a).

A survey was conducted in 1999 by a rock-wallaby biologist, based on the density and distribution of pellets at seven colony sites (V. Wong undated. pers. comm., cited in NSW NPWS 2003a). From this survey four priority sites were defined; the estimated size of each colony ranged from five to 15 individuals (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Direct assessment in June 2002 by two experienced rock-wallaby biologists, provided a baseline estimate of 15 rock-wallabies remaining at five sites in the Warrumbungles (Reside & Martin 2002, cited in NSW NPWS 2003a).

Victoria
In 1971, Wakefield (1971) announced the discovery of the small population at Red Rock in the Grampians and staff from the Fisheries and Wildlife Division monitored the colony until the mid-1970s (DSE 1991). Further investigations into the history and distribution of this species in the Grampians were conducted in the mid-late 1980s.

In 1983 and 1985, a systematic survey for this species was carried out which established that Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies had been widespread in the Grampians (Close 1984; Close et al. 1988). Close captured two animals and using cytological techniques, unequivocally identified them as Petrogale penicillata (Close 1984; Close et al. 1988).

Another detailed survey was conducted in 1988, when Lobert surveyed the Grampians National Park and Black Range State Park; this study failed to locate any new populations of Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies. Lobert and Waters (1988) then went on to make recommendations for research and management of the species in this region, especially in regard to the control of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes).

East Gippsland was surveyed for rock-wallabies in 1986 (Norris & Belcher 1986). Only three of the ten populations found by Rogers and Wakefield were still extant and a fourth previously unknown population was located (Norris & Belcher 1986).

It is estimated that the total population size is between 15 000 and 30 000 individuals. Gaining a more precise estimate of numbers is difficult due to inaccessibility of the species habitat, particularly to the north of its range where numbers are known to be greater (DEC 2005c). Seventeen percent of the total population occurs in southeastern Queensland, 82% in NSW (including ACT), and fewer than 1% in Victoria. Up to 80% of the total population occurs in northern NSW alone (DEC 2005c).

Evolutionary Significant Units (ESU) are genetically distinct populations within the species. Within the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby species there are three ESUs in Australia:

  • Northern ESU (northeastern NSW and southeastern Queensland populations)
  • Central ESU (central NSW population)
  • Southern ESU (Victorian population).

It is estimated that 10 000 to 25 000+ individuals remain in Northern ESU, 1000 in Central ESU and less than 10 in Southern ESU. All estimates refer to individuals remaining in the wild (DEC 2005c).

In addition the original estimate of the population size at the Warrumbungles was 40 individuals (Wong undated, pers. comm., cited in NSW NPWS 2003a), but recent estimates are as low as 15 individuals (Reside & Martin 1996).


In the north of its range, Petrogale penicillata contacts Petrogale herberti (Herbert's Rock-wallaby) and an apparently narrow hybrid zone (an area of overlap between species, where interbreeding occurs) has formed. In this zone, some female hybrids are fertile, allowing limited exchange of genes between the two species. This exchange is not widespread and each species appears to be retaining its genetic identity (Eldridge & Close 1998).

Of the total 962 nationally-recorded sites, approximately half are within conservation reserves. The majority of other sites are on private lands, while fewer than 10% of sites are on State Forest or vacant Crown Land. In NSW, where the majority of the species occurs, there are 876 recorded sites - 42% are in reserves, and 30% are in freehold lands. The remaining sites are in State Forests, Crown Land or Leasehold lands (DEC 2005c).

The Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby occurs in the following conservation reserves:

ACT
Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve (captive population) (ACT Government 1999b).

NSW
Warrumbungle National Park, Mt Kaputar (very rare or locally extinct), Blue Mountains, Kanangra Boyd, Oxley Wild Rivers, Guy Fawkes River, Yengo, Wollemi and Wadbilliga National Parks, and Jenolan Caves Reserve (Maxwell et al. 1996).

Queensland
Queen Mary Falls, Mt Barney, Sundown and Main Range National Parks (Maxwell et al. 1996).

Victoria
Grampians and Snowy River Alpine National Parks (Maxwell et al. 1996).

This species prefers rocky habitats, including loose boulder-piles, rocky outcrops, steep rocky slopes, cliffs, gorges and isolated rock stacks (Murray et al. 2008; Short 1982). It also utilises tree limbs (Maxwell et al. 1996; Sharman & Maynes 1983). While it appears that most Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby colonies are on north-facing slopes and cliff lines (Short 1982), colonies have been found on south-facing cliffs in Kangaroo Valley (Kutzner & Dodd 1996; Wong 1997), in the Macleay River Gorge (Bayne 1994), in the Warrumbungles and at Mt Kaputar (Soderquist undated, pers. comm., cited in NSW NPWS 2003a), although usually in lower densities.

Rocky outcrops appear crucial to current habitat selection by rock-wallabies, however, vegetation structure and composition is also considered to be an important factor (Bugg 1995; Lim & Giles 1987; Pearson 1992). In many parts of their range, including at the Warrumbungles, rock-wallabies are closely associated with dense arboreal cover, especially fig trees (NSW NPWS 2003a). The vegetation on and below the cliff appear to be important to this species as a source of food and shelter and in some cases may provide some protection from predation (Wong 1993; 1997). A range of vegetation types are associated with Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby habitat, including dense rainforest, wet sclerophyll forest, vine thicket, dry sclerophyll forest, and open forest (Murray et al. 2008).

In the Shoalhaven, the proximity of mesic vegetation, vegetation structure and floristics are important habitat factors for this species (Bugg 1995). Bugg (1995) found that core habitat in the Shoalhaven occurs where mesic vegetation is associated with complex cliffs, boulder piles and rock outcrops.

In Curracbundi National Park, 1100 transects, each 100 m long, were walked along potential habitat and showed that Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby scat was found in 56% of transects, occupying a diverse array of habitats: rainforest gullies and dry ridges, riverbanks and outcrops far from water sources, refuges adjacent to and far from cleared pasture. In the park, the species was more abundant in larger and more complex refuges, however, they also occupied less complex habitat down to the most marginal refuges (Tuft 2009).


Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies typically shelter during the day in rock crevices, caves and overhangs, yet often bask in exposed sunny spots (Sharman & Maynes 1983). Within their home range, rock-wallabies habitually use the same refuges, sunning spots, feeding areas and pathways (Joblin 1983) and these are often defended vigorously (Bayne 1994).

An investigation on habitat-choice of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby was carried out during winter from May to September 2001, on a population of the species located on private property at Hurdle Creek, near the township of Mt Colliery, Queensland. This investigation showed that Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies selected foraging locations that tended to be more open and with more short green grasses and forbs than other locations nearby. The study showed that foraging Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies did not favour areas that were concealed by tussocks or near to the cliffs (Carter & Goldizen 2003).

During the investigation, Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies were observed moving towards 'lookout' structures (e.g. a log, stump or rock) when they were startled, and sitting on them for up to 30 mins afterwards (Carter & Goldizen 2003). These 'lookout' structures appeared to be an important component of habitat use. When startled, the rock-wallabies also fled either to nearby areas that offered thicker vegetation than the open areas or simply out of sight over a slope, although the direction of flight was usually towards the cliff (Carter & Goldizen 2003).

Sexual maturation of females occurs at 18 months and males at 20–24 months (Lee & Ward 1989; R. Close undated, pers. comm., cited in DEC 2005c).

Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies are polygamous and a dominant male will be found with up to four females. They appear to live in family groups of two to five adults and usually one or two juveniles and sub-adult individuals (Joblin 1983; Short 1980), but are also known to occur in male-female pairs (Bayne undated pers. comm., cited in DEC 2005c).

Breeding habitat
A rocky habitat with an abundant supply of ledges, caves and potential pathways, plus a northerly aspect were found to be important for rock-wallabies to breed (Short 1982).

Reproduction details
Females give birth to a single pouch young at a time, after a gestation period of approximately 30 days (Close 1993). The young remain in the pouch for six months. After it first emerges from the pouch, the joey spends a further seven to 20 days in and out of the pouch. The mother leaves the dependent young in small caves during the day between feeds. Weaning is believed to occur 86 days after leaving the pouch, when the joey is nine months old (Lee & Ward 1989).

The diet of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby is primarily grasses (35–50%), forbs (25–40%) and "browse" (shrubs, trees and climbers) (12–30%) with ferns and sedges of very minor importance (Short 1989). It is also reported to eat Themeda triandra (Kangaroo Grass) more than other grass species (Jarman & Phillips 1989).

Rock-wallabies forage mostly at night (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby colonies generally do not move, but may occasionally do so in response to disturbance (Close undated, pers. comm., cited in NSW NPWS 2003a). A local landholder near Mt Wallerawang in the Atagan State Forest reported that rock-wallabies were not observed at a site after a fire occurred, with the area being recolonised several years later. Norris and Belcher (1986) suggest that a nomadic group of rock-wallabies travelled along the Snowy Gorge, although this remains unverified. Disturbance by goats or humans may precipitate movements away from their refuge or foraging sites (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Both sexes of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby establish home ranges, with the larger male range overlapping the smaller home ranges utilised by females (Bayne 1994). Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby rest sites on Montutapu Island in New Zealand (a very high density population) were used exclusively by individuals 95.4% of the times and never shared by adult males (NSW NPWS 2003a).

The home ranges of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies have only been measured at one locality, the Goulburn River in central eastern NSW. Here home ranges were roughly rectangular along the cliff line and varied from 6 to 30 ha in size (400-900 m along the cliff). The average was 15 ha (700 m in length). The area used during the day is much smaller than at night when foraging can take Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies far from their refuges (Short 1980). Joblin (1983) found male territories ranging from less than 0.5 ha to 5 ha, although these nocturnal home ranges may not be defended.

Once established in a home range, rock-wallabies often demonstrate high fidelity to the site. Bayne (1994) observed individual rock-wallabies in the Macleay River Gorge on the same rock year after year. This fidelity has also been noted in Taralga in southern NSW (C. Thompson undated pers. comm., cited in NSW NPWS 2003a). Bayne (undated, pers. comm. cited in NSW NPWS 2003) suspects that ownership of male territories changes as males fight for dominance, whereas non-dispersing daughters can inherit a territory from their mothers.

The home range size of rock-wallabies may increase if the predation threat is reduced in areas surrounding their rocky refuges (NSW NPW 2003a). Kinnear and collegues (1998) observed that as the population of Black-footed Rock-wallabies increased after years of fox control, movement of individuals expanded away from predator-safe refuge areas to include more vulnerable shelter sites nearby, and foraging occurred over a greater area. They speculate this response was due to the absence of foxes, although it could also be caused by increased competition for food and shelter as the population increased (NSW NPWS 2003a).

On average, the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata tends to be larger than Herbert's Rock-wallaby P. herberti and the other eastern taxa (Eldridge & Close 1992). However, specimens of P. penicillata from the Grampians, Victoria, are considerably smaller than those found elsewhere in southeastern Australia (Close et al. 1988).

Throughout their range, Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby populations have been repeatedly found to be difficult to monitor. Pellet counts, trapping and visual counting are standard techniques (Jarman & Bayne 1997). The following monitoring techniques are discussed in the Warrumbungle Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Endangered Population Recovery Plan (NSW NPWS 2003a) for the Warrumbungle Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby population:

Pellet plots
Pellet plots may be useful in detecting broad trends in population numbers, and are particularly important in their ability to warn of the imminent demise of a colony. Pellet surveys can also provide information on changes in rock-wallaby distribution and habitat use (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Direct observation
Direct observation by helicopter is difficult at the Warrumbungles due to extensive vegetation hindering views. The efficiency of this method may improve as the population increases. Direct observation from the ground of colony sunning spots also needs to be considered as a method of quantifying the demographics of a colony (NSW NPWS 2003a).

The potential to monitor rock-wallabies by an infrared-triggered digital camera at a water or food source has been trialled with Yellow-footed Rock-wallabies at Mutawintji National Park. Once refined, the technique will be applied to Warrumbungle National Park in an attempt to identify individuals, gender ratios and juvenile recruitment (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Trapping
Trapping for mark-recapture (or resight) determination of population size and demographics will be attempted if other techniques prove inadequate for management needs. The disturbance of setting and repeatedly checking multiple traps in colony area makes this technique less desirable than other non-invasive methods of population monitoring (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Genetic surveying
During 2001–2002, a complementary survey approach was initiated to better define population size. The development of a new technique for non-intrusively enumerating populations holds considerable promise for providing the information needed to manage the Warrumbungle rock-wallabies (Kohn et al. 1999). The technique uses epithelial cells on the surface of pellets to identify individuals by genetic microsatellite analysis (NSW NPWS 2003a). From this analysis the population size (and possibly sex ratio in the future) can be established with greater accuracy. Determination of genetic variability within the population is potentially an added benefit of applying this technique, but is not the main goal of genetic survey.

The Australian Museum Business Services (2004) recommends the following survey techniques to detect the presence of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby in areas up to 5 ha in size:

  • Daytime searches for potentially suitable habitat resources, such as shelter sites (caves, rock boulders and rock ledges) in suitable boulder pile, escarpment and cliff-line habitats.
  • Daytime searches for signs of activity, including tracks, scats and rock shelters worn smooth from resting.
  • Possibly the collection of predator scats, owl casts or remains, targeting predatory bird/mammal nests/dens.
  • Observations for rock-wallabies basking during the day, or becoming active at dusk, using binoculars from a location on the ground beneath suitable habitat or possibly from a helicopter (heeding caution to minimise disturbance to animals so as to ensure wallabies do not fall).

There are many factors that threaten the survival of this species. These include: habitat degradation; small population size; low migration rates; bioclimatic factors; drought; fire; hunting; disease and competition; and predation by other wild animals.

Habitat Degradation
Habitat used by the species has been affected by many changes. Perhaps the greatest change is in relation to vegetation: the structure, extent, species assemblages and species proportions. These changes have been caused by a combination of factors, including clearing, exotic plant invasions, changed fire regimes, exotic herbivore grazing and browsing behaviour, land degradation, altered nutrient status, and even altered behaviour and numbers of other native animals. It is notable that the majority of the species' remaining populations are found in relatively undisturbed areas (DEC 2005c).

Habitat modification continues due to rural, residential and tourist developments adjacent to some colonies, and there is an apparent trend to locate these developments near some escarpments and cliff lines to maximise scenic opportunities. These sites are often core Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby habitat and development increases the risk of colony fragmentation, permanent changes to potential dispersal corridors, an increase in the numbers of domestic animals and the removal of tree cover (DEC 2005c).

Vegetation clearing and the introduction of new predators have led to the increased isolation of many colonies (DEC 2005c). Research currently being undertaken by Cavanagh indicates there is a positive correlation between habitat fragmentation at a landscape scale and broad patterns of extinction in Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby sites across the species' range (in prep. cited in DEC 2005c).

The invasion of grassy feeding areas by weed species such as Lantana is thought to reduce habitat quality for the species (Capararo & Beynon 1996; Wong 1997).

Small population size
According to Taggart and colleagues (2005), the greatest threat to the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby, and many other endangered marsupial species, is the small size of the remaining populations and their fragmentation. Small populations are highly vulnerable to local catastrophes, predations, inbreeding and the associated loss of genetic variation. However, owing to the naturally disjunct (fragmented) nature of Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby colonies, the species may be capable of surviving genetic 'bottlenecks' and may be capable of recovering from very low numbers (Close undated pers. comm., cited in DEC 2005c).

Low migration
Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies typically exhibit low migration rates between colonies and low recolonisation rates, further impeding persistence and recovery of colonies affected by threatening processes. Recent human induced changes have almost certainly disrupted the natural process of low level gene flow (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Bioclimatic factors
Bugg (1995) believes that bioclimatic changes, resulting in lower rainfall and a decline in rainforest vegetation, contributed to the recently contracting distribution of P. penicillata throughout its range. Cavanagh (in prep., cited in DEC 2005c) looked at climatic variation across the entire range of the species and found that there are significant differences in bioclimatic factors between extant and extinct sites across the range and regionally.

Drought
The effect of drought on rock-wallabies is uncertain. Short (1982) reported that Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies along the Goulburn River maintained body condition and continued to breed during a season when rainfall was 50% below average. In contrast, Kinnear and colleagues (1988) reported a significant decline in populations of Black-footed Rock-wallabies during a period of drought, with individuals having to forage further afield for food, increasing their risk of predation.

Fire
There has been very little research into the effects of fire on Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby colonies. Rock-wallabies have been reported to both disappear from and remain in their habitat after wildfire. For example, at Mount Wallerwang in eastern NSW, a local landholder reported that the resident colony disappeared after a wildfire but then recolonised the site several years later (NSW NPWS 2003a). Fire may act to advantage or disadvantage rock-wallabies, probably depending on intensity and extent because fire alters the structure, composition and possibly the suitability of the vegetation (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Hunting
Lunney and colleagues (1997) attributed the early and steep decline of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby population to commercially driven hunting. Bounties were paid on over half a million rock-wallabies killed in NSW between 1884 and 1914. In 1908, 92 590 rock-wallaby skins were marketed though a single Sydney wool-broking company (Eldridge & Close 1998).

Disease
Little is known about disease in wild populations of Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby, although it is likely that this species is susceptible to diseases found in other macropods (kangaroos, rat-kangaroos, and wallabies). A study, which found massive infestations of hydatid cysts in the thoracic cavities of Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies, suggests a relationship between hydatidosis in the species and in sheep (Close 1984). Lobert (1988) also raised the possibility that Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies are susceptible to toxoplasmosis infection, carried by cats. An individual in Kangaroo Valley was reported to have died from toxoplasmosis in addition to liver fluke infestation (Eldridge undated pers. comm., cited in DEC 2005c).

Lumpy jaw was apparently present in the captive colony at Jenolan Cave prior to the large scale release in 1988 (Buchan 1995). This disease is more prevalent in populations of macropods which are exposed to human contact and are fed 'soft' (processed) foods (DEC 2005c).

Cats
Cats (Felis catus) are capable of killing animals weighing up to their own body weight. Juvenile Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies are within this size range. Cats also potentially carry diseases problematic to rock-wallabies such as toxoplasmosis and hydatidosis (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Eagles
Wedge-tailed Eagles (Aquila audax) may be an important predator of rock-wallabies in the Warrumbungles. Eagles are often seen flying along the cliffs where Rock-wallabies exist and are known to attack even large adult rock-wallabies (Hsu 2001). Bayne (1994) reports observing six Wedge-tailed Eagles patrol over a single large rock-wallaby colony constantly for three days during a period of drought. Bayne (1994) also reported observing a White-breasted Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) dive towards a Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby, which escaped by rapidly jumping into a cave.

Foxes
Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are considered to be the main predator of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Eldridge & Close 1998). Two quantitative studies of Yellow-footed Rock-wallaby populations have measured increases in population size after localised reduction of foxes (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Lace Monitors
Lace Monitors (Varanus varius) can grow to a size large enough to take rabbit-sized prey and may occasionally prey on young Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies (R. Martin undated pers. comm., cited in NSW NPWS 2003a).

Wild Dogs
While they are considered to be a potential predator of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby, wild dogs (Canis lupus) may pose a lower threat to rock-wallabies than other predators because they are less agile in rocky habitat (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Goats
Goats (Capra hircus) compete with rock-wallabies for food and for the rocky shelters that both species prefer. Monitoring of the Warrumbungles showed that the proportion of feeding and refuge plots occupied by rock-wallaby pellets declined as the proportion occupied by goat pellets increased (Moss et al. 1999).

Rabbits
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have the potential to compete with rock-wallabies for food particularly during dry periods when food may be scarce (NSW NPWS 2003a).

A number of the threats to this species are being addressed with the coordination of both state and national recovery teams and the implementation of their action plans (ACT Government 1999b; DEC 2005c; DSE 1991; Maxwell et al. 1996; NSW NPWS 2003a). The key factors that were found to be threatening to this species survival were: loss of suitable habitat, small population size, bioclimatic factors, disease, predation and competition. Some of these have been addressed in the management strategies listed below; however, more detailed knowledge about the species' habitat and biology is needed to make informed decisions on how to address these threats and thus how best to manage this species. Thus, population monitoring, genetic and floristic analyses are key elements to this threat abatement process (Maxwell et al. 1996).

Improving Habitat Quality and Quantity
Key attributes of the way this species uses its habitat need to be identified; this will allow critical habitat and potential new habitat for reintroductions to be identified, as well as enabling a reassessment of the population and the causes of its decline (DSE 1991; Maxwell et al. 1996). Furthermore, floristic analysis is needed to identify the important components of this species diet and habitat requirements. This information will then be used to increase the quantity and quality of available habitat by promoting these desirable floristic elements whilst controlling weeds and promoting habitat connectivity (Maxwell et al. 1996). The dietary information will also be needed to assess the impact of competition by other herbivores and macropods.

Fire
In the Warrumbungles in NSW no change to its current fire management strategy is proposed (NSW NPWS 2003a). However, detailed study of the effect of fire on habitat regeneration is needed (NSW NPWS 2003a) and where possible, colonies are to be protected from catastrophic fires resulting from hazard reduction burns (Maxwell et al. 1996).

Predation and Competition
Control of feral predators (e.g. foxes, cats, dogs) and competitors (e.g. goats, rabbits) is a necessity for establishing viable Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby populations and the success of reintroduction programs (ACT Government 1999b). Also, other native macropod species (e.g. kangaroos and wallabies) as well as foxes, and goats have been targeted for management in state and national recovery plans (DSE 1991; Maxwell et al. 1993; DEC 2005c).

Predator control
A threat abatement plan (TAP) for predation of threatened fauna, including the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby, by the Red Fox was prepared by the NSW NPWS in 2001. The NPWS investigated the effectiveness of their own and community fox baiting programs around Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby colonies. Several colonies in the Hunter Valley and Kangaroo Valley were monitored during this research (DEC 2005c).

Fox control programs designed to protect Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies are being undertaken at a number of sites, including: Kangaroo Valley, Warrumbungle National Park, western Wollemi National Park (Wolgan River, Bulga to Durie, and Kandos to Capertee), northern Wollemi National Park (Baerami and Widden Valley), northern Yengo National Park (Growee Gulph, and Nulla Mountain), Goulburn River National Park, near Attunga in the New England area (DEC 2005c), and around the Red Rock colony in the Grampians in Victoria (DSE 1991).

Competitor control
To date, threat abatement strategies have been employed for both goats and other macropods; how much competition from other macropods affects Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies is to be investigated by NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Goat control specific to Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies is currently being undertaken at the Warrumbungle National Park. Goat control is also occurring in the core Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby habitat of Oxley Wild Rivers National Park. Goats have not yet invaded all of this area but may be expanding their range. The continuation of goat control and the prevention of the expansion of these goat populations is a priority (DEC 2005c). Aerial shooting twice a year is the current method of goat control, although the effectiveness of this technique needs to be assessed (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Small population size
Research is being conducted into the breeding biology and conservation genetics of this species to understand the causes and consequences of their small population size; and subsequently counteract these processes. This work involves genetic surveys (NSW NPWS 2003a), captive breeding and assisted reproduction strategies (ACT Government 1999b), establishment of protected breeding colonies and reintroduction trials (ACT Government 1999b; NSW NPWS 2003a).

Genetic surveys are being conducted at the Warrumbungles in an attempt to understand the population dynamics of this population and population monitoring is continuing at a number of key sites, e.g. Bulleamble Mt, Wheoh Peak and Dingo Creek (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Increasing the population number of this species through captive breeding and assisted reproduction, in combination with re-introduction, is being experimented with at Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve (TNR) and in collaboration with the Cooperative Research Centre for the Conservation and Management of Marsupials. Potential reintroduction from this research is expected to occur at TNR and Namadgi National Park, both in the ACT (ACT Government 1999b).

Additionally, protected breeding colonies are being established at a number of sites with an increase in predator and competitor abatement also being conducted at these sites e.g. around Chalkers Mt, Mt Uringery, Square Top Mt, and Black Jack Mt (NSW NPWS 2003a).

Assisted reproduction
Assisted reproduction is a relatively new field in marsupial biology (Taggart et al. 2005). Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies were used in a recent cross-fostering study at Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve (ACT). The study demonstrated that the removal of pouch young (bred in captivity) and cross-fostering can be used to accelerate breeding and recruitment in the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Taggart et al. 2005).

During the study, pouch young were continually removed from eight Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies across a twelve-month period and transferred to 'surrogate mothers' of another species (Tammar Wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and Yellow-footed Rock-wallabies (Petrogale xanthopus)). As a result of this, the reproductive rate and production of young in all female Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies studied increased from one to six young per year (Taggart et al. 2005).

Additionally, preliminary studies have been completed to determine whether pouch young could be cross-fostered directly from the wild (Taggart et al. 2002; 2005). Taggart and colleagues (2005) believes this would facilitate the recruitment of new genetic stock from the wild for captive populations without removing valuable breeding adults and would also accelerate breeding in wild populations with minimal disturbance.

Raising community awareness
Increasing community awareness of the presence and need for preservation of this species has been ear-marked as a priority for the conservation of this species (ACT Government 1999b; NSW NPWS 2003a).

In the ACT local community groups such as the ANU Rock-Climbing Club, the Canberra Bushwalkers Club, Friends of Tidbinbilla, and Outward Bound have been encouraged to partake in activities associated with the conservation of this species. Additionally, community consultation and public education campaigns have been pursued in light of land use issues and reintroduction strategies for this species (ACT Government 1999b).

In the Warrumbungles activities such as adoption of the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby as a local mascot, establishing rock-wallaby interpretive displays in the visitor centre, and community participation in public education activities are all part of the program to increase community awareness of this species.


West of Ranges Landcare Inc, NSW, received $4500 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2005-06 for monitoring Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby colonies to plot refuge areas, connect corridors and incorporate this information into a Fire Management Plan.

Coonabaraban and Upper Castlereagh Catchment and Landcare Group Inc, NSW, received $18 000 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2001-02 for fox baiting over one year on up to 70 properties to create a fox-free buffer zone to ensure the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby recovers, and to establish better collaboration between landholders and management authorities for conservation.


National
The Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby is also included within the Action Plan for Australian marsupials and monotremes. (Maxwell et al 1996)

ACT
Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata): An endangered species. Action Plan No. 22. Environment ACT, Canberra, 1999.

NSW
An approved Recovery Plan is available for the Warrumbungle population:
Warrumbungle Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Endangered Population Recovery Plan. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville NSW, 2003.

Additionally, a state wide recovery plan is being developed by the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. A draft has been prepared:
Draft Recovery Plan for the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata. DEC, Sydney, 2005.

Victoria
Action Statement No. 19 Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata. Department of Sustainability and Environment, 1991.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for commercial purposes Petrogale penicillata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sx) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Petrogale penicillata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sx) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) A Research Recovery Plan for the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata penicillata (Gray 1825), in SE Australia (Hill, F.A.R., 1991) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) A Research Recovery Plan for the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata penicillata (Gray 1825), in SE Australia (Hill, F.A.R., 1991) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Petrogale penicillata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sx) [Internet].
A Research Recovery Plan for the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata penicillata (Gray 1825), in SE Australia (Hill, F.A.R., 1991) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Petrogale penicillata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sx) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Petrogale penicillata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sx) [Internet].
A Research Recovery Plan for the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata penicillata (Gray 1825), in SE Australia (Hill, F.A.R., 1991) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Petrogale penicillata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sx) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Petrogale penicillata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sx) [Internet].

ACT Government (1999b). Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata): An endangered species, Action Plan No. 22. Environment ACT, Canberra. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/cpr/conservation_and_ecological_communities/threatened_species_action_plans.

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Bell, J.N. & R.L. Close (1994). Fostering rock-wallaby pouch young: A method of accelerated production of young. In: National Rock Wallaby Symposium, Oraparinna, South Australia.

Buchan, A. (1995). A study of the behaviour and ecology of a remnant captive colony of Brush-tailed Rock-wallabies at Jenolan Caves Reserve. Page(s) 22. Unpublished report to the Jenolan Caves Reserve Trust.

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Capararo, S.M. & F. Beynon (1996). Ground Surveys of Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) colonies in southern NSW. Unpublished report to NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

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Close, R.L. (1984). Investigations of rock-wallabies in the Grampians, Victoria. Unpublished Report to Fisheries and Wildlife Division, Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands.

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Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (DEC) (2005c). Draft Recovery Plan for the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby, Petrogale penicillata. Sydney, NSW: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic) (DSE) (1991). Action Statement No. 19 Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby, Petrogale penicillata. Victoria, Australia: Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Petrogale penicillata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 04:10:43 +1000.