In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Critically Endangered as Clematis dubia|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice for Norfolk Island Flora - 11 Critically Endangered Species (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003o) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Clematis dubia.
What the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) means for Norfolk Islanders (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2004i) [Information Sheet].
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (03/11/2003) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2003a) [Legislative Instrument] as Clematis dubia.
|Scientific name||Clematis dubia |
|Species author||(Endl.) P.S.Green|
|Reference||Kew Bulletin 45(2): 245 (1990).|
Clematis cocculifolia 
Clematis aristata subsp. cocculifolia 
Ripogonum dubium 
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Clematis dubia
Common Name: Clematis
Synonym: Clematis cocculifolia Cunn.
Synonym: Ripogonum dubium Endl.
Synonym: Clematis aristata subsp. cocculifolia (Cunn.) Kuntze
Very occasionally a trifoliolate leaf (one with three leaflets) is produced. A specimen of such a plant gave rise to the erroneous record of C. glycinoides for Norfolk Island (Green 1994).
Clematis is a vigorous climber with hairy white flowers. The young stems are ridged. The leaves are hairless and grow to 511 cm long and 410 cm wide. The flowers grow to 310 cm long and 25 cm wide (DEH 2004i; Green 1994).
Clematis is endemic to Norfolk Island. It is found at the side of the track that runs from Mt Pitt to Mt Bates, and on the upper slopes of Mt Pitt (Green 1994).
This species' distribution may be considered to be highly fragmented as it occurs only as small isolated subpopulations.
In 1987 Sykes and Atkinson (1988) conducted a survey of the threatened flora of Norfolk Island. They did not find any specimens of Clematis.
In 2003, there were 15 mature plants surviving in the wild (TSSC 2003o).
Clematis was formerly widespread and recorded as reaching the tops of the trees, but is now rather rare and rarely flowering (Green 1994).
Clematis is found within the Norfolk Island National Park (Director of National Parks 2008).
Clematis grows on forest margins and in clearings (DEH 2004i).
The soil around Mt Pitt, where Clematis is found, is prone to landslip after heavy rain (Hyder Consulting 2008). Exotic weeds are also known to be a problem on Norfolk Island and compete with native vegetation for habitat. The principle weed species on Norfolk Island are Red Guava (Psidium cattleianum var. cattleianum), African Olive (Olea europaea subsp. africana), Hawaiian Holly (Schinus terebinthifolius), Lantana (Lantana camara), William Taylor (Ageratina riparia), Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum), Wild Tobacco (Solanum mauritianum), Formosan Lily (Lilium formosanum), Bleeding Heart (Homolanthus populifolius) and Morning Glory (Ipomoeia cairica) (Director of National Parks 2008; Ziesing 1997).
Norfolk Island experiences some cyclones, especially in the early months of the year (BoM 2008).
Weed control is being undertaken on Norfolk Island, and has been found to be effective where weeds are cleared and the area is replanted with native species (Director of National Parks 2008; Mosley 2001). All of the principle weed species on the Island can be controlled by chemical means, and some can also be removed by hand (Ziesing 1997).
Principles relevant to the conservation of Clematis can be found in:
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals||Commonwealth Listing Advice for Norfolk Island Flora - 11 Critically Endangered Species (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003o) [Listing Advice].|
Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) (2008). Climate of Norfolk Island. [Online]. Commonwealth of Australia. Available from: http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/nsw/norfolk/climate.shtml.
Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2004i). What the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) means for Norfolk Islanders. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/publications/norfolk-island/pubs/norfolk-island.pdf.
Director of National Parks (2008). Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden Management Plan 2008-2018. [Online]. Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/publications/norfolk/pubs/management-plan.pdf.
Director of National Parks (DNP) (2010). Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan. [Online]. Canberra, Director of National Parks Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/norfolk-island.html.
Green, P.S. (1994). Norfolk Island & Lord Howe Island. In: Flora of Australia. 49:1-681. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Hyder Consulting (2008). The Impacts and Management Implications of Climate Change for the Australian Government's Protected Areas. [Online]. Department of Climate Change. Available from: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/impacts/publications/pubs/protected-areas.pdf.
Mosley, J.G. (2001). Island on the Brink: A Conservation Strategy for Norfolk Island. Norfolk Island Conservation Society, Melbourne, Victoria.
Sykes, W.R. & I.A.E. Atkinson (1988). Rare and endangered plants of Norfolk Island. New Zealand: Botany Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2003o). Commonwealth Listing Advice for Norfolk Island Flora - 11 Critically Endangered Species. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/norfolk-island-flora-critically.html.
Ziesing, P.D. (1997). Norfolk Island Weed Control Manual: for selected weeds occurring in Norfolk Island National Park. Environment Australia, Biodiversity Group, Parks Australia (South).
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Clematis dubia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 2 Oct 2014 04:02:00 +1000.