In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Grevillea infecunda |
|Reference||New Names in Grevillea (Proteaceae) (24 Feb. 1986) 7.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images
Scientific name: Grevillea infecunda
Common name: Anglesea Grevillea
Conventionally accepted as Grevillea infecunda (CHAH 2010).
Anglesea Grevillea is a root-suckering shrub, growing 0.3–1.2 m high with an open habit. Leaves are 3–7 cm long and variable in shape, being coarsely toothed, ovate (egg-shaped), rhombic (all sides equal in size) or oblong. Leaves have an upper dark green and hairless surface, and lower pale green and sparsely hairy surface. Flowers are yellow-green and brown with curved tubes about 8 mm long, hairy outside, hairless inside, and splitting into four petals to release a pale yellow-green red style to 25 mm long. The fruit is a leathery, hairy capsule that splits to release winged seeds (Makinson 1996; Vic. DSE 2008o).
Anglesea Grevillea is endemic to Victoria, and found in a small area of near Anglesea and Airey's Inlet, about 150 km south-west of Melbourne (Carter 2006f; Vic. DSE 2008o). There is a nineteenth century collection from Brighton, Melbourne 100 km east of Anglesea (Makinson 1996; Melbourne Herbarium n.d.) suggesting the range of the species has contracted considerably.
The Anglesea Grevillea is known from 11 subpopulations at three sites, which contain approximately 1600 plants in total. A further two populations are unconfirmed (Carter 2006f).
Key populations occur at (Angair & Kimpton 2002 cited in Carter 2006f):
|Location||Management authority||Site and estimated population size|
|Angahook-Lorne State Park||Parks Victoria||Bald Hills Road near Salt Creek Track (18 plants)
Salt Creek Track (22 plants)
Bambra Road/north of Loves Track (141 plants)
Grevillea Track off Bambra Road (62 plants)
Link Track between Loves Track and Grevillea Track (120 plants)
Breakfast Creek Road (at least 300 plants)
|Anglesea Heath||Parks Victoria and Alcoa||Haggarts/Allardyce Tracks (92 plants)
Gum Flat Road (500 plants)
Tanners Road (152 plants)
Tanners Road/Dangers Lane (174 plants)
|Otway State Forest||Department of Sustainability and Environment||Hammonds Road (54 plants)|
|West of Anglesea Heath||Private property||Unconfirmed|
The Anglesea Grevillea occurs in Angahook-Lorne State Park and Otway State Forest (Vic. DSE 2008o).
The 'Anglesea Heath' area is crown land managed under a Conservation Forests and Lands Act 1987 cooperative agreement by Parks Victoria and Alcoa, who have leased the land under the Mines (Aluminium Agreement) Act 1961 until 2011. In 2011, Alcoa will have an option of another 50 year lease. Under the Anglesea Heath Management Plan, the Anglesea Heath is divided into two different management zones, and all areas containing Grevillea infecunda are within the 'conservation zone' (D. Fuller pers. comm. cited in Carter 2006f).
The Anglesea Grevillea occurs in a hilly area dominated by dry sclerophyll forest and woodland, where crowns of trees are widely spaced. Soil types are usually sandy or gravelly (Makinson 1996). It is absent from areas where gravel has been extracted, and does not appear in vegetation with a dense upper stratum (Angair & Kimpton 2002 cited in Carter 2006f). The species occurs at an altitude of 110–260 m above sea level (Carter 2006f).
Species commonly found amongst populations of Anglesea Grevillea include Shining Peppermint (Eucalyptus willisii), Narrow-leaf Peppermint (Eucalyptus radiata), Brown Stringybark (Eucalyptus baxteri), Thatch Saw-sedge (Gahnia radula), Common Flat-pea (Platylobium obtusangulum), Golden Bush-pea (Pultenaea gunnii) and Southern Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea australis). Black She-oak (Allocasuarina littorale) often occurs in vegetation near to Anglesea Grevillea, but the two species do not appear to occur together (Carter 2006f).
The Anglesea Grevillea apparently cannot reproduce sexually (Kimpton et al. 2002). The species flowers from October to December (Makinson 1996) and flower production is healthy but all male plants seem to be sterile and viable seed is not produced (RBGM 2010). Pollen that is produced is deformed and has an extremely low viability rate for fruiting. Root suckering is the only means of vegetative spread, and, as a result, all existing populations are effectively isolated from one another (Carter 2006f).
Root-suckering may be stimulated by fire or slashing, however appropriate burning and/or slashing regimes for this species have not been identified (Carter 2006f).
Human recreational activities
Activities such as off-road vehicles (4WDs and trail bikes), horse-riding, off track walking and camping threaten most populations of Anglesea Grevillea through physical disturbance and the spread of Cinnamon Fungus (Phytophthora cinnamomi) (Vic. DSE 2008o). Campsite construction and firewood collection threatens the Hammonds Road population (DNRE 2000). The Gumflat Road population is threatened by both recreational damage and timber harvesting (DNRE 2000).
Habitat within five known populations of Anglesea Grevillea has been infected with Cinnamon Fungus, with highly susceptible species such as the Austral Grass-Tree (Xanthorrhoea australis) noted as dead amongst healthy Anglesea Grevillea plants. Loss of vegetation at sites may impact on the survival of the Anglesea Grevillea. Leaf browning has been observed, but this may be the result of weather conditions rather than Cinnamon Fungus (Vic. DSE 2008o).
Road and track works including maintenance, widening, slashing and clearing of roadside vegetation damages populations on roadsides. Heavy vehicles have also driven over and crushed some plants. The Hammonds Road population exhibited a 54 to 33 plant reduction following track work (Vic. DSE 2008o).
Weed invasion/Soil erosion
Weeds are a minor threat, although the naturalised native species Giant Paperbark (Melaleuca armillaris) is a threat to the habitat at the Bald Hills Road population (Vic. DSE 2008o). The Breakfast Creek Road population is threatened with weed invasion and soil erosion, most likely caused by off-road vehicles (DNRE 2000).
Inappropriate fire regimes
Whilst the species is known to resprout after fire, appropriate fire regime for the species is not known. The last fire at most sites was in 1983 (Vic. DSE 2008o).
Lack of sexual reproduction
A possible threat to the species is that it does not reproduce sexually. Prolonged clonal growth and lack of sexual recruitment have been found to affect within, and between, population genetic structures leading to a species having little capacity to evolve due to environmental changes (Kimpton et al. 2002).
The National Recovery Plan for the Anglesea Grevillea (Carter 2006f) outlines a number of actions to meet specific objectives for protection of the species. These actions include:
- Clarify the taxonomy of populations to enable an accurate conservation status assessment.
- Acquire baseline population data by conducting detailed field and desk top surveys to satisfy IUCN Red List Criteria.
- Accurately survey known habitat and collect floristic and environmental information describing community ecology and condition.
- Identify and survey potential habitat, using ecological, historical and anecdotal information that may indicate habitat preference.
- Protect sites on public land.
- Identify disturbance regimes to maintain habitat.
- Control threats from Cinnamon Fungus, pest plants, high visitor numbers and recreational vehicles, using methods such as preventing access, re-routing or ripping tracks, brush-matting, tree-planting, application of chemical controls, hand removal of weeds, fencing, signage and revegetation at sites.
- Determine stimuli for vegetative regeneration.
- Measure population trends and responses against recovery actions by collecting demographic information including recruitment and mortality, timing of life history stages and morphological data.
- Collate, analyse and report on census data and compare with management histories.
- Identify opportunities for community involvement in the conservation of Anglesea Grevillea.
Undertaken management actions
The following recovery actions have been undertaken for the Anglesea Grevillea (Vic. DSE 2008o):
- Surveys of public land in the Anglesea and Alcoa lease areas for new populations and subpopulations.
- Surveys of private land for new populations and subpopulations in the Gumflats Road, Wensley Dale area.
- Monitoring of known site to identify population trends.
- Surveys of known sites to assess impact of Cinnamon Fungus.
- Review of threats to known populations by horses, motorbikes and 4x4 vehicles.
- Liaison with Parks Victoria and Alcoa about management of known site to reduce impacts of threats (as above).
- Strong link maintained with Anglesea and Aireys Inlet Society for the Protection of Flora and Fauna (ANGAIR Inc.) to undertake surveys and monitoring.
The Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne undertook a conservation biology of holly-leaved Grevilleas project (RBGM 2010), which includes the Anglesea Grevillea. Kimpton and colleagues (2002) have published a study on the reproductive biology of the species.
Management documents relevant to the Anglesea Grevillea include:
- National recovery plan for the Anglesea Grevillea (Grevillea infecunda) (Carter 2006f)
- Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 204-Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda (Vic. DSE 2008o).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Habitat deterioration due to soil degradation and erosion||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat degradation associated with recreational activities such as horse riding||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:camping||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:plant||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Habitat modification due to industrial development||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development||Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O., 2006k) [Recovery Plan].|
Carter, O. (2006k). Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda - National Recovery Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/g-infecunda.html.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Department of Natural Resources and Environment (DNRE) (2000). VROTPOP database.
Kimpton, S.K., E.A. James & A.N. Drinnan (2002). Reproductive biology and genetic marker diversity in Grevillea infecunda (Proteaceae), a rare plant with no known seed production. Australian Systematic Botany. 15(4):485-492.
Makinson, R.O. (1996). Grevillea. In: Walsh, N.G. & T.J. Entwisle, eds. Flora of Victoria. 3:845-70. Melbourne: Inkata Press.
Melbourne Herbarium (MEL) collection records (undated). National Herbarium of Victoria Specimens. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/herbarium.
Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne (RBGM) (2010). Conservation biology of Holly-leaved Grevilleas- Project Summary. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/science/projects/conservation-genetics/conservation-biology-of-holly-leaved-grevilleas.
Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2008o). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 204-Anglesea Grevillea Grevillea infecunda. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/103238/204_Anglesea_Grevillea_2008.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Grevillea infecunda in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 18:23:47 +1000.