In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina glareicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008an) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Allocasuarina glareicola |
|Reference||Flora of Australia 3 (24 Apr. 1989) 195, fig. 56I.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
A smooth-barked, slender, erect shrub growing to 2 m high (Wilson & Johnson 1989).
This species is restricted to a few small populations in and around Castlereagh NR, north-east of Penrith, NSW (Wilson & Johnson 1989). The total range of the species is approximately 36 km² (Matthes et al. 1996).
It was first collected in 1983 in Castlereagh SF (now Castlereagh NR). Ten other populations have been discovered since then (Matthes et al. 1996).
In 1996 there were 457 clumps of this species known (Matthes et al. 1996). A clump may represent one genetic individual (genet), or several genets (Nash & Matthes 1995). The largest population (405 clumps in 1996) has probably been reduced in size as a result of the expansion of an adjacent rubbish tip (Matthes et al. 1996).
This species is known to occur on Commonwealth land at the Holsworthy Military Area (Biosis Research 1997 in French et al. 2000).
This species grows on tertiary alluvial gravels, with yellow clayey subsoil and lateritic soil. These soils are low in fertility and are strongly to very strongly acidic. Rainfall in the area is lower than surrounding regions. The median annual rainfall is 803 mm (measured at the University of Western Sydney), with a summer peak (Wilson & Johnson 1989; Matthes et al. 1996).
It is found in the Castlereagh open woodland community, with Eucalyptus parramattensis, E. fibrosa, E. sclerophylla, Angophora bakeri and Melaleuca decora. Common associated understorey species include Melaleuca nodosa, Hakea dactyloides, H.sericea, Dillwynia tenuifolia, Micromyrtus minutiflora, Acacia elongata, A. brownei, Themeda australis and Xanthorrhoea minor (Matthes et al. 1996).
This species is dioecious or monoecious. Flowers are borne in Oct. It is long-lived and commonly exhibits a degree of vegetative spread. Root suckers appear up to 3 m from the parent plant. Suckers do not appear to be supported by a feeder root system, so the spread of the plant by this means is limited (Nash & Matthes 1995).
It is likely that genetic diversity is low, attributable to the small total population size, limited geographic range and the fact that regeneration is commonly by suckers (though see above). Only one site seems to demonstrate seedling recruitment. Since pollination is by wind, the distance between individuals may be important for successful pollination and seed set (Matthes et al.1996).
The species re-sprouts from the rootstock, but the minimum time required between fires for the species to survive is not known (Matthes et al. 1996).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Allocasuarina glareicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bi) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Allocasuarina glareicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bi) [Internet].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Allocasuarina glareicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bi) [Internet].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass, Weeping Lovegrass, Weeping Love Grass, Boer Lovegrass, Weeping Grass)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Andropogon virginicus (Whisky Grass, Broomsedge)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina glareicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008an) [Conservation Advice].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding|
Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chabg/census/census.html.
French, K., B. Pellow & M. Henderson (2000). Vegetation of the Holsworthy Military Area. Cunninghamia. 6(4):893-939.
Matthes, M., G. Robertson & M. Smith (1996). Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Allocasuarina glareicola L. Johnson. Hurstville: NSW NPWS.
Nash, S. & Matthes, M. (1995). A Review of the Status of Five Rare Plants in the Cumberland Plain. Hurstville: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Services.
Wilson, K.L. & L.A.S.Johnson (1989). Casuarinaceae. In: Flora of Australia. 3:100-174. Canberra: AGPS.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Allocasuarina glareicola in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 12 Mar 2014 16:55:08 +1100.