Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Environment Australia (EA), 1999a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Long-footed Potoroo - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005jt) [Internet].
NSW:Threatened species information sheet: Long-footed Potoroo Potorous longipes (Seebeck and Johnston, 1980) (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Approved Recovery Plan for the Long-Footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2002b) [State Recovery Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement no. 58: Long-footed Potoroo Potorous longipes (Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE), 2009b) [Information Sheet].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
The action plan for threatened Australian macropods 2011-2021 (World Wildlife Fund for Nature - Australia (WWF), 2011).
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
VIC: Listed as Vulnerable (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013)
Scientific name Potorous longipes [217]
Family Potoroidae:Diprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Seebeck and Johnston,1980
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Potorous longipes

Common name: Long-footed Potoroo

The Long-footed Potoroo was first described in 1980 (Seebeck & Johnston 1980).

The Long-footed Potoroo is a medium-sized, hopping marsupial with grey-brown fur on the back and pale grey fur underneath. It grows to an average body length of 40 cm, with a tail length of 32 cm. Adults males can weigh up to 2.2 kg and females up to 1.7 kg (Seebeck 1998). It is silent except for a low kiss kiss sound made between mothers and young, or when under stress (NSW NPWS 1999).

The Long-footed Potoroo occurs in Victoria and NSW in the following locations:

Populations of the Long-footed Potoroo in Victoria

  • East Gippsland, north-east of Orbost, in the catchments of the Brodribb River, Bemm River, Rodger River and Yalmy River. This population is bounded by the Rodger River, Mount Ellery, the McKenzie River, and Pinnak Road. Based on part of a skull found in a predator scat, there may be a separate population around 45 km further east near Mount Drummer, east of the Cann River (Claridge 2002; NSW NPWS 2002b; VDSE 2003).
  • The Alpine National Park region of north-eastern Victoria, between Mt Feathertop and Mt Buller, concentrated in the region bounded by Mt Sarah, Mt Selwyn, the Cobbler Plateau, Mt Speculation, Mt Howitt and Mt Darling, in the West Buffalo, East Riley and Tea Tree Range areas of the Barry Mountains. This population is 170 km west of the closest known record from East Gippsland (Jones 1998; Jones & Johnson 1997). The Long-footed Potoroo also occurs north of Harrietville, 23 km from the area containing most of the other records, and probably occurs in the Buckland Valley (based on hair in a bird nest and predator scats) (Jones & Johnson 1997).

Populations of the Long-footed Potoroo in NSW

  • South-eastern NSW in the Genoa and Waalimma sections of the South East Forest National Park (south-east of Bombala). Its known range is within a 10 km by 20 km strip between Sheep Station Creek in the South East Forest National Park, through Bondi and Nungatta State Forests, to the Victorian border (Broome et al. 1997 cited in NSW NPWS 1999).

The three main populations of the Long-footed Potoroo occur in an area around 1800 km² in total (Broome et al. 1996; Jones 1998; Jones & Johnson 1997; Nunan et al. 2000). Within these areas, Long-footed Potoroos are very patchily distributed (Jones & Johnson 1997; Saxon & Noble 1993).

The East Gippsland population of the Long-footed Potoroo occurs in the largest area (about 1120 km²), The north-eastern Victorian population occurs in an area of 510 km², and the south-eastern NSW population occurs in an area of around 200 km² (Broome et al. 1996).

The Long-footed Potoroo formerly occurred in a larger area of Gippsland and south-eastern NSW; a museum specimen was collected in the nineteenth century near Rosedale in central Gippsland (Seebeck & Johnston 1980), and a fossil skull was found at Yarrangobilly Caves, south-west of Canberra, within Kosciuszko National Park (Seebeck 1992). Both of these are more than 100 km away from any existing population.

Evidence of Long-footed Potoroos has not been found recently in some places where they were formerly detected within the South East Forest National Park. This may be because of the inefficiency of hair-sampling, low population density, mobility, or recent local extinctions (NSW NPWS 2002b).

The Long-footed Potoroo was discovered in East Gippsland and described in 1980 (Seebeck & Johnston 1980). Surveys were conducted in areas of southern NSW that had similar climate and habitat to that in East Gippsland, and remains of the Long-footed Potoroo in a predator scat were first discovered in NSW in 1986 (Dovey 1987). All seventeen records in NSW have been from hairs or remains. No Long-footed Potoroos have been captured in NSW, despite intense trapping effort (each year for more than ten years) (Broome et al. 1994, 1995, 1996a; NSW NPWS 2002b; Saxon & Noble 1993). The population of Long-footed Potoroos in north-east Victoria was discovered in March 1995, when a carcass was found in a recently harvested logging coupe, and live Long-footed Potoroos were then trapped. The region was intensively surveyed for eight months in 1995 and 1996 (Jones & Johnson 1997) using hair tubes, scat collection and trapping in potentially suitable habitat identified from maps, and in areas where there were anecdotal reports of potoroos as a result of publicity. New colonies of Long-footed Potoroos continue to be found; the species was first discovered in Coopracambra National Park in 2003 (Parks Victoria 2004). Revised models of habitat, climate and other aspects of the environment have been developed to direct further survey effort in Victoria and NSW (Claridge 2002).

The Long-footed Potoroo occurs at low densities, especially in NSW (Broome et al. 1996; Seebeck 1998). Based on predictions from suitable habitat, the total number of Long-footed Potoroos is likely to be 1000–2000, but may be fewer (VDSE 2003).

The three populations of Long-footed Potoroos (East Gippsland, north-eastern Victoria and south-eastern NSW) are isolated from one another. Within these populations, the species occurs in colonies that appear to be separated by unsuitable habitat, so it is likely that interbreeding between many of the colonies is limited or absent (NSW NPWS 2002b; Nunan et al. 2000). The East Gippsland population of the Long-footed Potoroo has been recorded from 45 separate sites, which seem to be grouped into around 20 colonies (NSW NPWS 2002b; Nunan et al. 2000; VDSE 2003). The north-eastern Victorian population has been recorded from 35 separate sites (Jones & Johnson 1997; Jones 1998).

All of the confirmed sites containing Long-footed Potoroos in NSW are within the South East Forest National Park (Nunan et al. 2000). Sixty percent of the species' range in north-eastern Victoria is within the Alpine National Park, and 40% is within State Forest (Jones & Johnson 1997). The Long-footed Potoroo occurs in the Snowy River National Park, Errinundra National Park and Coopracambra National Park in East Gippsland (Parks Victoria 2004; VDSE 2003). In Victoria, Long-footed Potoroos not occurring in National Parks are protected by Special Management Areas of at least a 2.5 km radius around each location (about 150 ha). Most of the reserved area inhabited by Long-footed Potoroos is not generally used for recreation. An exception is Waratah Flat in the Snowy River National Park in Victoria, where the species occurs near a campground (VDSE 2003).

The habitat of the Long-footed Potoroo includes temperate rainforest, riparian forest and wet sclerophyll forest (Nunan et al. 2000). It occurs at a range of elevations from around 100 m (East Gippsland) to greater than 1200 m (the Victorian Alps). The species occurs in vegetation communities with constantly moist soil. Within its range in NSW, such vegetation is restricted mainly to riparian (riverside) areas (NSW NPWS 2002b). Trees in these communities include Lilly Pilly (Acmena smithii), Messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua), Mountain Grey Gum (Eucalyptus cypellocarpa), Brown Barrel (Eucalyptus fastigata) and Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). Understorey plants include Forest Wire-grass (Tetrarrhena juncea), Red-fruit Saw-sedge (Gahnia sieberiana), other sedges Carex and Cyperus spp., and ferns. In Victoria it always occurs in or near (usually within 250 m of) damp forest types (Jones 1998; Jones & Johnson 1997).

The species needs dense cover to provide shelter and protection from predators. During the day, the Long-footed Potoroo nests beneath ferns, grass or sedge tussocks, or fallen timber (Jones & Johnson 1997; Lewis & Thulin 1995; Triggs 1998). One nest was made of bracken and coarse grass, lined with fine grass and Long-footed Potoroo hair (Jones & Johnson 1997). The species appears to prefer a sheltered aspect, a mixed species overstorey and a dense understorey for both resting and foraging (Nunan et al. 2000). One study, based on trapping records, found that Long-footed Potoroos use cool moist gullies more often during drier times of the year (spring and summer), avoiding drier ridges and slopes (Scotts & Seebeck 1989). A later study using trapping and radio-tracking in the same area found that they use both gullies and slopes, and more captures were on upper slopes, perhaps because they used more of the open vegetation after introduced predators were controlled (Green et al. 1998).

The Long-footed Potoroo needs a diverse and abundant supply of hypogeal (underground-fruiting) fungi, which it eats throughout the year (Maxwell et al. 1996; Saxon et al. 1994). The abundance of such fungi depends on soil moisture (Claridge & Cork 1997).

The Long-footed Potoroo attains adult body size at around 36 weeks old. Sexual maturity occurred in a male and a female at 26 months (Seebeck 1992). The lifespan of two females studied was two and a half years and greater than four years, respectively (Green & Mitchell 1997).

The Long-footed Potoroo can breed throughout the year. In East Gippsland, births peak between July and September. In north-eastern Victoria, births are spread more evenly across the seasons (Green & Mitchell 1997). Higher rainfall and a deeper soil and litter layer at this site may have created a more stable food supply resulting in aseasonal reproduction (Nunan et al. 2000).

Young Long-footed Potoroos remain in the pouch for 140 to 150 days (Seebeck 1992). After they leave the pouch, they remain with their mothers until they become independent at around 20 weeks old. Young remain in their mother's territory for at least 12 months before dispersing (Green & Mitchell 1997).

The Long-footed Potoroo eats hypogeal (underground-fruiting) fungi. The fruiting parts of these are called sporocarps or truffles (Nunan et al. 2000). Many of the fungi in its diet form ectomycorrhizae, which are symbiotic attachments to the roots of certain forest trees and shrubs. Most species are soft and will not survive if the soil becomes dry (Scotts & Seebeck 1989). The Long-footed Potoroo probably depends on fungi as a food source more than any other mammal in Australia (Nunan et al. 2000). In a study in East Gippsland, fungi constituted 88–91% of identifiable food remains, plant material contributed 4–5%, and invertebrates 5–7% of the scat samples. Spores were classified into 54 classes, indicating that the Long-footed Potoroo eats a wide variety of different fungi (Green et al. 1999). Previous studies found spores from 31 or more species of fungi (Hill & Triggs 1985; Scotts & Seebeck 1989). The species eaten in winter and summer are similar, but the abundance of different species in the diet varies between different seasons, years and localities (Claridge & Cork 1997; Scotts & Seebeck 1989).

Pairs of long-footed Potoroos may forage together as a unit. They excavate truffles by digging many small conical pits (Green et al. 1998).

Long-footed Potoroos use different parts of their territories according to local changes in the distribution of fungi (Claridge et al. 1993a, 1993b, 1993c cited in NSW NPWS 2002b). They might also move their territory boundaries seasonally to follow the changing distribution of truffles (Green et al. 1998; Scotts & Seebeck 1989). It has been suggested that mobility might be one reason why repeated hair tube surveys in NSW have failed to re-find Long-footed Potoroos at previously recorded sites (Saxon & Noble 1993).

The home range of the Long-footed Potoroo is between 22 and 60 ha in East Gippsland (Bellbird), and between 14 and 23 ha in north-eastern Victoria (Riley). Males use a larger area than females (Green et al. 1998; Nunan et al. 2000). The species is territorial, and the territories of mated pairs overlap with each other, but not with other pairs. The female's home-range tends to be within the boundary of the male's. The species has a monogamous mating system. This social system and spatial organisation is unique among macropods (Green et al. 1998; Scotts & Seebeck 1989).

The Long-footed Potoroo is elusive and difficult to detect and trap. It overlaps in distribution with the Long-nosed Potoroo (Potorous tridactylus) near Manorina in Victoria (VDSE 2003), the Long-nosed Bandicoot (Perameles nasuta) and the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus).

The Long-footed Potoroo has a shorter snout and is generally smaller than the Long-nosed Potoroo. It has a longer tail (more than 250 mm long) and larger hind foot (longer than or the same length as its head). The Long-footed Potoroo has a leathery pad on the sole of its foot, just behind the inner toe (a hallucal pad). The two species have different numbers of chromosomes, and molecular analysis (e.g. from hair or other tissue) can distinguish between them (NSW NPWS 2002b; Seebeck 1998). Tracks made by potoroos differ from those made by bandicoots because they have five rather than three digits on the forepaws.

Although the Long-footed Potoroo's foot is a different shape to that of the Long-nosed Potoroo (NSW NPWS 1999), tracks and diggings of the Long-footed Potoroo cannot usually be reliably distinguished from those of the Long-nosed Potoroo, or from small wallabies (Tipping et al. 2004). NSW State Forests has foot casts of potoroo and bandicoot museum specimens for comparison with tracks of unknown species (S. Ingleby 2003, as cited in Tipping et al. 2004). Diggings of bandicoots, bettongs and potoroos are conical, and are made by digging downward, not forward, as in rabbits and Southern Brown Bandicoots (Rees & Paull 2000; Triggs 1998). Potoroo diggings can often be distinguished from those made by bandicoots by their larger size, flatter base, and association with fungi (Claridge & Barry 2000; Rees & Paull 2000; Triggs 1998). However, Long-footed Potoroo diggings can vary from 400 mm deep and 80 to 120 mm across, to fan-like scratchings at the surface (Jones & Johnson 1997).

Direct detection survey techniques (particularly spotlighting and cage trapping) sometimes detect Long-footed Potoroos, but are not reliable. For example, Scotts and Craig (1988) used the same bait in hair tubes and cage traps, but succeeded in sampling the species in 2% (four out of 201) hair tubes, but only 0.1% of traps (one animal). It is recommended that hair sampling is used in association with searches for tracks and signs. Remote photography may also detect the species.

The following methods are recommended to detect the Long-footed Potoroo in areas up to 5 ha:

Daytime searches for potentially suitable habitat
Searches need to be conducted across the survey area, targeting locations first identified from aerial photographs and topographic maps.

Daytime searches for signs of activity, including diggings, tracks and nests
Surveys for tracks (marks in the ground left by the feet or tail) can be made at the same time as searches for diggings and nests, or tracks can be surveyed using soil plots, sand trays, or predator pads. This is most effective on sandy soil or wet clay soils. On forest floors covered with leaf litter, surveys for tracks are conducted by laying sand trays or soil plots, or by targeting places such as dirt vehicle tracks, animal trails, pads or runways or around water sources where the ground is either wet or sandy. The investigator should photograph or make plaster casts of tracks for later identification by an appropriate expert (Tipping et al. 2004).

Soil plot surveys
Soil plots facilitate the detection of footprints by preparing or laying out soil or sand on the ground (for example, a 3 m by 1 m plot). The footprints are then identified by an experienced person (Catling et al. 1997). Plots are placed along natural or vehicle tracks, walking tracks, fauna trails and runways. Soil plots used in conjunction with hair sampling detect potoroos more frequently than cage traps or spotlighting (Catling et al. 1997).

In a stratified sampling design of 1 ha survey areas within a site up to 5 ha, at least three areas should include a soil plot survey as follows (Catling et al. 2001):

  • Establish at least two 1 m wide soil plots (raked, with fine sand added if required) per survey site.
  • Set soil plots for three consecutive nights.
  • Rake plots smooth each morning after tracks have been identified and recorded.
  • If possible, bring a plaster cast of the target species' tracks made from Museum specimens for comparison (S. Ingleby 2003, as cited in Tipping et al. 2004). Preferably, take plaster casts or photographs of prints, provide a scale for photographs.

Collection of hair, bone and other remains
Fox and dog scats (droppings) can be collected along tracks and roads (Jones & Johnson 1997). Predatory bird and mammal nests and dens often contain scats, casts and prey remains. The presence of Long-footed Potoroos can be confirmed from bone and hair in scats, casts and prey remains. Owl casts (digestive pellets) are often preserved for many years, so their contents can indicate if Long-footed Potoroos were present, even if they are now locally extinct. Advice should be sought from an expert on how to collect and preserve scats (Tipping et al. 2004). Scats should be handled with care and heat-treated before analysis to destroy potential parasites and their eggs (Jones & Johnson 1997). The location of predator scats does not give precise information about the distribution of potoroos, as dogs and foxes can move large distances between feeding and defecating (Lunney et al. 1990). Many small birds line their nests with fur collected from the ground; Jones and Johnson (1997) systematically collected abandoned nests to find Long-footed Potoroo hairs.

Hair sampling
Hair sampling uses an open funnel or a tube with bait enclosed in a chamber. The animal tries to eat the bait, and some of their fur sticks to an adhesive insert on the upper inside surface. The floor of the tube must be free of adhesive to prevent small lizards and frogs becoming stuck. The inserts with attached fur are removed and sent to specialists for identification (Brunner & Coman 1974). Scotts and Craig (1988) designed a hair tube to detect Long-footed Potoroos. They used a PVC pipe 90 mm in diameter and 100 mm long which was closed at one end with a stormwater adaptor (100 mm). The bait (rolled oats, peanut butter, honey and essence of pistachio nut oil) was enclosed in a central section by a perforated aluminium screen. Jones and Johnson (1997) further refined this design by using three pieces of split 12 mm clear tubing with double-sided tape on them, fanning out from the top and sides of the open end. This design collects more guard hairs of Long-footed Potoroos than previous designs, according to trials done at Healesville Sanctuary (Broome et al. 1995). Whole guard hairs are usually necessary to identify Long-footed Potoroos, because their scale pattern and colour are diagnostic (different from those of other Potoroo species) (Lewis & Thulin 1995; Saxon & Noble 1993).

In an area up to 5 ha in size, at least three sites should include a hair sampling survey as follows:

  • Place a minimum of 20 hair tubes or funnels at each sampling site around 20 m apart in two parallel straight lines (transects) separated by 25 to 30 m (Jones & Johnson 1997; Tipping et al. 2004).
  • Use one sampling site per representative habitat, with at least two sampling sites per 5 ha.
  • Set the hair tubes for fourteen consecutive nights. Bait with a mixture of peanut butter, rolled oats and pistachio nut oil essence. Renew the bait in the second week if possible (Tipping et al. 2004).

Failure to collect Long-footed Potoroo hair on any one occasion is not sufficient evidence to determine that the species is absent from the sampling area; repeated sampling of the same site is recommended (Saxon & Noble 1993).

Feral predators
Dingoes, wild dogs and foxes are major predators and appear to limit populations and local distributions of Long-footed Potoroos (Lewis & Thulin 1995; Saxon & Noble 1993). Around 40% of the 150 reliable records of the species in Victoria, up to 1995, consist of remains in dog or fox scats (VDSE 2003). Within the species range, between 1% and 9% of dog and fox scats contain remains of Long-footed Potoroos (Jones & Johnson 1997). Cats may also kill Long-footed Potoroos. Predation is probably greater when understorey shelter is reduced, and roads may increase access to the potoroo's habitat (Broome et al. 1996a; Jones & Johnson 1997). According to Jones & Johnson (1997), Williams Log Road appears to be a thoroughfare for predators within the range of the Long-footed Potoroo in north-east Victoria, because the density of fox and dog scats on the road was very high (up to 16.7 per km), and a high proportion contained Long-footed Potoroo remains (7%–9%).

Timber harvesting
The Long-footed Potoroo has specialized habitat requirements (a dense understorey in or near wet forest with permanently moist soil). It is potentially threatened by activities that reduce or degrade habitat or inhibit movement between colonies. Long-footed Potoroos that are displaced from their usual home ranges may not easily find unoccupied suitable habitat, because the species is territorial (Green et al. 1998; Scotts & Seebeck 1989). Timber harvesting can reduce species diversity and can result in a decrease in soil moisture (VDSE 2003). The longer term effects of logging are uncertain. However, in north-eastern Victoria, old-growth forest supports the densest populations of Long-footed Potoroos, and these animals also produce more offspring and spend less time foraging, suggesting that unlogged forest is prime habitat for the species (Green et al. 1998; NSW NPWS 2002b). Jones and Johnson (1997) suggested that the Long-footed Potoroo's preferred habitat in the Riley and Tea Tree North regions coincides with preferred timber harvesting coupes, because the best aspect (terrain) for truffle growth also favours growth of high quality Messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua). Logging roads in this region can increase predator access.

Fire
Wildfires and prescribed burning are likely to be detrimental to Long-footed Potoroos in the short term, because fires reduce understorey shelter (NSW NPWS 2002b; VDSE 2003). However, habitat modelling by Lewis and Thulin (1995) found little evidence of adverse effects at a landscape scale in East Gippsland. The effect of fire on the food of Long-footed Potoroos is not well known; canopy loss and other changes in vegetation structure after fires can dry the soil, but in some parts of Australia moderate fires appear to stimulate the short term production of truffles by underground fungi (NSW NPWS 2002b; VDSE 2003).

Feral pigs
Feral pigs eat the same species of truffles that Long-footed Potoroos eat (Broome et al. 1994), so they may compete with potoroos for food when it is limited. Pigs also damage ground cover and the forest litter layer as they excavate food and are common in Long-footed Potoroo habitat. In NSW a third of Long-footed Potoroo transects surveyed had signs of pig foraging (Broome et al. 1994; NSW NPWS 2002b).

Chance events
Because the Long-footed Potoroo has a very restricted distribution (especially in NSW), and a small population size, it is threatened by chance breeding failure (for example, caused by the death of too many adults of a particular sex) and localised disasters such as severe fires and disease, which could exterminate colonies (NSW NPWS 2002b; VDSE 2003).

Dingoes, wild dogs, foxes, and cats are common in the vicinity of Long-footed Potoroo habitat, and need to be controlled. Dogs and foxes are most readily controlled by sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) in buried baits, and cat and pig populations are potentially reduced by trapping (Saxon et al. 1994 cited in Nunan et al. 2000). The NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2002b) recommended further surveys for new populations of the Long-footed Potoroo, research into the ecology of truffles, and campaigns to improve community awareness.

In Victoria, Special Management Areas (SMAs) of at least a 2.5 km radius (about 150 ha) are set aside around all sites where Long-footed Potoroos are found. In order to protect the local creek catchments and all microhabitats likely to be used at each site, the boundaries of these are the surrounding topographic features, such as ridges, spurs and junctions of drainage lines (Saxon et al. 1994; VDSE 2003). New roads and logging are prevented within SMAs. Prescribed burning is generally not allowed, but in some areas within fuel reduction corridors, burning is conducted away from gullies. In some SMAs, predators are controlled and the response of Long-footed Potoroos is monitored. A population at Bellbird in East Gippsland has been baited since 1990 (VDSE 2003). The minimum number of Long-footed Potoroos known to be alive has doubled since this fox-baiting campaign began (Green et al. 1998).

In NSW, a Potoroo Management Zone was initially created in the early 1990s, and was managed to prevent road building, prescribed burning and logging. From 1994 to 1998, annual predator control and feral pig control was carried out (NSW NPWS 2002b). 1080 baits were buried in mounds of sand distributed throughout an area of 70 km² in autumn and winter. In 1995, infra-red cameras were also installed at some bait mounds (Broome et al. 1996a). Managers monitored the rate of bait uptake and the number of predator visits to bait stations. After baiting began in 1992 and 1993, predator signs decreased sharply, but Dingoes, feral dogs and foxes have not been eliminated in the area, because some do not take baits (Broome et al. 1994, 1996a). A full time pig-trapper was employed by State Forests of NSW in 1993, in an area that includes the Potoroo Management Zone (Broome et al. 1994).

In 1998 the South East Forests National Park was created, incorporating the boundaries of the Potoroo Management Zone, and these management activities were continued within the Park (NSW NPWS 2002b). A draft code of practice for private native forestry in NSW prescribes a 200 m exclusion zone (about 12.5 ha) around all records of Long-footed Potoroos. No timber harvesting, removal of vegetation, or burning is permitted within this zone (NSW DNR 2006).

A breeding population of Long-footed Potoroos was established in captivity at Healesville Sanctuary in Victoria in 1980. However, it contained only one adult of each sex in 2002, and disease and inbreeding threatened the population (NSW NPWS 2002b).

The Long-Footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan et al. 2000), The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes (Maxwell et al. 1996) and the Long-footed Potoroo Potorous longipes Research Plan in south-eastern NSW (NPWS) (Broome et al. 1996) provide information on the biology and management of the Long-footed Potoroo.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Potorous longipes in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006rz) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ab) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus dingo (Dingo, Warrigal, New Guinea Singing Dog) Draft Long-footed potoroo (Potorous longipes Seebeck and Johnston, 1980) Recovery Plan Page(s) 33. (Nunan, D., Henry, S. & Tennant, P., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Long-footed Potoroo (Potorous longipes) Recovery Plan (Nunan, D., S. Henry & P. Tennant, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
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Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (VDSE) (2003). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement no. 58: Long-footed Potoroo Potorous longipes. [Online]. Department of Sustainability and Environment: Melbourne. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/D83A7A380318FA5FCA2570EC001E61BE/$File/058+Long-footed+Potoroo+1994.pdf. [Accessed: 13-Oct-2008].

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Potorous longipes in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 17:26:33 +1000.