In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Eucalyptus pulverulenta|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus pulverulenta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ov) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
National Recovery Plan for Natural Temperate Grassland of the Southern Tablelands (NSW and ACT): An Endangered Ecological Community (Environment ACT, 2006) [Recovery Plan] as Eucalyptus pulverulenta.
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
EPBC Act policy statement 3.5 - White box - yellow box - Blakely's red gum grassy woodlands and derived native grasslands (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006r) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Eucalyptus pulverulenta.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eucalyptus pulverulenta |
|Reference||Curtis's Botanical Magazine 46 (1819) t. 2087.|
|Other names||Eucalyptus pulvigera |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images
Scientific name: Eucalyptus pulverulenta
Common name: Silver-leaved Mountain Gum
Other names: Silver-leafed Gum, Powdered Gum, Florists Silver Dollar, Silver Mountain Gum
Conventionally accepted as Eucalyptus pulverulenta (CHAH 2012).
The Silver-leaved Mountain Gum is a distinctive, straggly mallee (multi-stemmed tree) or small tree that grows to approximately 6 m in height, though can reach up to 10 m (NSW OEH 2012a; Pryor 1981) usually in cultivated situations (Peters et al. 1990). The bark is smooth, grey to bronze, and sheds in long strips. Young stems are glaucous (grey-blue) (NSW OEH 2012a; Pryor 1981).
The tree is made distinctive by its round to heart-shaped, stalkless, paired, waxy, blue-green juvenile leaves, which are 5 cm long and wide, and are characteristically retained on mature plants. Only rarely are adult leaves produced, these being stalked, oval to lance shaped, dull grey-blue in colour, and grow to 10 cm in length and 2 cm in width (Brooker & Kleinig 1999; Hall 1980; NSW OEH 2012a; Pryor 1981). The stalkless, large cream-coloured flowers occur in clusters of three. Flowers are followed by large, cylindrical or hemispherical, grey-blue gumnuts, which are also stalkless and grow to 5–8 mm in length and 6–8 mm in diameter. Fruits have flattened discs and valves to rim-level or protruding (Brooker & Kleinig 1999; Hall 1980; NSW OEH 2012a; Pryor 1981).
The Silver-leaved Mountain Gum is rare in the wild. It has a highly disjunct distribution of several small stands in the Bowenfels district on the NSW Central Tablelands (Lithgow to Bathurst area), and a few occurrences on the NSW Southern Tablelands (Bredbo and Bombala areas) (Briggs & Leigh 1990; NSW OEH 2012a).
The Silver-leaved Mountain Gum is grown commercially as an ornamental and for cut foliage for the florist industry, where it is known as "Florists Silver Dollar". The species is also used widely as a landscaping specimen, especially in California in the United States of America. Easily propagated from seed and possibly cuttings, the Silver-leaved Mountain Gum is also used for experimental breeding research (Pryor 1981; Yallaroo n.d.).
Ten natural populations of the species are known, with approximately 5400 plants in total (Briggs & Leigh 1990; Peters et al. 1990). The populations in the Central Tablelands, specifically at sites near Bogan Gate, Lawsons Sugarloaf, Mt Blaxland, Lowther Creek and Hartley, are mostly less than 0.5 hectares (ha) in area. The total number of individuals on the Central Tablelands is approximately 3000 (Benson & McDougall 1998; Peters et al. 1990). The Southern Tablelands populations generally occur over larger areas, although the distribution is sparse. Two sites occur on grazed Crown leasehold adjacent to the Dowling Fire Trail, at an altitude of 900–1050 m above sea level (asl) and over an area of approximately 90 ha. There are approximately 1000 individuals on these sites (Briggs & Leigh 1990). A population of 62 individuals in two stands also occurs adjacent to Inaloy Fire Trail (Briggs & Leigh 1990; Peters et al. 1990). Two sites on private land between Bredbo and Cooma contain about 1300 individuals (Briggs & Leigh 1990; Peters et al. 1990).
Peters and colleagues (1990) undertook a study of the genetic variation of the Silver-leaved Mountain Gum populations. The study concluded that the two largest populations (at Mt Blaxland in the Blue Mountains and Schofields Creek near Bredbo) are the most genetically diverse, and their conservation is therefore of prime importance. This finding is in addition to the Inaloy Fire Trail population, which also contains significant genetic variants. This latter population also exhibited a more robust appearance than other populations, as one tree carried some lanceolate 'adult'-like leaves not seen elsewhere during the study.
Populations of the Silver-leaved Mountain Gum occur on the crests or upper slopes of moderately steep hillsides or mountains (Briggs & Leigh 1990; Chippendale 1988), at altitudes of 800–1000 m asl (Peters et al. 1990), usually on well-drained skeletal soils with frequent rock outcrops (Chippendale 1988; Peters et al. 1990; Pryor 1981). The southern populations occur in sandy or gravelly loams over shales and sedimentary rock (Briggs & Leigh 1990; Pryor 1981).
The species is usually an understorey plant in open forest or woodland with a canopy height of 5–10 m, typically dominated by Brittle Gum (Eucalyptus mannifera), Red Stringybark (E. macrorhynca), Broad-leafed Peppermint (E. dives), Silvertop Ash (E. sieberi), Inland Scribbly Gum (E. rossii), Red Box (E. polyanthemos), Long-leaved Box (E. goniocalyx), and Apple Box (E. bridgesiana) (Benson & McDougall 1998; NSW OEH 2012a; Peters et al. 1990; Pryor 1981). Plants also occasionally occur in Acacia - Callitris low woodland (Briggs & Leigh 1990).
The distribution of the Silver-leaved Mountain Gum overlaps with the following EPBC Act-listed threatened ecological communities:
- White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland (listed as Critically Endangered).
- Natural Temperate Grassland of the Southern Tablelands of NSW and the Australian Capital Territory (listed as Endangered).
- Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (listed as Endangered).
The Silver-leaved Mountain Gum flowers from May to December (Benson & McDougall 1998). The species is insect-pollinated, which may limit the pollen dispersal range to approximately 250 m. Widespread pollen sterility and low genetic diversity has been recorded in populations of this species (Peters et al. 1990).
The main identified threats to Silver-leaved Mountain Gum are (ANRA 2009a; Briggs & Leigh 1990; NSW OEH 2012a; Peters et al. 1990; Pryor 1981):
- Damage to habitat by grazing and trampling, especially by domestic stock and feral Goats (Capra hircus), which impacts on recruitment.
- Damage or clearing for fire trails or development.
- Susceptibility to stochastic events due to small size and isolation of populations.
- Altered fire regimes or hydrology.
- Increasing fragmentation and loss of habitat.
- Illegal seed collection.
- Gold mining activities that may be impacting on some stands.
The following actions may assist in recovery of the Silver-leaved Mountain Gum (NSW OEH 2012a):
- Encourage regeneration by fencing remnants, controlling stock grazing and undertaking supplementary planting or direct sowing of this species, if necessary.
- Conduct further survey in potential habitat to look for additional populations.
Management documents for the Silver-leaved Mountain Gum can be found at the start of this profile. Other documents relevant to the species include:
- National Recovery Plan for Natural Temperate Grassland of the Southern Tablelands (NSW & ACT) (Environment ACT 2006).
- EPBC Act policy statement 3.5 - White box - Yellow box - Blakely's red gum grassy woodlands and derived native grasslands (DEH 2006r).
- NSW Threatened Species Hazard Reduction: Part 1- Plants (RFS 2004).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Eucalyptus pulverulenta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006jd) [Internet].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Eucalyptus pulverulenta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006jd) [Internet].|
|Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest||Eucalyptus pulverulenta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006jd) [Internet].|
|Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus pulverulenta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ov) [Conservation Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus pulverulenta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ov) [Conservation Advice].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus pulverulenta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ov) [Conservation Advice].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals|
Australian Natural Resources Atlas (ANRA) (2009a). Biodiversity Assessment - South Eastern Highlands. Species at risk and the Threatening Process. [Online]. Available from: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/assessment/nsw/ibra-seh-species-threats.html.
Benson, D. & L. McDougall (1998). Ecology of Sydney plant species: Part 6 Dicotyledon family Myrtaceae. Cunninghamia. 5(4):809-987. Sydney: NSW Royal Botanic Gardens.
Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1990). Delineation of Important Habitats of Threatened Plant Species in South-Eastern New South Wales. Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission.
Brooker, M.I.H. & D.A. Kleinig (1999). Field Guide to Eucalypts. Volume 1, South-eastern Australia. Hawthorn, Victoria: Bloomings Books.
Chippendale, G.M. (1988). Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus, Angophora. In: Flora of Australia. 19:1-540. Canberra: AGPS.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2012). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apclist.
Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006r). EPBC Act policy statement 3.5 - White box - yellow box - Blakely's red gum grassy woodlands and derived native grasslands. [Online]. DEH: Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/box-gum.html.
Environment ACT (2006). National Recovery Plan for Natural Temperate Grassland of the Southern Tablelands (NSW and ACT): An Endangered Ecological Community. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment ACT. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/temperate-grasslands/index.html.
Hall, N. (1980). Eucalyptus pulverulenta Silver-leaved Mountain Gumvol 1-50, Leaflet 28 (first published 1972). Forest Tree Leaflets. 1-50:Leaflet 28. Melbourne: CSIRO, Division of Forest Research.
New South Wales Office of the Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2012a). Eucalyptus pulverulenta- profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/. [Accessed: 29-Apr-2012].
NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005ea). Silver-leaved Gum - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10308.
Peters, G.B., Lonie, J.S. & Moran, G.F. (1990). The breeding system, genetic diversity and pollen sterility in Eucalyptus pulverulenta, a rare species with small disjunct populations. Australian Journal of Botany. 38(6):559-570.
Pryor, L.D. (1981). Australian Endangered Species: Eucalypts. In: Special Publication. 5. Canberra, Commonwealth of Australia.
Rural Fire Service (RFS) (2004). Threatened species hazard reduction list: Part 1-Plants. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/file_system/attachments/State/Attachment_20050304_5C7BDF1C.pdf. [Accessed: 12-May-2008].
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008ov). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus pulverulenta. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/21537-conservation-advice.pdf.
Yallaroo (n.d.). Eucalyptus pulverulenta. [Online]. Available from: http://www.yallaroo.com.au/Eucalyptus_pulverulenta.htm. [Accessed: 07-May-2012].
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus pulverulenta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 06:23:15 +1000.