Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia gibbsiae subsp. psilantherea (an eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ay) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Tasmanian lowland Euphrasia species Flora Recovery Plan (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE), 2011g) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (05/10/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Euphrasia gibbsiae subsp. psilantherea (Swamp Eyebright): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014cr) [State Action Plan].
TAS:Listing Statement Swamp Eyebright Euphrasia gibbsiae ssp. psilantherea (Threatened Species Unit, 2001a) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
Scientific name Euphrasia gibbsiae subsp. psilantherea [21507]
Family Scrophulariaceae:Scrophulariales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author (F.Muell.) W.R.Barker
Reference Barker, W.R. (1982) Taxonomic studies in Euphrasia L. (Scrophulariaceae). A revised infrageneric classification, and a revision of the genus in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 5: 119 [comb. et stat. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Euphrasia gibbsiae is a short-lived perennial herb, with branches generally no more than 30-40 cm long (Threatened Species Unit 2001a). The petals are white with prominent purplish striations (Barker 1987; Threatened Species Unit 2001a).

This species is known only from a 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) area, in the Southport Lagoon Wildlife Sanctuary (Comm. of Aust 1999d) within the Southport Lagoon Conservation Area NE of Blackswan Lagoon, near Southport, SE Tas. (Threatened Species Unit 2001a).

The population size fluctuates due to variation in habitat openness and spring and summer rainfall. Around forty individuals were seen in 2001, the largest number recorded in the seven years that the population has been monitored. While the number of mature individuals has declined in the last two years due to drought, the number of seedlings has increased (Threatened Species Unit 2001a).

This species is found among low sedges in open wet coastal heathland (Barker 1987; Threatened Species Unit 2001), also described as moorland (Comm. of Aust (1999d). Sites are frequently waterlogged in winter (Threatened Species Unit 2001a). The species also grows under Eucalyptus on higher ground (Barker 1987).

This species has two main flowering seasons, Sept./Oct. and Mar./Apr. (Threatened Species Unit 2001a).

Populations of Euphrasia species are transient. The persistence of populations is reliant upon the successful recruitment of seedlings. Patches of open ground are required for germination, and adequate moisture levels are required for seedling survival. Seed production is copious and the soil seed bank probably survives for decades (Potts 1999). Standing plants are killed by fire (Comm. of Aust 1999d) but profuse germination follows (Potts 1999).

The species is short-lived surviving up to 3-5 years (Threatened Species Unit 2001a).

Euphrasia taxa are non-host specific semi-parasites. The growth rate and reproductive output is reduced in the absence of hosts (Potts 1999).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Listing Statement Swamp Eyebright Euphrasia gibbsiae ssp. psilantherea (Threatened Species Unit, 2001a) [Information Sheet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia gibbsiae subsp. psilantherea (an eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ay) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Listing Statement Swamp Eyebright Euphrasia gibbsiae ssp. psilantherea (Threatened Species Unit, 2001a) [Information Sheet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia gibbsiae subsp. psilantherea (an eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ay) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia gibbsiae subsp. psilantherea (an eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ay) [Listing Advice].
Listing Statement Swamp Eyebright Euphrasia gibbsiae ssp. psilantherea (Threatened Species Unit, 2001a) [Information Sheet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia gibbsiae subsp. psilantherea (an eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ay) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plans for Threatened Tasmanian Lowland Euphrasia Species - 1997-2001 (Potts, W.C., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia gibbsiae subsp. psilantherea (an eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ay) [Listing Advice].
Listing Statement Swamp Eyebright Euphrasia gibbsiae ssp. psilantherea (Threatened Species Unit, 2001a) [Information Sheet].

Barker, W R (1987). Taxonomic Studies in Euphrasia L. (Scrophulariaceae). V. New and rediscovered taxa, typifications and other notes on the genus in Australia. J. Adel. Bot. Gard. 10(2):201-221.

Collier, P A (1990). Rare Taxa in the genus Euphrasia L. from Lowland South-Eastern Tasmania. The Tasmanian Naturalist. 103:1-5.

Commonwealth of Australia (1999e). Tasmanian Regional Forests Agreements. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rfa.gov.au/rfa/tas/raa/envher/volumes1-4/ai_euphr.html.

Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chabg/census/census.html.

Potts, W.C. (1999). Recovery Plans for Threatened Tasmanian Lowland Euphrasia Species - 1997-2001. [Online]. TAS DPIWE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/tas-euphrasia/index.html.

Threatened Species Unit (2001a). Listing Statement Swamp Eyebright Euphrasia gibbsiae ssp. psilantherea. [Online]. Dept Primary Industries, Water & Environment, Tas. Available from: http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/esl/listing_statements/Euphrasia_gibbsiae.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Euphrasia gibbsiae subsp. psilantherea in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 23 Aug 2014 14:01:34 +1000.