In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Boronia repanda|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Boronia repanda.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Boronia repanda |
|Species author||(F.Muell. ex Maiden & Betche) Maiden & Betche|
|Reference||Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 31: 732 (Mar. 1907).|
|Other names||Boronia repanda var. alba |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
Scientific name: Boronia repanda
Common name: Repand Boronia
Other common names: Border Boronia, Granite Rose
Repand Boronia is most closely related to Boronia ledifolia and Granite Boronia (B. granitica) but differs in having simple leaves rather than compound foliage with several leaflets (NSW NPWS 2002s). A white-flowered variety of this species was formally published, however, Duretto (1999b) suggests that this is a morphological alteration that occurs with age rather than as a distinct species (Hunter & Bell 2006). Synonyms of this species include Boronia ledifolia var. repanda and Boronia repanda var. alba.
Repand Boronia is a low shrub that is single or multiple stemmed that grows to a height of 1.5 m (Hunter & Bell 2006). The stems are described as woody, smooth, hairy, ornamented, warted and glandular. The bark is smooth and dark grey-brown in colour (red-brown when younger). The leaves are well developed, oppositely arranged on the stem, 318 mm long, 13 mm wide and with conspicuous oil dots. The leaves are described as aromatic. The compound leaves (more than one blade) are discolourous (more than one colour) and oblong in shape with a blunt tip. The margins are glandular with very small rounded teeth (Duretto 1999b).
Repand Boronia has pale to bright pink (or occasionally white) flowers (Duretto 1999b; Harden 1991; NSW NPWS 1999c; Stanley & Ross 1983; Steenbeeke 1998). There are eight stamens (male reproductive part) with filaments 1.53.0 mm long. Fruit are dry capsules 46 cm long, 2.53.5 cm wide, and brown or black in colour. Seeds are black and glossy, 45 mm long and 1.52.5 mm wide. On maturity, the seeds are released spontaneously from the capsule (Duretto 1999b).
Repand Boronia is known from ten populations, nine of which occur in Queensland and one which occurs in NSW (Hunter & Bell 2006; Quinn et al. 1995). The Queensland locations all occur within a 20 km area near Stanthorpe in the Darling Downs and granite belt area of south-east Queensland. Localities in Queensland include Cottonvale and Thulimbah. The NSW location occurs as one large population and two small outliers bounded by Border Road and Kurrajong Lane close to the NSW-Queensland state border, east of Stanthorpe (Hunter & Bell 2006). The NSW population has the bulk of all known individuals.
A historical record of Repand Boronia occurred at Maryland Station which, in the 1800s, extended across NSW and Queensland. Records also exist within the Moreton area of Queensland, however, based on the evidence these are assumed to be cultivars and do not represent a natural population (Duretto 1999b; Hunter & Bell 2006).
Repand Boronia is cultivated at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra, ACT; Adelaide Botanic Gardens, South Australia; and Mt Annan Botanic Gardens, near Campbelltown, NSW (CHABG 1994).
Repand Boronia's total population within NSW is estimated to be 10 00012 000 plants, and the total population size in all localities is likely to be less then 15 000 individuals (Hunter & Bell 2006). Total size of Queensland populations is estimated to be approximately 1000 individual plants (Donatiu 2006). The large NSW population occurs in a woodland area and consists of a single cohort with no aging plants or young seedlings present (Hunter & Bell 2006). The following table presents population information (Donatiu 2006; Hunter & Bell 2006; Quinn et al. 1995):
|East of Stanthorpe, near Amos Field Road and Border Road, NSW||Quarry||50|
|East of Stanthorpe, corner of Border Road and Kurrajong Lane, NSW||Unknown||< 15 000||Two dense patches and a sparse outer area|
|Border Road, east of Stanthorpe, Queensland||Crown Reserve||200300||One population|
|Bradley Lane, near Amiens, Queensland||Freehold||< 20||One population|
|Broadwater, Queensland||State Forest||500+||Multiple populations|
|Cottonvale Primary School & School Road, Queensland||Crown, Department of Education||15||One population|
|Jolly's Falls, near the Summit, Queensland||Freehold||50||One population|
|Pegum Lane, Queensland||Crown, council roadside & reserve||100||One population|
|Pozieres Rd, 0.5 m west of Cottonvale, Queensland||Crown, council roadside and freehold||50100||One population|
|Paschendale State Forest, Queensland||State Forest||Likely to be extinct||Record from 1974|
|2 km north-west of Thulimbah, Queensland||Unknown||Unknown||Record from 1974|
|Dalveen, 48 km south of Warwick, Queensland||Unknown||Unknown||Record from 1974|
|Maryland, 10 km north-east of Stanthorpe (Queensland), south-east of Cottonvale (Queensland), NSW||Freehold, agricultural land||Unknown||Pre-1900 record|
Repand Boronia is not represented in any conservation reserve within Queensland or NSW (Duretto 1999b; NSW NPWS 1999c; NSW NPWS 2002s). A report that this species occurs in Boonoo Boonoo National Park, NSW, requires confirmation (G. Robinson pers. comm. cited in NSW NPWS 2002s).
Repand Boronia is found at altitudes up to 900 m above sea level and at sites protected from frequent fire and good drainage (Hunter & Bell 2006; Qld DNR 2000). This species is restricted to rocky sites amongst granite outcrops and scree, and on slopes with boulders in well-drained grey/yellow/brown sandy loam, within dry sclerophyll forest and heathland (Hunter & Bell 2006; Qld DNR 2000; Steenbeeke 1998).
Associated species include Allocasuarina sp., Sticky Boronia (Boronia anemonifolia), Cryptandra sp., Black Cypress-pine (Callitris endlicheri), Daviesia sp., Epacrids, Eriostemon myoporoides subsp. epilosus, New England Blackbutt (Eucalyptus andrewsii), Tenterfield Woollybutt (E. banksii), Red Stringybark (E. macrorhyncha), Exocarpus sp., Broom (Jacksonia scoparia) and Woolly Tea-tree (Leptospermum trinervium) (Harden 1991; Hunter & Bell 2006; NSW NPWS 1999c; NSW NPWS 2002s; Quinn et al. 1995; Sheringham & Westaway 1995; Stanley & Ross 1983).
Repand Boronia is found in association with Black Grevillea (Grevillea scortechinii subsp. scortechinii), which is listed as vulnerablle under the EPBC Act (Qld DNR 2000).
Very little is known of Repand Boronia's life history, ecology or response to disturbance although it is recorded as being an obligate seeder and is sensitive to too frequent fire (Quinn et al. 1995). Regeneration from seed follows fire and too frequent fire will deplete the soil-stored seedbank (NSW NPWS 1999c). This species has been recorded flowering from July to November (mainly in spring) (Harden 1991; Quinn et al. 1995; Stanley & Ross 1983). Fruit are hairy, surrounded by the persistent corolla (petals), and borne on the plant during spring and summer (Steenbeeke 1998) or in October and November (Duretto 1999b).
Relatives of Repand Boronia include Granite Boronia, Boronia boliviensis, B. ledifolia and B. warrumbunglensis. Repand Boronia differs from these species in having simple leaves rather than compound foliage with several leaflets (from 1 to 15 leaflets). Geographic range is used to discriminate with Boronia boliviensis occurring on Bolivia Hill and B. warrumbunglensis occurring in the Warrumbungle Range and the Pilliga (Hunter & Bell 2006).
Repand Boronia is possibly affected by agricultural clearing; under-scrubbing for fire reduction purposes; quarrying; inappropriate fire regimes; a small number of populations and population size; and no populations under secure conservation tenure (Hunter & Bell 2006). The small number of populations and limited number of individuals within subpopulations may lead to localised extinction as a result of stochastic events. The loss of a single population has the potential to significantly impact on the species' distribution and extent of occurrence. This problem is compounded because no populations are actively managed in conservation reserve (Hunter & Bell 2006). Clearing has occurred in habitat associated with Repand Boronia especially near populations in Queensland. Agricultural expansion and clearing of remnant vegetation continue to be seen as threatening processes (Duretto 2003) and clearing may also occur in association with under-scrubbing for fire management and quarrying (Duretto 1999b; NSW NPWS 2002s; Quinn et al. 1995). Agricultural expansion and clearing of remnant vegetation continue to be seen as threatening processes (Duretto 2003). Populations in Paschendale State Forest are likely to be extinct as a result of land clearing for the development of pine plantations (Quinn et al. 1995).
Repand Boronia occurring in Queensland are killed by fire after which they regerminate from seed: too frequent fire may deplete the soil seedbank and result in localised extinction (Harden 1991; NSW NPWS 1999c; Quinn et al. 1995; Sheringham & Westaway 1995; Stanley & Ross 1983). NSW populations of Repand Boronia have a different life strategy and resprout vegetatively following fire (Hunter & Bell 2006).
As Repand Boronia is one of the rarest Boronias in eastern Australia, inappropriate collection of seeds and cuttings for propagation material is another possible threat to the species (Qld DNR 2000).
Repand Boronia may have a variable life history with populations in NSW adapted to different habitats and having different life strategies compared to populations in Queensland. For example, NSW populations resprout vegetatively after fire disturbance whereas Queensland populations are obligate-seeding (regerminate from seed) following fire. Similarly, populations occurring in NSW do not conform to the typical habitat where Queensland populations are found and this may have limited previous survey efforts (Quinn et al. 1995). Based on this new information, broader survey criteria should be developed to incorporate a wider range of potential habitat. Genetic research may be needed to better define if there are any genetic divergences between Queensland and NSW populations (Hunter & Bell 2006).
Hunter and Bell (2006) recommend the following actions for Repand Boronia:
- Undertake further surveys for Repand Boronia within NSW and Queensland searching non-rock platform sites.
- Undertake genetic studies of provenance and potential population genetic divergence.
- Investigate and assess disturbance responses of different ecotypes.
- Monitor known populations.
- Secure lands which contain this species under conservation agreements.
Hunter and Bell (2006) conducted an in-depth study of the populations of Repand Boronia occurring in NSW.
The Stanthorpe Plateau Threatened Flora Recovery Plan 20062011 (Donatiu 2006) has appropriate management recommendations for the Stanthorpe Plateau populations. The Recovery Plan for Boronia granitica (Granite Boronia) has management prescriptions relevant to Repand Boronia.
If Repand Boronia is found to occur in Boonoo Boonoo National Park, then the Plan of Management for this Park would be appropriate (NSW NPWS 2002b).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Boronia repanda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cm) [Internet].|
|Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest||Boronia repanda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cm) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Boronia repanda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cm) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities||Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||
Boronia repanda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006cm) [Internet].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chabg/census/census.html.
Donatiu, P. (2006). Stanthorpe Plateau Threatened Flora Recovery Plan 2007-2011. Report to Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra. Toowoomba: Queensland Murray-Darling Committee.
Duretto, M.F. (1999b). Systematics of Boronia section Valvatae sensu lato (Rutaceae). Muelleria. 12(1):1-132.
Duretto, M.F. (2003). Notes on Boronia (Rutaceae) in eastern and northern Australia. Lebel, T. & M. Duretto, eds. Muelleria. 17:19-135. Melbourne: Royal Botanic Gardens.
Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
Hunter, J.T. & D. Bell (2006). Field baseline surveys of the threatened flora species Boronia repanda and Acacia atrox. Unpublished report to the New South Wales Department of Environment and Conservation (currently the Department of Environment and Climate Change).
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999c). Threatened Species Information: Boronia repanda. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/npws.nsf/Content/Boronia+repanda+a+shrubendangered+species+listing.
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2002b). Boonoo Boonoo National Park Plan of Management. [Online]. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/pomFinalBaldrockBoonoo.pdf.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2002s). Appendix 3: Boronia repanda in NSW. National recovery plan for Boronia granitica (Granite Boronia). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/b-granitica/index.html.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources (Qld DNR) (2000). Species Management Manual. Forest and Fauna Conservation and Ecology Section, Queensland Department of Natural Resouces.
Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.
Sheringham, P. & J. Westaway (1995). Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North East NSW: A report by the NSW NPWS for the Natural Resources Audit Council. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.
Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (1983). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume One. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.
Steenbeeke, G. (1998). Clarence Rare Plant Species Information. [Online]. Available from: http://www.nor.com.au/environment/clarencecatchment/vegetation/rares/rarein.htm.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Boronia repanda in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 13 Mar 2014 05:50:28 +1100.