Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Diuris fragrantissima
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan] as Diuris fragrantissima.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Diuris fragrantissima.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 50 Revised 2004 - Sunshine Diuris Diuris fragrantissima (Webster, A., G. Backhouse, A.H. Murphy & C. Knight, 2004) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list) as Diuris fragrantissima
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Diuris fragrantissima [21243]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Clements, M.A. (1989) Catalogue of Australian Orchidaceae. Australian Orchid Research 1: 68 [nom. et stat. nov.]
Other names Diuris punctata var. albo-violacea [22675]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Diuris fragrantissima

Common name: Sunshine Diuris

Other names: Fragrant Doubletail, White Diuris

Conventionally accepted as Diuris fragrantissima D.L. Jones & M.A.Clem. (CHAH 2010).

A terrestrial deciduous herb, emerging annually from a lobed, subterranean tuber, the Sunshine Diuris produces two to three slender, channeled, grass-like green leaves, up to 18 cm long. A slender green stem (to 20 cm tall) holds one to nine (average four) flowers that are strongly scented. The flowers are white with variable purple hues and streaks and the lateral sepals are green. The dorsal sepal is triangular and erect, while the lateral sepals are long and slender (to about 60 mm), inrolled, drooping and parallel (giving rise to the name doubletail). The ovate petals project obliquely upwards (Jones 1988). The labellum is strongly bi-lobed, the lateral lobes curved upward, and the fan-shaped mid-lobe projects forward. Flowers open sequentially up the stem, the lowest flower often having collapsed before the top flower buds have opened (Webster et al. 2004).

Endemic to Victoria, the Sunshine Diuris was known from the basalt plains immediately to the north and west of Melbourne (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). Sunshine Diuris was once so common in the native grasslands north-west of Melbourne around the time of European occupation that it was often referred to as 'Snow-in-the- Paddocks' (Richards 2002, cited in Webster et al. 2004). Since then the species has suffered a catastrophic decline in range and abundance, attributed to widespread habitat destruction and degradation (Webster et al. 2004).

Sunshine Diuris is now known from only two populations, one site natural and one site a reintroduction of individuals to an area where they were previously known. The natural population occurs near Sunshine, Tottenham. The second site is at Laverton North which has been used to introduce plants since the early 1980's (Cropper 1993).

About 200 plants are in cultivation, at Melbourne Zoo and the Melbourne Royal Botanic Gardens, with a few in private collections. These plants originated from some plants taken from the wild population at Sunshine approximately 30 years ago, and have provided seed for ex-situ cultivation and research. Many hundreds of seedlings are now being produced to increase the population in cultivation, and for reintroductions to the wild. The population in cultivation is vital to the future of the Sunshine Diuris (Murphy et al. 2008).

Searches for the species at historical sites were initiated by the School of Botany at La Trobe University in 1980, but the orchid was only found at one site (the current Tottenham site). Since then, many remnant native grasslands in the Derrimut, Werribee and Broadmeadows areas have been searched by botanists and orchid enthusiasts, with no additional individuals or populations being found (Murphy et al. 2008).

The sole remaining natural population of Sunshine Diuris occurs at a Victorian Rail Track (Victrack) site at Sunshine, Tottenham where approximately 30 plants remain. An introduced population was first established at the Laverton North Grassland Reserve, Altona in 1982 and managed by Parks Victoria under the Victorian Crown Land (Reserves) Act 1978 . Approximately 89 plants were planted out over the next few years. However these are believed to have died out by 2001. In 2004 and 2005, 700 seedlings were planted out, and about 120 of these flowered in the spring of 2005 (Murphy et al. 2008).

About 200 plants survive in cultivation at the Melbourne Zoo and the Royal Botanic Gardens (Melbourne), with some in private collections. These plants are used for cross-cultivation to increase the numbers of viable seed for replanting and to maintain genetic diversity. The cultivated plants are also used for seed collection for in situ seed sowing trials, although to date no natural germination has occurred. Trials to detect the mycorrhizal fungus in situ using buried seed ('seed baiting') have been undertaken since 2001, so far without success (Murphy et al. 2008).

Both populations of the Sunshine Diuris are important for the survival of the species.

The habitat Sunshine Diuris is Themeda triandra dominated grasslands with a high level of native herbs on heavy clay loam soils, or basalt soils often with embedded basalt boulders. The orchid grows in the intertussock spaces (Cropper 1993). Other species common at sites where the Sunshine Diuris occurs include Danthonia spp., Dianella longifolila, Dianella revoluta, Tricoryne elatior, Pimelea humilis and Dicanthum sp. (Murphy et al. 2008; Webster et al. 2004).

Cropper (1993) has recorded individual Sunshine Diuris plants as surviving for over nine years in the wild, and in cultivation for a period of twenty years (D. Tonkinson, La Trobe University and C. Knight, Melbourne Zoo, unpubl. data, cited in Webster et al. 2004).

Staying dormant during late summer and early autumn, the leaves of the Sunshine Diuris first emerge in autumn, usually after the beginning of seasonal rains. Flowering occurs from mid-October to early November, and is over by early December. Reproduction is almost entirely from seed (ripe and dispersed four to eight weeks after flowering), and the species is very rarely able to multiply vegetatively (Cropper 1993). Sunshine Diuris associates with a narrow taxonomic range of mycorrhizal fungus within the cosmopolitan family Tulasnellaceae (Smith et al. 2010), particularly Tulasnella calospora (Warcup 1971). Pollination is by a small native bee through simple deception (Tonkinson 1985, cited in Murphy et al. 2008). Hot summer fires are likely to enhance flowering in the following flowering season, by creating the intertusssock spaces needed by the species to grow in, lowering competition with grasses, and possibly promoting seed germination and seedling establishment by altering soil nutrient levels. Most recruitment has been observed one to two years after a summer fire (Webster et al. 2004).

When in flower, the Sunshine Diuris is readily detected in the field due to its distinctive appearance. The species is most similar to the Wedge Diuris (Diuris dendrobioides), a threatened orchid from grasslands in inland western New South Wales and northern Victoria, which was included as D. fragrantissima by Walsh and Entwistle (1994), although most other authors (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995, Bishop 1996, Clements 1989, Gullan et al. 1990, Jones 1988) maintained D. dendrobioides as a separate species.

Surveys are best conducted at the time of flowering for the species, which is in mid-October to early December.

Habitat destruction

Due to the loss of grassland habitat, the Sunshine Diuris now only occurs in 1% of its original extent. This habitat destruction is a major cause of the decline to virtual extinction of the orchid in the wild (Murphy et al. 2008).

Agricultural, industrial and urban developments are all factors in the destruction, degradation and fragmentation of the species habitat. The two remaining areas that the species occurs in are small, highly fragmented and degraded, and face ongoing impacts, surrounded by industrial and residential development. It is highly likely that, with the habitat substantially reduced and very few plants remaining, ecological processes such as natural pollination have also been disrupted. Very low natural rates of pollination have been reported, with a maximum of only 7% of flowers producing seed pods (Cropper 1993), which is possibly a function of the rarity of the orchid and hence few opportunities for pollinators to find flowers and effect pollination.

Weed invasion

Many weed species threaten both the Sunshine and Altona sites. Invasion by the exotic Chilean Needle Grass (Nassella neesiana) is extensive, and now poses a very serious threat in spite of ongoing efforts to control weeds. Other serious weed species include grasses such as Briza maxima, Vulpia bromoides and Aira spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Plantago lanceolata, Romulea rosea and Medicago species. While weed control is essential for continued survival of the Sunshine Diuris, this needs to be carefully implemented, as indiscriminate herbicide use has itself been a problem in past years (Tonkinson 1985, cited in Murphy et al. 2008).

Predation

It is suspected that the introduced House Mouse (Mus musculus) was responsible for the loss of approximately 70% of plants during the mid-1980s via eating the tubers of the Sunshine Diuris. Damage of plants by introduced species of slugs and snails is also an ongoing problem (Murphy et al. 2008).

Altered fire regimes

Periodic summer fires are probably beneficial to the Sunshine Diuris, by reducing competition and promoting suitable conditions for seedling recruitment. However, too frequent or ill timed fire may be a threat, causing damage to plants, increasing seedling mortality and destroying immature seedpods. Long fire-free intervals within grasslands may also be a threat, by allowing the development of dense swards of Kangaroo Grass that inhibits regeneration of smaller native herbs including orchids (McDougall 1989, cited in Murphy et al. 2008). Fencing of some of the population at Sunshine in the 1950s, and subsequent exclusion of fire, is implicated in the disappearance of the plants that were previously periodically burnt. Three days after a single flowering plant was found at the Laverton reserve site in 1997, the grassland reserve was deliberately burnt by an arsonist. Ironically, this event may have been the stimulus for three plants flowering in 1998.

Human interference

High levels of human impact are experienced at both sites, but especially at the tiny Sunshine site situated within the metropolitan zone of the city. Arson attacks, trampling (particularly by visiting naturalists) and illegal removal of maturing seed capsules have all occurred. Future industrial and transport development may also pose a threat (Murphy et al. 2008).

A Recovery Plan was prepared (Backhouse et al. 2000) and implemented between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, a National Recovery Plan (Murphy et al. 2008) was adopted to assist in the recovery of the Sunshine Diuris. This recovery plan identifies the following objectives to increase the probability of the species becoming self-sustaining in the long term:

  • Maintain and enhance the original wild population at Sunshine.
  • Maintain and enhance the introduced population at Altona.
  • Maintain a population in cultivation.
  • Reintroduce cultivated plants to the wild.

The recovery plan also discusses management requirements for the site at Sunshine, including the ongoing negotiations with site owners and managers to formerly conserve the area. Historically, the area was protected by the Native Plants Preservation Society and the School of Botany from La Trobe University (SB-LTU), who have undertaken works since the 1950's to preserve the species, including supervision of the site during flowering periods to avoid thefts, burning and baiting to enhance reproduction and control predation, and weed control.

The Department of Crown Lands and Survey, in conjunction with SB-LTU, fenced and signposted the Sunshine site in 1982, in an effort to reduce damage. Fencing has been upgraded in 1999 and the site has been periodically burnt (every 3–5 years) to enhance flowering and recruitment, and control competition. Cross-pollination between wild and cultivated plants has taken place in order to maximise the development of viable seed and to maintain genetic diversity. Seed collection has also continued, and in situ seed sowing trials are in progress, although to date no natural germination has occurred. Trials to detect the mycorrhizal fungus in situ using buried seed ('seed baiting') have also been undertaken since 2001, so far without success. SB- LTU has undertaken surveys of the Sunshine site since 1980 and have implemented the Sunshine Diuris Research Project. Other organizations to assist in research and protection of the Sunshine Diuris include the Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE), the University of Melbourne, Victoria University, the Melbourne Zoo, the Society for Growing Australian Plants (Basalt Plains Group), the Australasian Native Orchid Society, the Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, the Australian National Botanic Gardens and local field naturalists have participated in actions to aid the recovery of Sunshine Diuris. DSE have adopted an action plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Webster et al. 2004) with the following objectives:

  • Ensure the population at Tottenham and its habitat is managed appropriately.
  • Maintain and enhance populations in cultivation.
  • Ensure the population at Laverton North Grassland Reserve and its habitat is managed appropriately.
  • Establish cultivated plants in the wild.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Annual and Perennial Non-Timber Crops:Intensive agricultural practices National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Plantago lanceolata (Ribwort, Ribgrass, Lamb's Tongue) Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel, Anise, Aniseed, Aniseed Weed, Dill, Sweet Anise, Vinkel) Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Briza maxima (Quaking Grass, Blowfly Grass) Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Nassella neesiana (Chilean Needle grass) Weeds of National Significance Chilean Needle-grass (Nassella neesiana) Strategic Plan (Agriculture & Resources Management Council of Australia & New Zealand, Australian & New Zealand Environment & Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers, 2001i) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Romulea rosea var. communis (Common Onion-grass) Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Themeda triandra (Kangaroo Grass) Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Arson National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Herbicide application Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima (Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004 (Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].

Backhouse, G., A. Webster & J. Arnott (2000). Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris (Diuris fragrantissima) - 1998-2004. [Online]. Victoria Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Melbourne Zoo. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/d-fragrantissima/index.html.

Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes (1995). The Orchids of Victoria. Carlton: Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press.

Bishop, A. (1996). Field Guide to Orchids of New South Wales and Victoria. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press.

Clements, M.A. (1989). Catalogue of Australian Orchidaceae. In: Australian Orchid Research. 1. Essendon, Victoria: Australian Orchid Foundation.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Cropper, S.C. (1993). Management of Endangered Plants. East Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Gullan, P.K., D.C. Cheal & N.G. Walsh (1990). Rare or threatened plants in Victoria. Victoria: Department of Conservation & Environment.

Jones, D.L. (1988). Native Orchids of Australia. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Reed.

Murphy. A.H, A. Webster, C. Knight & K. Lester (2008). National Recovery Plan for the Sunshine Diuris, Diuris fragrantissima. [Online]. Department of Sustainability and Environment. Melbourne. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/diuris-fragrantissima.html.

Smith, Z.F., E.A. James & C.B. McLean (2010). Mycorrhizal specificity of Diuris fragrantissima (Orchidaceae) and persistence in a reintroduced population. Australian Journal of Botany. 2010:97-106.

Walsh, N.G. & T.J. Entwisle. (eds) (1994). Flora of Victoria, Volume Two. Melbourne: Royal Botanic Gardens, Inkata.

Warcup J.H (1971). Specificity of mycorrhizal associations in some Australian terrestrial orchids. New Phytologist. 70:14-46.

Webster, A., G. Backhouse, A.H. Murphy & C. Knight (2004). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 50 Revised 2004 - Sunshine Diuris Diuris fragrantissima. [Online]. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Diuris fragrantissima in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 23 Jul 2014 10:24:39 +1000.