Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010l) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:NSW threatened species - Dorrigo Daisy Bush - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005a) [Internet].
NSW:Draft NSW and National Recovery Plan for Olearia flocktoniae (Dorrigo Daisy Bush - Draft Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004) [Management Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list)
Scientific name Olearia flocktoniae [2083]
Family Asteraceae:Asterales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Maiden & E.Betche
Infraspecies author  
Reference Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 34 (Sep. 1909) 361.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/301610241712/072_2.jpg

Scientific name: Olearia flocktoniae

Common name: Dorrigo Daisy-bush

Dorrigo Daisy-bush is a single or multi-stemmed semi-herbaceous short-lived shrub which grows 1–2.5 m high and has alternate, crowded leaves which are more or less attached to the stem. The leaves are soft and slender, linear, 20–90 mm long, 1–5 mm wide, with a blunt but pointed tip. The margins are revolute and entire or occasionally with a few small scattered teeth. Both surfaces are hairless with indistinct lateral venation. Inflorescences are terminal in simple corymbs ranging from 19–25 mm in diameter. Ray florets number 30–48, are white in colour and often tinged with violet. The yellow disc florets number 39–50. Achenes are silky and the pappus has 36–50 bristles in one series. The peduncle reaches 52 mm long (Lander 1991; NSW DECC 2005a).

Dorrigo Daisy-bush occurs in a restricted area on the northern fall of the Dorrigo Plateau area, on the north coast of NSW (Harden 1992; Mackay & Gross 1998c). The range extends for approximately 25 km North to South and 50 km East to West, between 30° 07' S and 30° 20' S, and 152° 25' E and 152° 51' E. The two most distant sites are approximately 45 km apart (Mackay & Gross 1998c). Most locations are in the Dorrigo-Dunrurrabin-Clouds Creek-Lowana area (NSW DEC 2004), however, the Australian Virtual Herbarium suggests an outlier approximately 160 km west of these locations (CHAH 2008a).

The species was first collected 3 km east of Dorrigo in 1909 (Maiden & Betche 1909 cited in NSW DEC 2004) but had not been collected for 60 years (Harden 1992) and was presumed extinct (Leigh et al 1984) until rediscovered in April 1985 (Curtin et al. 1991). The species was probably never widespread and there is no evidence it was ever common (Mackay & Gross 1998c).

Using data points from this species Draft Recovery Plan (NSW DEC 2004), the species' estimated extent of occurrence is 600 km².

There are 31 extant populations and the extent of occupancy for Dorrigo Daisy Bush is 310 ha (NSW DEC 2004). This figure was calculated by allocating each discrete population a 10 ha buffer.

Dorrigo Daisy-bush is cultivated, or cultivation has been attempted, at the North Coast Regional Botanic Gardens, Coffs Harbour, Brisbane Botanic Garden, Mt Coot-tha, Mt Annan Botanic Gardens, Sydney, Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra and the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, South Australia (CHABG 1994; NSW DEC 2004).

A total population of more than 1600 plants has been estimated for this species (NSW DEC 2004).

Since rediscovery of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush in 1984, 150 sites have been found to contain the species, although not all currently contain plants (NSW DECC 2005a). That is, while there are only about 31 extant populations, it is likely many more sites carry viable soil seed banks. However, at some sites, soil seed banks may have decayed and become unviable (NSW DEC 2004).

Dorrigo Daisy-bush occurs in the Bellingen, Clarence Valley and Coffs Harbour Local Government Areas. The majority of populations have been recorded along road verges on land previously managed by Forests NSW (Mackay & Gross 1998c; NSW DEC 2004).

The following table presents the most recent available population data (NSW DEC 2004):

Year No. of plants No. of extant populations No. of known sites surveyed
1989 850+ 24 26
1991 800+ 13 29
1994 1675+ 46 61
1995 1237+ 33 approx. 59
1997 2635 33 82
1998 2086 36 84
1999 1906 40 75
2000 1576 37 57
2001 989 46 83
2002 721 38 88
2003 2380 31 91
Dorrigo Daisy-bush is a disturbance opportunist and relies on canopy gaps and understorey disturbance for germination. When disturbance suppression occurs, this species does not fare well, with year-to-year observations decreasing until canopy and understorey gaps are created. Populations in most recently gazetted reserves have disappeared due to lack of disturbance (NSW DEC 2004).

The following table presents generational dynamics of recent surveys of Dorrigo Daisy-bush (NSW DEC 2004). Mean percent of individuals in each size class is present (there is no data available on the seasonality of surveys):


Year of Survey

Size Class
1997 mean % 1998 mean % 1999 mean % 2000 mean % 2001 mean % 2002 mean % 2003 mean %
Adults
Reproductive plants
75.83 82.18 53.89 70.01 62.99 40.08 23.11
Intermediates
> 20 cm tall and not reproductive
18.46 11.36 37.81 24.10 12.03 38.83 27.81
Juveniles
< 20 cm tall and not reproductive
5.65 6.45 8.31 5.88 24.67 21.08 48.65

Changes in land tenure in early 1999 as a result of the Forestry and National Parks Estate Act 1999 (NSW) have resulted in populations being protected within the NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change reserve system. Applicable reserves include Cascade National Park, Nymboi-Binderay National Park, Dorrigo National Park and Mt Hyland Nature Reserve. Populations in most of these reserves have disappeared due to lack of disturbance with only two populations persisting in Mt Hyland Nature Reserve (NSW DEC 2004).

Of all these parks, only Dorrigo National Park actively manages threatened flora (NSW NPWS 1998). However, the Draft Recovery Plan (NSW DEC 2004) has applicable provisions for reserves that includes monitoring, field marking, genetic census, disturbance maintenance, and liaison with Forests NSW, adjacent property owners and road contractors.

Dorrigo Daisy-bush is a pioneer species that generally colonises disturbed sites such as roadsides, timber plantations, quarries and transmission line easements adjacent to wet sclerophyll forest and warm-temperate rainforest (Harden 1992; Mackay & Gross 1998c). After colonisation, this species is often abundant but eventually dies back due its short longevity. In undisturbed sites this species may only be present as soil-stored seed (NSW DECC 2005a). At sites where disturbance is perennially suppressed, soil-stored seed may deteriorate and Dorrigo Daisy-bush eventually becomes locally extinct.

Sites where Dorrigo Daisy-bush is found are generally adjacent to wet sclerophyll forest and warm-temperate rainforest. Dominant canopy species include Coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum), Sassafras (Doryphora sassafras), Tallowwood (Eucalyptus microcorys), Sydney Blue Gum (E. saligna), Blackbutt (E. pilularis), White Mahogany (E. acmenoides), Brush Box (Lophostemon confertus) and Crabapple (Schizomeria ovata). Other species found in association with Dorrigo Daisy-bush include Acacia binervata, A. melanoxylon, A. longissima, Allocasuarina torulosa, Callicoma serratifolia, Cissus antarctica, C. hypoglauca, Conyza bonarensis, Craspedia sp., Duboisia myoporoides, Entolasia marginata, Eucalyptus grandis, Gahnia aspera, Gonocarpus oreophilus, Helichrysum rutidolepis, Microlaena stipoides, Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Rubus moluccanus, Solanum mauritianum and Zieria southwellii (NSW DEC 2004).

Dorrigo Daisy-bush occurs at an altitudinal range of 480–1070 m above sea level. Sites occur on slopes of 1–45° and on all aspects. Geology of known sites is generally sedimentary (low quartz percentage) or leucogranite (Mackay & Gross 1998c). The majority of sites are on the sedimentary rocks of Brooklana Beds. A few populations, including the disjunct Chaelundi-Obloe populations, are located on the sedimentary rocks of the older Moombil Beds. One site was on Tertiary basalt (Leitch et al. 1971 cited in NSW DEC 2004). Soils common over these sedimentary rocks in the Dorrigo area include Red and Yellow Podzolics (McArthur 1964 cited in NSW DEC 2004).

Dorrigo plateau experiences a warm to cool temperate climate which is influenced by altitude (NSW DEC 2004). Mean annual rainfall where this species occurs is greater than 1200 mm. Temperatures recorded at the nearby Clouds Creek weather station (600 m above sea level) records mean daily maximum temperature range from 15.9°C in the winter months to 26.4°C in the summer months. Mean daily minimum temperature ranges from 0.2°C in the winter months to 14.5°C in the summer months (Commonwealth of Australia 2003). The escarpment influences local rainfall patterns with the heaviest annual rainfall occurring along the eastern fringe of the plateau where ascending moist coastal air rapidly cools (NSW DEC 2004). Rainfall decreases with increasing distance inland from the escarpment (NSW DEC 2004).

Olearia is a genus in the family Asteraceae. The genus is found in Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea, and comprises almost 200 species, of which 130 are distributed throughout Australia (Bremer 1994 cited in NSW DEC 2004; Lander 1991). Almost all Olearia are shrubs (rarely trees) and they are found in a variety of habitats including mallee, heath and sclerophyll woodland (NSW DEC 2004).


Dorrigo Daisy-bush is a short-lived semi-herbaceous shrub. It can be single or multi-stemmed near the base and can re-shoot from damaged stems. Individuals can reach 1 m tall within the first two years and be reproductively mature in the second year. It seems that under ideal conditions the species may not be short lived, but that it is commonly so in nature because it is out-competed by other species (C. Gross 2003 pers. comm. cited in NSW DEC 2004).

This pioneer species appears en masse in clearings created during the logging, or disruption, of forest of prolonged stability. Plants are reproductively mature in the second year (Mackay & Gross 1998c), but the species appears to be short-lived, disappearing two to three years after establishment (Harden 1992). The degree of competition by surrounding vegetation appears to be a key factor in determining the longevity of individuals. It is not known whether plants are killed by fire or how the seedbank responds to fire.

Reproductive biology
Dorrigo Daisy-bush has been recorded flowering at any time between January and May. Year-to-year fluctuations in flowering patterns may be the result of annual variation in weather. Fruit are fully developed three to four weeks after flowering. Each inflorescence often produce 80–100 seeds (Gross et al. 1998 cited in NSW DEC 2004).

Research into the reproductive biology of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush (Gross et al. 1998) has found that most plants are self-compatible and do not rely on the use of a pollen vector. In trials, some individuals have appeared unable to set viable seed even when hand pollination from other plants occurs. Despite self-compatibility, it is likely that insect-assisted pollination does occur (NSW DEC 2004).

The seed of many Asteraceae are wind dispersed and the fluffy pappus on seed of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush suggests a wind dispersal mechanism for this species. However, recruitment, particularly in forestry plantations, usually occurs in discrete, widely separated cohorts (or clumps) of less than 10 individuals. Wind dispersed seed would not be expected to manifest itself in a clumped distribution like this, but rather in a more even spread of individuals across the landscape. The clumped patterning suggests that seeds are being recruited to such locations by other mechanisms such as mechanical disturbance, and many plants appear in clumps where heavy machinery has previously operated (e.g. log dumps, graded road edges). It is likely that road graders and trucks are dispersing the seed. Within much of the species' range, forestry practices would facilitate the movement of Dorrigo Daisy-bush seed (C. Gross pers. comm. 2003 cited in NSW DEC 2004).

Seed productivity and viability
Fresh seed of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush can germinate within 10 days of being sown under glasshouse conditions (Gross et al. 1998 cited in NSW DEC 2004). Seed viability in fresh seed (<1 month old) varies greatly among populations and ranges from 12–96% (Gross et al. 1998 cited in NSW DEC 2004). Seed collected in 1990 was germinated by Mount Annan Botanic Garden in 2003 and achieved an 80% germination rate (P. Cuneo pers. comm. 2003 cited in NSW DEC 2004). Seed bank investigations (Gross et al. 1998 cited in NSW DEC 2004) indicate that viable seed is contained in the seed bank of extant populations of Dorrigo Daisy-bush. Seedlings have been recovered from a seed bank where the species has been extinct above ground for two years; however, this seed is not as viable as seed stored under sterile conditions (NSW DEC 2004).

Population structure
Dorrigo Daisy-bush is a disturbance reliant species and, as such, the population size and structure is dynamic. Populations which have been left undisturbed may begin to die after about four to five years and unless the site is disturbed the population may become extinct above-ground (C. Gross pers. comm. 2003 cited in NSW DEC 2004). Where the species has colonised a new site or where disturbance has occurred the population may consist entirely of seedlings (NSW DEC 2004).

In 1997, reproductive plants dominated populations, with juveniles representing only approximately 7% of a population on average. Since this time there has been a general trend towards a decrease in the number of reproductive plants. The increase in juvenile numbers in 2003 is almost entirely accounted for at one site where 982 seedlings were recorded (NSW DEC 2004).

Disturbance
Many Olearia are pioneer plants of unstable environments, with both common (Nelson 1993) and rare species (Williams & Courtney 1995) of the genus occupying disturbed niches. Whilst undertaking the first collection of Dorrigo Daisy-bush it was noted (Maiden & Betche 1909 cited in NSW DEC 2004) that the species occurred in large numbers in a clearing in virgin forest. This is consistent with surveys of recent years where Dorrigo Daisy-bush has suddenly appeared in large numbers in clearings created during the logging of forests which have not been disturbed for a number of decades.

The recorded colonising pattern of Dorrigo Daisy-bush is consistent with that of the first colonisers of heavily disturbed rainforest, which typically are herbs or soft-wooded shrubs up to 2 m in height. The disappearance over time of these species from the margins of rainforest and wet sclerophyll communities correlates with an increase in ground level shade and an increase in the density of other species (NSW DEC 2004).

Competition
In the field it can be seen that thick carpets of grass and a variety of shrub species soon colonise the pioneer environment and seedling bed of Dorrigo Daisy-bush. A confluent mat of grass could prevent seedling emergence and thus be a factor associated with the decline of the species (Gross et al. 1998 cited in NSW DEC 2004). Glasshouse competition experiments revealed that seedling establishment in Dorrigo Daisy-bush is not significantly affected by the simultaneous germination of a grass species (Microlaena stipoides). However, in another trial the presence of an established grass layer significantly reduced seedling emergence from pre-buried Dorrigo Daisy-bush seeds. In a third trial few Dorrigo Daisy-bush seedlings emerged when seeds were sown at depths of 5 or 10 cm irrespective of a grass layer being present (Gross et al. 1998 cited in NSW DEC 2004). Other pioneer shrubs and vines are observed to rapidly out compete the Dorrigo Daisy-bush within a few years. The establishment of these species results in the rapid decline of numbers of Dorrigo Daisy-bush (NSW DEC 2004).

NSW DECC (2005a) and NSW NPWS (2002) outline a number of factors associated with population decline of Dorrigo Daisy-bush: encroachment from native and exotic vegetation, vehicle damage to plants, deliberate population destruction followed by pasture establishment, poorly timed road maintenance (e.g. slashing of roadside verges before fruit set), and protection of roadside verges from any disturbance. Other threats include roadside burning and herbicide applications, the cessation of forestry activity and the closure of Forestry NSW roads (Mackay & Gross 1998c). Dorrigo Daisy-bush was probably never a widespread species but one that was naturally restricted to the Dorrigo Plateau. Since the rediscovery of the species in 1984, population surveys have shown that a number of factors may be associated with decline of populations.

Disturbance suppression
Encroachment of native and exotic vegetation
Many native and exotic plants rapidly colonise sites with canopy or understorey gaps especially in vegetation associations where Dorrigo Daisy-bush occurs. There are many examples where populations have declined or disappeared following encroachment by native vegetation (such as Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Rubus moluccanus, Callicoma serratifolia, and Acacia melanoxylon). Five of the six known populations along Ben Bullen Road which had greater than 30 individuals in 1989 had disappeared by 1997, presumably as a result of competition from other species. Extant populations displaced by encroaching native and introduced species will only emerge after a new disturbance event (leading to a canopy gap), provided the seed bank is still viable (NSW DEC 2004).

Changing land tenure
Changed forest management has reduced disturbing practices (such as cessation of forestry track maintenance) and, as such, threatens the Dorrigo Daisy-bush. Populations which were previously located in State Forests but which are now gazetted as National Park have mostly disappeared due to lack of disturbance (NSW DEC 2004).

Maintenance of roadside verges
Ill-timed maintenance
Slashing, grading, or spraying of known Dorrigo Daisy-bush sites along roadside verges before individuals have set seed can result in decreased likelihood of future generations at a particular site. This species would not colonise nearby disturbed sites if seed set does not occur. This may be particularly significant where disturbance and a large recruitment event has recently occurred, as the existing seed bank may deplete (NSW DEC 2004).

Removal of topsoil during roadside maintenance
Removal of topsoil during roadside maintenance can result in the removal of a suitable seedbed for the Dorrigo Daisy-bush. At two locations (Coopernook Creek Road and Briggsvale Road) topsoil had been removed exposing the B-horizon (a clay substrate) and, although reproductively mature Dorrigo Daisy-bush adults have persisted for a number of years, these sites have not been colonised by Dorrigo Daisy-bush seedlings. The soil was not colonised by many other pioneer species and remained mostly bare for several years. The removal of topsoil from a site could also result in the removal of the soil seed bank of Dorrigo Daisy-bush and topsoil piling could reduce the potential for seedling emergence (NSW DEC 2004).

Pasture establishment
Clearing and subsequent pasture establishment along Schultz Road in 1996 resulted in the loss of Dorrigo Daisy-bush populations. There is the potential for this to re-occur if landholders are unaware of the conservation significance of the species (NSW DEC 2004).

Lack of knowledge
Transient species can be a management problem because often the factors that facilitate continued population existence are poorly understood. Naturally induced fluctuations in Dorrigo Daisy-bush populations probably occur but, at this stage, they cannot be separated from those induced by human activities. Without a sound understanding of the biology and ecology of the species, it is difficult to target management actions to ensure survival of the species and effectively utilise resources for recovery actions (NSW DEC 2004).

Fire
Fire is known to kill Dorrigo Daisy-bush plants, particularly during extended dry periods where the species is under drought stress (C. Gross pers. comm. 2003 cited in NSW DEC 2004). The response of the seedbank following fire is not currently known but the species does not require fire to germinate. Too frequent fire would deplete the soil seed bank (NSW DEC 2004).

Lack of genetic diversity
The genetic diversity of Dorrigo Daisy-bush is unknown. However, due to the dynamic nature of the species it is possible that genetic bottle-necking occurs when there are no disturbance events to stimulate seedling recruitment and existing populations die out (NSW DEC 2004).

Successful recovery of declining populations of this species will depend upon the viability of seeds in the soil seed bank, the level of colonisation of new sites and the availability of suitable pioneer conditions. The recovery of the species will require an actively implemented disturbance regime at known populations and possibly the creation of suitable habitat at other locations. Disturbance management will need to be an ongoing process (NSW DECC 2005a). Previous ameloration was assumed to be entirely dependant on ex situ seed management (Curtin et al. 1991).

A number of recovery actions have been identified to help improve the condition of Dorrigo Daisy-bush and are listed below. The Draft Recovery Plan (NSW DEC 2004) comprehensively discusses threats and actions that aim to recover Dorrigo Daisy-bush.

Conservation actions include (NSW DEC 2004; NSW DECC 2005a; NSW NPWS 2002):

  • Retain, protect and manage areas of habitat.
  • Avoid disturbance of living Dorrigo Daisy-bush plants, particularly before fruit-set.
  • Notify NSW DECC of any new records of Dorrigo Daisy-bush.
  • Continue monitoring program of this species.
  • Collect seed for NSW Seedbank from multiple provenances. Develop collection program in collaboration with Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens Trust.
  • Coordinate a program for the continued collection of seed to maintain a genetically representative stock as a safeguard against extinctions in the wild.
  • Improve identification skills of road maintenance contractors; improve road disturbance regimes and protocols for this species; mark likely or known roadside populations.
  • Liaise with private landholders to convey the significance of populations of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush occurring on, or adjacent to their property.
  • Ensure all appropriate authorities are involved with conservation management.
  • Conduct in-situ research into this species response to different disturbances, such as slashing, mowing, spraying, fire regimes, and pollination disturbance.
  • Investigate genetic variation in collaboration with Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens, the University of New England and Forest NSW - coordinate a genetic census of Dorrigo Daisy-bush populations to investigate the genetic variability of the species, which may explain dispersal mechanisms.

A Recovery Team for Dorrigo Daisy-bush was initiated in 1994; this team has since disbanded. The Recovery Team assisted landholders and councils with information regarding management of the species. The species and its recovery program have been promoted in Danthonia (newsletter of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation), and in local media (NSW DEC 2004).

An Action Plan was developed by State Forests NSW (now Forestry NSW (FNSW)) in consultation with NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (now NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change) and the University of New England (SFNSW 2002). The Action Plan aims to overcome management issues with road maintenance in State Forest areas in the known distribution of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush (NSW DEC 2004). Previously, populations of Dorrigo Daisy-bush were avoided during road maintenance works, often resulting in the populations being out competed by other species. The Action Plan incorporates actions from this draft Recovery Plan and focuses on the need for the implementation of road maintenance disturbance trials. As part of the implementation of the Action Plan, FNSW identifies populations of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush on roadside areas by marking the extent of the populations in the field and training staff in the recognition of the marking system (NSW DEC 2004).

Measures for the conservation of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush in wood production areas of State Forest are detailed in the Threatened Species Licence under the Integrated Forests Operations Approval (IFOA) for the upper and lower northeast regions of NSW (NSW DEC 2004). FNSW is required to implement the conditions set out in each IFOA, whilst the DECC is required to monitor and enforce compliance with conditions. These conditions (NSW DEC 2004) specify that:

  • pre-logging and pre-roading surveys must be conducted in compartments where known or potential habitat occurs; and
  • where there is a record of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush within the compartment, a minimum of 90% of individuals must be protected from specified forestry activities.

As an alternative to these conditions, FNSW may, with written approvals from NSW DEC, prepare a species management plan for the Dorrigo Daisy-bush (NSW DEC 2004). Species management plans are aimed at specific taxa or groups where it is considered that they can be more appropriately managed by specific conditions not listed in the IFOA.

Annual surveys and monitoring have been undertaken since 1994 and a list of these survey reports is listed in the draft Recovery Plan (NSW DEC 2004). The most recent survey was undertaken from March to May 2003 (Mackay & Gross 2003 cited in NSW DEC 2004): 88 known populations were monitored and one new site was found. The surveys identified a marked decline in the number of populations in the eastern range of the species since the previous year.

Disturbance trials and monitoring
Disturbance trials to investigate the response of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush to a variety of disturbance regimes including slashing and grading were set up in 2002 by the University of New England following preparation of the SFNSW Dorrigo Daisy-bush Action Plan. Initial results have shown that grading sites containing senescing populations or populations which have recently disappeared generally results in high levels of recruitment. Slashing has generally only resulted in recruitment where there has also been some level of soil disturbance resulting from the activity. Disturbance histories for Dorrigo Daisy-bush populations have been maintained largely by FNSW and DEC, however, only limited information has been recorded. A more rigorous and accessible recording system is required to improve data management and ensure that useful information can be obtained.

Ecological studies
The reproductive biology of Dorrigo Daisy-bush has been investigated at four locations and germination trials, including assessment of seedling recruitment and mortality rates, have been conducted (Gross et al. 1998 cited in NSW DEC 2004). A study into interspecific competition of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush has also been undertaken in conjunction with the seedling recruitment and mortality rates study. A 10 year study to determine at what rate seed viability decreases over time for seed stored under dry conditions has been initiated (C. Gross pers. comm. 2003 cited in NSW DEC 2004). Seed germination rates from seed stored at the North Coast Regional Botanic Garden were significantly lower than those stored at the University of New England. Seeds were stored under different conditions indicating that the method of seed storage may significantly affect the longevity of collected seeds. Research into the potential for Dorrigo Daisy-bush seed dispersal by machinery is also being undertaken by the University of New England (C. Gross pers. comm. 2003 cited in NSW DEC 2004).

A draft Recovery Plan is available for this species and outlines threats and mitigation approaches as well as a thorough overview of biological aspects of the Dorrigo Daisy-bush (NSW DEC 2004). This plan has an up to date prescription for the maintenance of roadside populations. Older recovery plans include Griffith (1992b) and NSW NPWS (1998a).

Management of this species in NSW State Forests is directed by protocols and prescriptions outlined in the Dorrigo Daisy-bush Action Plan (SFNSW 2002). This action plan outlines a number of prescriptions essential for applicable silviculture managers.

The following National Parks have (or are known to have had) populations of Dorrigo Daisy-bush (appropriate plans/strategies are identified): Cascade National Park (NSW NPWS 2006b), Nymboi-Binderay National Park (NSW NPWS 2006c) and Dorrigo National Park (NSW NPWS 1998).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Negative impacts caused by insects Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Slashing and herbicide application for weed control Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:plant Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].
Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006px) [Internet].

Commonwealth of Australia (2003). Bureau of Meteorology. [Online]. Available from: http://www.bom.gov.au/.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2008a). Australia's Virtual Herbarium. [Online]. Canberra: Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Available from: http://avh.rbg.vic.gov.au/avh/.

Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chabg/census/census.html.

Curtin, R.A., R.R. Horne & I.G. Johnson (1991). The Role of the Forestry Commission in Integrated Plant Conservation in New South Wales. In: Butler, G., Meredith, L. & Richardson, M., eds. Conservation of Rare of Threatened Plants in Australasia. Page(s) 157-164. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. Australian National Botanic Gardens.

Griffith, S.J. (1992b). Species Recovery Plan. Olearia flocktoniae. Canberra: ANPWS.

Harden, G.J. (Ed.) (1992). Flora of New South Wales Volume 3. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Lander, N.S. (1991). New taxa and new combinations in Olearia (Asteraceae: Astereae) from southeastern Australia. Teleopea. 4(2):145-64.

Leigh, J., R. Boden & J. Briggs (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Macmillan.

Mackay, D. & Gross, C.L. (1998c). Recovery plan, Olearia flocktoniae (Dorrigo Daisy). Hurstville: NSW NPWS.

Nelson, N.W. (1993). The subalpine and alpine vegetation on the central sedimentary belt of Palaeozoic rocks in north-western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany. 31:65-90.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005a). NSW threatened species - Dorrigo Daisy Bush - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10577.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2004). Draft NSW and National Recovery Plan for Olearia flocktoniae (Dorrigo Daisy Bush - Draft Recovery Plan. [Online]. Sydney: NSW DEC (currently NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change). Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/recoveryplanDraftOleariaFlocktoniae.pdf.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2010l). Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan. [Online]. Coffs Harbour, New South Wales: DECCW. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/northern-rivers.html.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1998). Dorrigo National Park Plan of Management. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/pomFinalDorrigo.pdf.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1998a). Dorrigo daisy bush (Olearia flocktoniae) recovery plan. Department of Environment and Climate Change.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2002). Threatened Species of the Upper North Coast of NSW: Flora. Coffs Harbour, NSW: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006b). Cascade National Park - Fire Management Strategy. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/CascadeFms.pdf.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006c). Nymboi Binderay National Park - Fire Management Strategy. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/nymboiBinderayFms.pdf.

State Forests N.S.W. (SFNSW) (2002). Dorrigo Daisy Bush (Olearia flocktoniae) Action Plan. Coffs Harbour: State Forests of NSW.

Williams, P.A. & S.P. Courtney (1995). Site Characteristics and population structures of the endangered shrub Olearia polita (Wilson et Garnock-Jones), Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany. 33:237-41.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Olearia flocktoniae in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 17:50:41 +1000.