In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Recovery plan for nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island South Australia (Taylor, D.A., 2012) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Beyeria subtecta |
|Reference||Flora of South Australia Pt. 2: 357 (Jun. 1924)|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Beyeria subtecta
Common name: Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush
The Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush is a small, rigid and very sticky (Black 1922; Jessop & Toelken 1986; Leigh et al. 1984) shrub, growing to 60 cm in height (Barker & Dashorst 1984; Davies 1986). The flowers are white (Barker & Dashorst 1984) or yellowish (Leigh et al. 1984). Plants are dioecious (Barker & Dashorst 1984).
The Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush is endemic to Kangaroo Island, and is known from a strip of land 5 km on either side of Hog Bay Road. This road is between Min Oil Road and Three Chain Road, on eastern Kangaroo Island (Taylor 2008).
Before 2000, the species was known to occur in 84 localities over a small range (Davies 1986, 1992, 1996). Eighty of these localities occurred on roadsides, three were conserved and one was adjacent to a rubbish dump (Briggs & Leigh 1996; Davies 1986). The roadside localities ranged in size from one plant to 282 plants (Davies 1996). The largest populations were not on road verges and comprised several thousand individuals. One population was in the York Farm Scrub, which is protected under a heritage agreement (Davies 1986; RNEDB 2001). The York Farm Scrub is the largest remnant of the Kangaroo Island Narrow-leaf Mallee (Eucalyptus cneorifolia) open scrub. A second population was known within the Beyeria Conservation Park. The plants in the Beyeria Conservation Park occurred within open heath (RNEDB 2001). A third population occurred over 25 ha of private property, unprotected from grazing stock in 1992 (Davies 1992), and was subsequently protected under a heritage agreement (Briggs & Leigh 1996).
A further population containing a few dozen individuals occurred on the edge of a stone reserve, which was developed as a council rubbish dump in 1986 (Davies 1986).
Historically, the Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush was known only from the type collection made in the early 1900s from Cygnet (Black 1922; Leigh et al. 1984), and two collections in the 1960s west of American River (Leigh et al. 1984), until it was relocated in the early 1980s (Jackson pers. comm. cited in Leigh et al. 1984). The species is likely to have been lost from the type locality (Leigh et al. 1984). The species is likely to have occurred on upper slope and plateau areas adjoining the existing sub-populations (Taylor 2008).
Details of surviving populations are stored as a computerised database at the Information Systems Branch of the South Australian Department of Environment and Planning (Davies 1986).
There are two important known sub-populations of Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush (Taylor 2008):
|Sub-population||Location||Number of plants||Area of occupancy (km²)|
|A||Hog Bay Road (Rd), Willsons Rd, Beyeria Conservation Park (CP), Halls Rd and Redbanks Rd||10829||30.4|
|B||Moores Rd, Three Chain Rd, Boundary Rd, American River Rd, Flour Cask Bay Rd and Hog Bay Rd||317||21.2|
The Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush occurs on gentle upper slopes associated with the highest sections of the Haines Plateau and Eastern Plains of eastern Kangaroo Island. The species grows on sand and loamy sand (varying from dark brown to light yellow brown in colour) with a pH of 6–7 (Davies 1986; Taylor 2008). The annual rainfall, at known locations of the species, range from 485 mm (at Kingscote) to 529 mm (at American River), and mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures (at Kingscote) are 11.5 °C and 19.0 °C respectively.
The species is usually found in open scrub, tall shrubland or regenerating areas of mallee scrub, closed heath and Kangaroo Island Narrow-leaf Mallee – Broombrush (Melaleuca uncinata) associations. The overstorey is usually dominated by Kangaroo Island Narrow-leaf Mallee. Understorey species of this plant community include Holly Grevillea (Grevillea ilicifolia), Sticky Swordsedge (Lepidosperma viscidum), Slender Honey Myrtle (Melaleuca gibbosa), Broombrush, Micrantheum demissum, Rough Fan Flower (Scaevola linearis) and Centenary Starburst (Thryptomene ericaea) (Barker & Dashorst 1984; Davies 1986; Taylor 2008).
The Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush flowers between June and February (Davies 1986; Jessop & Toelken 1986).
Currently, all subpopulations of the Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush are threatened by small scale vegetation clearance activities, weeds (specifically Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), Perennial Veldt Grass (Erharta calycina) and Phalaris (Phalaris aquatica)), soil salinity and trampling. Due to their highly fragmented population, all subpopulations are also potentially threatened by edge effects. Subpopulation A (which accounts for 97% of the total population) is threatened by herbivore grazing and erosion. Phytophthora spp. infestation is an issue at subpopulation B (which is 3% of total population), and this subpopulation is also potentially under threat from declining genetic viability due to its small size (less than 1000 plants) (Taylor 2008).
In 1984, undisturbed native roadside vegetation containing Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush was cleared. In 1985, an exemption in the Native Vegetation Management Act 1985, allowed an area of regenerating vegetation containing the species to be legally destroyed. A very small population on the edge of a regenerating patch of native vegetation was also ploughed (Davies 1986). Any remaining plants near American River are likely to be at risk from further clearing for farming, by roadwork and weed invasion (Leigh et al. 1984).
Nature Conservation Society of South Australia Inc received $21 980 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2003–04, part of which was for implementation of actions under a Threatened Species Network draft recovery plan in three areas critical to plant recovery - grazing management, weed management, community awareness and involvement.
Management documents for the Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush can be found at the start of this profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Beyeria subtecta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ci) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities||Beyeria subtecta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ci) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Beyeria subtecta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ci) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi||Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
Barker, W.R. & G.R.M. Dashorst (1984). Plant Portraits. J. Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 7(1):137-144.
Black, J.M. (1922). Flora of South Australia, Part II Casuarinaceae-Euphorbiaceae. Adelaide, SA; R. E. E. Rogers.
Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.
Commonwealth of Australia (2000). Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes. [Online]. F2005B02653. Canberra: Federal Register of Legislative Instruments. Available from: http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2005B02653.
Davies, R.J.P. (1986). Threatened Plant Species of the Mt Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island Regions of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.
Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.
Davies, R.J.P. (1996). Threatened Plant Species on Roadsides: Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Page(s) 52. Resource Management Branch.
Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.
Leigh, J., R. Boden & J. Briggs (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Macmillan.
Register of the National Estate Database (RNEDB) (2001). Register of the National Estate Database.
South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2010g). Threatened Flora of South Australia Fact Sheet - Threatened Flora on Kangaroo Island. Vulnerable Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush Beyeria subtecta . [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/ki_turpentine_bush.pdf.
Taylor, D.A. (2008). Draft Recovery Plan for 15 Nationally Threatened Plant Species, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, second edition 2003-2013. [Online]. Department for Environment and Heritage, Government of South Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/Plants_Animals/Threatened_species_ecological_communities/Recovery_planning/Plans_for_threatened_plants_in_SA.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Beyeria subtecta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 10 Mar 2014 00:34:38 +1100.