Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement advice for predation, habitat degradation,competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
QLD:Northern hairy-nosed wombat (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2013ap) [Database].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Extinct (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list)
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Critically Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Lasiorhinus krefftii [198]
Family Vombatidae:Diprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Owen,1872)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.qmuseum.qld.gov.au/nature/endangered/html/nth_wombat.html
http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/nature_conservation/wildlife/endangered_animals/northern_hairynosed_wombat/

Scientific name: Lasiorhinus krefftii
Common name: Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat
Other common name: Yaminon (Strahan 1995).

Wombats are heavily built animals with a broad head and short legs. They have strong claws to dig burrows where they spend much of their time. There are three wombats: the Common Wombat, the Southern Hairy-nosed Wombat and the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat. As the largest of the three wombats, the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat can weigh up to 40 kg and be more than 1 m long. Compared with the Common Wombat, Vombatus ursinus, the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat has softer fur, longer and more pointed ears and a broader muzzle fringed with fine whiskers (Horsup 1999; QPWS 2006).

The Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat may appear slow and clumsy but can move at speeds up to 40 km/h over a short distance (QPWS 2006).

Fossil records show this species was once widespread, living in Victoria, NSW and Queensland. However, since European settlement, the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat has only been found in three areas: the Deniliquin area in southern NSW, the Moonie River area in southern Queensland, and Epping Forest National Park, about 200 km north-east of Barcaldine, in central Queensland (QPWS 2006). Both the Moonie River and Deniliquin populations are believed to have become extinct in the early 1900s (Horsup 1999).

The current distribution of the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat is restricted to a single locality in Epping Forest National Park along the Belyando river system (Horsup 1999) which runs through the Park. In July 2006, two wombats were successfully moved to a new burrow within Epping Forest National Park as part of a trial to establish how best to translocate some wombats to a new, distant site (QPWS 2006a).

Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats currently occupy about 300 ha of the 3160 ha of Epping Forest National Park (QPWS 2006).

The population at Epping Forest and surrounding properties underwent three periods of decline between 1920 and the 1960s, resulting in a reduction in numbers of around 80%. In 1985–87 the population was estimated to be about 70 (Crossman et al. 1994). Population estimates based on trapping studies put the population at 67 in 1985–86, 62 in 1988–89 and 65 in 1993 (Horsup 1998, 1999; Hoyle et al. 1995). The population was estimated at 113 individuals in 2000, of which as few as 25 may have been breeding females (Horsup 2004). The most recent estimates put the population at approximately 90 animals (Treby et al. 2007).

Population modelling supports the establishment of a second colony by translocating animals (Hoyle et al. 1998) and a site at St George has been identified for this purpose (Burley 2008).

While breeding rates fell during droughts in the early part of the 1990s, the Epping Forest National Park experienced better than average rainfall from 1996 to 2000. In recent years, water and supplementary feed have been provided to the wombats and burrow monitoring has indicated, based on the size of footprints and dung at burrows, that there are a significant number of young wombats in the population (QPWS 2006).

Genetic studies have confirmed the identity of the Epping Forest and Deniliquin specimens as a single species (Roy et al. 1994).

Analysis of genetic variability indicates that there has been a considerable reduction in genetic variation with heterozygosity levels much lower in the the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat at Epping Forest than in the Southern Hairy-nosed Wombat, L. latifrons, and in the extinct Deniliquin population. This is consistent with a low effective population size or "bottleneck" over a number of years (Taylor et al. 1994).

No Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats are held in captivity (QPWS 2006).

The only remaining population of the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat occurs in the Epping Forest National Park.

The Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat occurs in semi-arid cattle grazing country (Horsup 1999).

The vegetation at Epping Forest National Park is dominated by Brigalow and Gidgee (Acacia harpophylla and A. cambagei) scrub, intersected by a gully with deep sandy soils supporting a mixed eucalypt woodland. Dominant native grasses are Aristida spp. and Enneapogon spp. but the introduced Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) is increasing in abundance (Horsup 1999).

Deep sandy soils are required for burrow construction and these occur along the banks of a single wide gully in the National Park. Most of the Park's soils are heavy clays, unsuitable for burrows. The burrows are usually located close to trees whose roots may provide support in the soft, sandy soil and crowns provide shade (Horsup 1999).

Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats mark their burrows with dung and splashes of urine. A burrow can be spotted by the mound of dug-out sand at the entrance, which can be 1 m high and more than 2 m long. Burrow tunnels can be up to 20 m long, less than half a metre wide, and three-and-a-half metres underground. Well-formed 'runways' are dug through the mound and into the tunnel. Wombats maintain several approaches to their burrows, each in a different direction (QPWS 2006).

Compared with other native animals such as kangaroos, Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats live for a long time with an average lifespan estimated at more than 20 years (QPWS 2006).

Females of this species are seasonally polyoestrous (they breed only during particular months of the year). Most births occur between November and April. The young remain in the pouch for six to nine months, then stay in the burrows when their mothers go out to feed. Young wombats are weaned at 12 months and start fending for themselves during summer. In good years, between 50 and 80% of females breed, giving birth to one wombat at a time (Horsup 1999; QPWS 2006). There is a clear link between good wet seasons and higher levels of reproductive activity (Treby et al. 2007).

Wombats use more than one burrow and burrow-sharing is prevalent, particularly amongst females. Males generally stay alone (Horsup 1999). Up to 10 wombats, with an equal number of males and females, live in each group of burrows. Burrows are popular with other animals such as swamp wallabies and goannas, which use the burrows to rest in during hot weather (QPWS 2006).

The diet of the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat consists of at least 12 species of grasses and sedges, predominantly three native species (Aristida spp., Enneapogon spp. and Fimbristylis dichotoma) and the introduced Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) which has increased in abundance since the removal of livestock from the park (Horsup 1999).

They eat the leaves rather than the stems, which provide the wombat with good nutrition (QPWS 2006).


The Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat only feeds at night and only when it's not too cold or too hot and dry (QPWS 2006). They forage primarily in the grassy areas of the gully (Johnson 1991). Even in droughts, adult Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats stay in generally good health and body condition. They conserve energy and water in the stable environment of their burrows and only venture out when conditions are optimal (QPWS 2006).

They usually feed for six hours a night in winter and two hours in summer. By comparison, an Eastern Grey kangaroo of similar size feeds for about 18 hours a day (QPWS 2006).

The teeth of the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat continue to grow throughout its life. The teeth grow at the same rate that they are worn through use. This means even a very old wombat still has all its strong teeth and is capable of grinding its food very finely (QPWS 2006).

The Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat is strictly nocturnal. The species is active for about two hours per night in summer but up to six in winter (Johnson 1991).

It has been reported that at least 50% of adult females undertake long-term dispersal to other burrows in Epping Forest National Park at some time in their lives, presumably to reduce the possibility of inbreeding between wombats within burrow groups (Horsup 1999). However, analysis of relatedness among pairs of animals using microsatellite DNA has not confirmed the hypothesis of female dispersal (Taylor et al. 1997a).

Home ranges of radio-collared animals varied seasonally with core areas averaging 2.62 ha (n=4) in summer and 6.24 ha (n=7) in winter (Johnson 1991).

Feeding home ranges show little overlap between members of the same sex but females overlap with males. Post-breeding dispersal is atypical in that females appear to disperse rather than males (Johnson & Crossman 1991b). Radio-tracking has shown wombats feed over a fairly small area for an animal of their size - about 27 ha (QPWS 2006).

Winter (dry season) feeding areas are larger than summer (wet season) areas due to the lower availability of food. There is no difference in size between the areas used by males and females (QPWS 2006).

Past threats
Evidence suggests that the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat was uncommon prior to its very rapid decline over the past 200 years (Crossman 1988; QPWS 2006). Cattle and sheep grazing of the Wombat's food source, in combination with drought and (possibly) predation by dingoes, appear to be the main factors that have contributed to the species' decline (Gordon et al. 1985; Horsup 1999; QPWS 2006). Epping Forest National Park was excised from two cattle stations in 1971, although cattle grazing continued until 1981 when it was fenced to exclude cattle (Horsup 1999).

Current threats
Small population
The current major threat to the Epping Forest population is its small size which makes it vulnerable to demographic and environmental stochasticity; inbreeding and consequent loss of genetic variation; predation; competition; disease and wildfire. In addition, the sex ratio is highly skewed towards males, with only 35 females (including perhaps only 25 breeding females) in the population of 113 wombats (Horsup 2004). Competition from other grazers, especially the Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), is considered to be negligible at present population densities (Woolnough & Johnson 2000).

Fire
Epping Forest National Park receives low rainfall and is regularly subjected to periods of drought, therefore the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat is at risk from wildfire (QPWS 2006).

Predation
A major threat which has just become apparent is predation by dingoes. In 2000 and 2001, despite the presence of a regular baiting program, ten adult Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats were killed by dingoes. This equated to nearly 10% of the population (Gordon et al. 1985; Horsup 1999; QPWS 2006). This has been addressed by the erection of a dingo-proof fence around all Wombat habitat in Epping Forest National Park (Horsup 2004).

Introduced species
Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), a species introduced to the area by the grazing industry, has invaded the Epping Forest National Park in the last 10–15 years. It is abundant in disturbed areas, particularly around burrows and along fire control lines and is spreading into wombat feeding areas. Its solid, clumpy growth form is probably unsuitable for the wombats (Woolnough 1998, in Horsup 1999). Buffell Grass is a difficult species to control and, because of its dense, dry form, increases the fire risk (Woolnough 1998, in Horsup 1999).

Disease
Other threats to the population are diseases such as toxoplasmosis (found in cat faeces) or mange (QPWS 2006).

The Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat has been the subject of a major recovery program since 1992 (Horsup 1999), including the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Recovery Plan 2004-2008 (Horsup 2004). The overall goal of this recovery plan was to achieve a minimum total population of 150 Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats in two wild populations and at least one captive population by 2007. Because of the biology and level of endangerment of the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat, medium and long-term objectives are also addressed.

Specific objectives (5 years)

  • Identify and control threats and manage habitat to optimise conditions for wombat survival at Epping Forest National Park.
  • Facilitate community involvement and education in Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat conservation.
  • Accurately monitor wombats.
  • Finalise reintroduction site selection.
  • Prepare and manage reintroduction site.
  • Translocate Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats.
  • Develop captive techniques in other wombat species.
  • Establish Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats in captivity.
  • Increase understanding of wombat biology and ecology.
  • Effectively manage the recovery program.

Medium-term objectives (10 years)

  • Increase the range and abundance of Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats in Epping Forest National Park, increasing the population to 200.
  • Establish a minimum captive population of four Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats and have them breeding.
  • Breed Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats in captivity to supplement the Epping Forest National Park population and the second wild population.
  • Have the second wild population expanding in range and abundance.

Long-term objective (50 years)
Establish viable metapopulations of Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats throughout their historic range such that the risk of extinction is less than 1% over 100 years.

In May 2008, the Queensland Environment Protection Agency announced that it was preparing a property near St George for the translocation of around 12 Northern Hairy-nosed Wombats (Burley 2008; Moore 2008) from the Epping Forest National Park. This is a three year, $3 million project with funding assistance from a mining company, Xstrata.

Horsup, A. (2004) Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) Recovery Plan 2004-2008 Environmental Protection Agency, Queensland.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) 1998-2002 (Horsup, A., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Reduced rainfall caused by climate change Recovery Plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) 1998-2002 (Horsup, A., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) 1998-2002 (Horsup, A., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel-grass, Black Buffel-grass) Recovery Plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) 1998-2002 (Horsup, A., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Recovery Plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) 1998-2002 (Horsup, A., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Recovery Plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) 1998-2002 (Horsup, A., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus dingo (Dingo, Warrigal, New Guinea Singing Dog) Recovery Plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) 1998-2002 (Horsup, A., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Assessment of the potential for competition between two sympatric herbivores - the northern hairy-nosed wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii, and the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus. Wildlife Research. 27:301-308. (Woolnough, A.P. & C.N. Johnson, 2000) [Journal].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) 1998-2002 (Horsup, A., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008 (Horsup, A., 2004) [Recovery Plan].

Burley, L. (2008). Wombats' survival chances get a boost. Toowoomba Chronicle 27 May 2008.

Crossman, D.G (1998). Population ecology and diet of the northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii (Owen)) Research Report to the World Wildlife Fund Australia for Project 64.. Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service, Rockhampton.

Crossman, D.G., C.N. Johnson & A.B. Horsup (1994). Trends in the population of the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii in Epping Forest National Park, Central Queensland. Pacific Conservation Biology. 1:141-149.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

Gordon, G., T. Riney, J. Toop, B.C. Lawrie & M.D. Godwin (1985). Observations on the Queensland hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii (Owen). Biological Conservation. 33:165-195.

Horsup, A. (1998). A trapping survey of the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii. In: Wells, R.T. & Pridmore, P.A., eds. Wombats. Page(s) 147-155. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton, NSW.

Horsup, A. (1999). Recovery Plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) 1998-2002. [Online]. QPWS. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/hairy-nosed-wombat/index.html.

Horsup, A. (2004). Recovery plan for the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008. [Online]. Brisbane: Environmental Protection Agency and Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/l-krefftii/index.html.

Hoyle S.D., A.B. Horsup, C.N. Johnson, D.G. Crossman & H. McCallum (1995). Live-trapping of the northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii): population-size estimates and effects on individuals. Wildlife Research. 22:741-755.

Hoyle, S.D., D. Alpers & B. Sherwin (1998). A population simulation of the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii for conservation and management. In: Wells, R.T. & Pridmore, P.A., eds. Wombats. Page(s) 165-179. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton, NSW.

Johnson, C.N. (1991). Utilization of habitat by the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii. Journal of Zoology (London). 225:495-507.

Johnson, C.N. & D.G. Crossman (1991b). Dispersal and social organization of the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii. Journal of Zoology (London). 225:605-613.

Moore, T (2008). New Territory for rare wombats. Wildlife Australia. 48(3):35.

Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (QPWS) (2006). Endangered animals: Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat: fact sheet. [Online]. Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/nature_conservation/wildlife/threatened_plants_and_animals/endangered/northern_hairynosed_wombat/. [Accessed: 21-Jun-2007].

Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (QPWS) (2006a). Wombats on the Move. [Online]. Press Release of 6 September 2006. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/projects/media/?release=1004.

Roy, M.S., D.J. Girman, A.C. Taylor & R.K. Wayne (1994). The use of museum specimens to reconstruct the genetic variability and relationships of extinct populations. Experientia. 50:551-557.

Strahan, R., ed. (1995). The Mammals of Australia, Second Edition. Sydney: Reed Books.

Taylor A.C., A. Horsup, C.N. Johnson, P. Sunnucks & B. Sherwin (1997a). Relatedness structure detected by microsatellite analysis and attempted pedigree reconstruction in an endangered marsupial, the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii. Molecular Ecology. 6:9-19.

Taylor, A.C., W.B. Sherwin & R.K. Wayne (1994). Genetic variation of microsatellite loci in a bottlenecked species: the northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii). Molecular Ecology. 3:277-290.

Treby, D.L., A. Horsup & P.J. Murray (2007). Field evaluation of supplementary feed and water for the northern hairy-nosed wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii. Wildlife Research. 34:149-155.

Woolnough, A.P. & C.N. Johnson (2000). Assessment of the potential for competition between two sympatric herbivores - the northern hairy-nosed wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii, and the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus. Wildlife Research. 27:301-308.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Lasiorhinus krefftii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 21 Sep 2014 05:22:20 +1000.