In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pultenaea parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008cn) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Pultenaea parviflora |
|Species author||Sieber ex DC.|
|Reference||Prodromus 2: 111 (mid Nov. 1825).|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images
Scientific name: Pultenaea parviflora
Pultenaea parviflora is a small, erect to prostrate shrub generally less than 1 m high, with single yellow flowers with reddish markings, 57 mm long that occur towards the end of branchlets (Benson & McDougall 1996; DEC 2005; James 1997; de Kok & West 2002). The leaves are alternate, 26 mm long and 11.5 mm wide (DEC 2005).
This species is confined to the Cumberland Plain, west of Sydney on the Central Coast, NSW (de Kok & West 2002; Harden 1991; Nash & Matthes 1995). Within this area the species is mainly found between Penrith and Windsor (Benson & McDougall 1996).
It is found in the following local government areas: Blacktown (four records), Hawkesbury (six records), Liverpool (four records) and Penrith (four records) (Nash & Matthes 1995). Most records are from roadsides, vacant crown land or private property. Populations occur in Windsor Downs Nature Reserve and near Long Neck Lagoon (Hawkesbury); at five locations in Penrith; Castlereagh Nature Reserve, in or adjoining Agnes Banks Nature Reserve, on Australian Defence Industries land at St Marys, at Shanes Park and on remnant bushland at Kemps Creek; at Marsden Park (Blacktown) and Badgerys Creek (Liverpool) (Benson & McDougall 1996; Nash & Matthes 1995).
The species may be locally abundant in areas where it occurs, particularly within scrubby/dry heath areas within Castlereagh Ironbark Forest and Shale Gravel Transition Forest on tertiary alluvium or laterised clays, and in transitional areas where these communities adjoin Castlereagh Scribbly Gum Woodland (DEC 2005).
Populations have been recorded as containing between 10 and 5000+ individuals (RTA 2001, in NSW NPWS 2002). Population abundance is a product of past disturbance history at a site, such as fire events (NSW NPWS 2002).
Pultenaea parviflora is recorded in the following reserved areas (NSW NPWS 2002y):
- Scheyville National Park
- Windsor Downs Nature Reserve
- Castlereagh Nature Reserve
- ADI Regional Park.
This species grows in dry sclerophyll woodlands, forest or in grasslands on Wianamatta Shale, laterite or Tertiary alluvium, on infertile sandy to clay soils (Benson & McDougall 1991a, 1996; Harden 1991; de Kok & West 2002). The water table is mostly low and moisture supply intermittent (Benson & McDougall 1991a, 1996; Harden 1991).
At Badgerys Creek it occurs in shrubby woodland of Eucalyptus fibrosa, Melaleuca decora and Melaleuca nodosa on red brown clay soil (Benson & McDougall 1996; Nash & Matthes 1995). At other sites it is associated with Acacia decurrens, Acacia elongata, Allocasuarina littoralis, Angophora bakeri, Bursaria spinosa, Daviesia genistifolia, Eucalyptus sclerophylla, Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Hakea sericea, Kunzea ambigua and Olearia microphylla (de Kok & West 2002). It has been positively identified in the Castlereagh Ironbark Forest by Tozer (2003).
The species often grows with other threatened species such as Dillwynia tenuifolia, Acacia pubescens and Micromyrtus minutiflora (James 1997).
The species is suggested to live for approximately 20 years (NSW NPWS 2002y).
Flowering occurs from August to November, with peak flowering occurring in September. Fruiting occurs from October to November, maturing in December (de Kok & West 2002; Nash & Matthes 1995). Current estimates are that reproductive maturity is not reached for 34 years, and peak reproduction until 56 years (DEC 2005). Plants are killed by fire and re-establish from soil-stored seed and flower after they reach 34 years (Benson & McDougall 1996).
The following threatening processes have been identified for the species:
Habitat Degradation and Disturbance
The habitat for this species is threatened by continued rural and suburban development (Benson & McDougall 1996; Fairley & Moore 1989; Liverpool City Council 2001). Further threats include indiscriminate clearing for fire mitigation purposes, clearing for sand and gravel extraction, lack of genetic diversity through habitat fragmentation and competition by introduced species (Nash & Matthes 1995). Repeated disturbance of populations, particularly at intervals of less than 68 years, is likely to result in population declines. Disturbance intervals of less than 4 years are likely to result in extinction (NSW NPWS 2002y).
Inappropriate Fire Regimes
The species is said to be fire sensitive like many species in the Fabaceae genus (Auld 1996), however a fire interval of 1015 years is required to allow the seed bank in soil to establish and create suitable fuel levels to produce moderate to high intensity fires required to promote germination (NSW NPWS 2002y).
A study by Zeppel and colleagues (2003) has also identified that more than half the known range of this species is in areas affected by dryland salinity.
The NSW Department of the Environment, Climate Change and Water have identified six priority actions to help recover this species (DEC 2005):
- Fire intervals of 1015 yrs (where there are no needs for asset protection zones).
- Protect areas of known and potential habitat from clearing and further fragmentation.
- A community awareness program.
- Research into pollinating species for Pultenaea parviflora.
- Identify and survey potential habitat for the species.
- Monitor known populations.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Pultenaea parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ts) [Internet].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Pultenaea parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ts) [Internet].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pultenaea parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008cn) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||
Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Pultenaea parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ts) [Internet].
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Pultenaea parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ts) [Internet].|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pultenaea parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008cn) [Conservation Advice].|
|Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals|
Auld, T.D. (1996). Ecology of the Fabaceae in the Sydney region: fire, ants and the soil seedbank. Cunninghamia. 4(4):532-551.
Benson, D. & L. McDougall (1996). Ecology of Sydney plant species Part 4: Dicotyledon family Fabaceae. Cunninghamia. 4(4):553-756. Sydney: Royal Botanic Gardens.
Benson, D. & McDougall, L. (1991a). Rare Bushland Plants of Western Sydney. Sydney: Royal Botanic Gardens.
de Kok, R.P.J. & J.G. West (2002). A revision of Pultenaea (Fabaceae) 1. Species with ovaries glabrous and/or with tufted hairs. Australian Systematic Botany. 15(1):81-113. [Online]. Available from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=SB00035.pdf.
Fairley, A. & P. Moore (1989). Native Plants of the Sydney District, An Identification Guide. Kangaroo Press & Society for Growing Aust. Plants.
Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
James, T. (1997). Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey. Stage 1: Western Sydney: Native Flora. Hurstville: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.
Liverpool City Council (2001). Flora of Liverpool, Sydney, Australia. [Online]. Available from: http://www.liverpool.nsw.gov.au/info/flora.html.
Nash, S. & Matthes, M. (1995). A Review of the Status of Five Rare Plants in the Cumberland Plain. Hurstville: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Services.
NSW Department of the Environment, Climate Change and Water (DEC) (2005). Pultenaea parviflora- Profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10715. [Accessed: 27-Apr-2010].
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NPWS) (2002y). Interpretation Guidelines for the Native Vegetation Maps of the Cumberland Plain, Western Sydney. Final Edition. [Online]. Hurstville, NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/PDFs/cumb_plain_mapping_interpguidelines.pdf.
Tozer, M. (2003). The native vegetation of the Cumberland Plain, western Sydney: systematic classification and field identification of communities. Cunninghamia. 8(1):1-75.
Zeppel, M.J.B., B.R. Murray & D. Eamus (2003). The potential impact of dryland salinity on the threatened flora and fauna of New South Wales. Ecological Management & Restoration. 4:53-59.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pultenaea parviflora in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 24 Sep 2014 07:40:25 +1000.