Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Environment Australia (EA), 1999a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.3 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010h) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 55 Revised 2004 - Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G., 2004) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Critically Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Philoria frosti [1934]
Family Myobatrachidae:Anura:Amphibia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Spencer,1901
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Philoria frosti

Common name: Baw Baw Frog

The Baw Baw Frog grows to 45 mm. It is dark brown above with scattered black flecks and irregular lighter patches. The upper surface is scattered with small warts on the sides and rump. There are prominent black lobe-shaped paratoid glands on each side extending over the shoulders (Cogger 1990).

The Baw Baw Frog is restricted entirely to the Baw Baw Plateau, located approximately 120 km east of Melbourne, Victoria. (Hollis 1995; Malone 1985a). Despite searches in close proximity to the plateau, and in similar environments (Mount Useful and Mount Torongo), the species has not been found elsewhere (Malone 1985a).

Encompassing an area of approximately 80 km², the Baw Baw Plateau between approximately 1260 and 1560 meters above sea level is contained within the Baw Baw National Park, except for approximately 3.5 km² near Mt Baw Baw that is managed by the Victorian Alpine Resorts Commission (Hollis 1997). At lower elevations, between 960 and 1300 m, records of the species occur from montane forest along the southern escarpment of the Baw Baw Plateau (Hollis 2001 pers. comm.).

In 1983 and 1984 a comprehensive assessment was undertaken of the distribution of the species. The Baw Baw Frog was found to be widely distributed and abundant in the western (Mt Baw Baw), central (Mt St Phillack) and north-western (Mt Whitelaw) parts of the plateau. There were fewer records from the eastern region (Mt St Gwinear), and the species was conspicuously absent from the south-east region (Malone 1985a).

In 1995, Malone (1985a) estimated the adult male population of the Baw Baw Frog to be 10 000+ individuals. During a series of extensive annual surveys carried out since then, a considerable reduction in the abundance of the species has been observed (Hollis 1995, 1997; Osborne et al. 1999). Malone (1985a) recorded calling males in 73% (64 of 88) of frost hollows surveyed in 1983 and 1984, compared to 46% (22 of 48) recorded by Hollis (1995) in 1993. In a subset of 35 frost hollows surveyed in both 1983 and 1993, Malone (1985a) recorded 3694 males compared with 83 by Hollis (1995). Similarly, in a subset of 19 frost hollows surveyed in both 1984 and 1993, 885 males were recorded in 1984 compared with 19 in 1993. Hollis (1995) and Osborne et al. (1999) only recorded 2.2% and 2.1% of the number of males recorded by Malone in 1983 and 1984 respectively.

Surveys during subsequent years (1994 to 1997) indicated that the species is currently restricted to the western half of the Baw Baw plateau (particularly to steeper montane forested areas on the edge of the western plateau (Osborne 2001 pers. comm.), with a contraction of the distribution from eastern and western areas (Osborne et al. 1999). Twenty-four sites surveyed on the Baw Baw plateau originally by Malone (1985a) were re-surveyed annually by Osborne et al. (1999) for numbers of calling males present. At all sites there has been a very large reduction in the numbers recorded. The mean number of calling males recorded at 24 sites declined from 124 individuals in 1983 to between 1.5 and 3.3 individuals over the five years 1993 to 1997. In 1983 to 1984 the maximum population size recorded at a monitoring site was 667 individuals, by contrast between 1993 and 1997 the largest population recorded was 41 individuals. In 1997 frogs were recorded at only six of the 25 monitoring sites (Osborne et al. 1999).

All of the Baw Baw Frog populations have been recorded in the reserve system: Baw Baw National Park, Mt Baw Baw Alpine Resort and adjoining State Forest (Hollis 1997).

All of the Baw Baw Frog populations have been recorded in the reserve system: Baw Baw National Park, Mt Baw Baw Alpine Resort and adjoining State Forest (Hollis 1997).

The Baw Baw Frog is a habitat specialist. During the breeding season (September to December), calling males, gravid females and egg masses have been recorded along seepage lines within or at the periphery of sub-alpine wet heathland and in gullies within montane vegetation communities (Hollis 1995; Malone 1985a). Overall, surveys from 1993 to 1996 indicate that breeding localities are restricted to topographically protected gully habitats compared with the broader breeding distribution of the species over a decade ago (Hollis 1997).

The breeding microhabitat of the species is predominantly natural cavities in or under vegetation, logs, peat and soil, and rock (or combinations of these), that act as catchments for water travelling down slope (Hollis 1995; Littlejohn 1963; Malone 1985a). These sites occur along seepages or rivulets that drain water from the slopes of sub-alpine wet heathland and in gullies that drain the plateau (Barker et al. 1995; Hollis 1997).

Oviposition (egg laying) appears to be confined to a shorter interval of two to three weeks during the known calling period, when a peak in calling activity occurs (Hollis 1995; Malone 1985a, b). The timing of this peak in calling activity may vary between breeding seasons.

Egg masses are deposited in a transparent foam nest (8 cm diameter and 3 to 4 cm high) at or near the calling site, during inguinal amplexus. The foam nest is produced by the female beating air bubbles into the mucous and eggs with flanged fingers during egg laying (Littlejohn 1963). The egg mass may be deposited at varying depths in vegetation, or below the ground surface, depending on the structural attributes of the site. Depths of over a metre have been observed, whilst others are deposited in vegetation very close to the surface (Hollis 1997). Clutch sizes range from 50 to 185 (Littlejohn 1963; Malone 1985a,b; Tyler 1992). Ova are white and unpigmented and measure on average 4 mm in diameter (Malone 1985b). Oviposition of more than one clutch may occur at a single site (Hollis 1997; Malone 1985b). It is also possible that females deposit a portion of their eggs at more than one site (Malone 1985a). Under natural conditions the embryonic period varies from five to eight weeks, with individuals hatching at Gosner stages 22-23. The larvae are non-feeding, hatching with a residual yolk mass that maintains them through to metamorphosis (Malone 1985a,b).

Examination of the stomach contents of 30 museum species shows that the Baw Baw Frog consumes a variety of invertebrates (eight orders of aquatic and terrestrial species) including aquatic larvae and an unusually high percentage of annelids (Hollis 2001 pers. comm.).

A radio-tracking study conducted over six months (November 1995 to April 1996) showed that movement by adult Baw Baw Frogs is variable yet restricted to particular weather patterns. During the breeding season, some males remain at calling sites for most of the season, whilst others move away after several weeks (Hollis 1997). Malone (1985a,b) found that in the 1983 and 1984 surveys, when the Baw Baw Frog was relatively common, calling males continually disappeared from calling sites throughout the breeding season, only to be replaced by others.

Radio-tracking and trapping studies indicate that females move into breeding sites from adjacent habitats to lay their eggs, then return to the same adjacent habitats (Hollis 1997). Movement by males at the completion of the breeding season varies, with some individuals remaining in close proximity to the breeding sites ( less than 6 m), whilst others moved considerable distances (up to 82 m linear distance) (Hollis 1997; Hollis 2001, pers. comm.). Similarly, radio-tracking showed that some females also move relatively short distances from breeding sites (less than 8 m), whilst others move considerable distances away (up to 40 m) (Hollis 1997).

Gravid females have been pit-trapped in sub-alpine woodland habitats up to 70 m from known male calling sites early in the breeding season, and spent females at similar distances in the same habitat at the end of the breeding season. It is not known whether frogs move during the cold months of the year when snow lies on the ground (June to September), although it is presumed that they remain relatively inactive like other ectotherms in temperate regions (Hollis 1997).

Larvae usually remain at oviposition sites through to metamorphosis (Barker et al. 1995; Hollis 1997). Upon hatching, however, larvae have also been observed to move small distances in shallow water from oviposition sites, while remaining covered under vegetation and/or woody debris (Hollis 1997) or to be washed into nearby pools (B. Malone pers. comm. in Hollis 1997).

The methods that have been successfully used in the past to survey the Baw Baw Frog are visual encounter surveys, call surveys and egg mass surveys (UC 2003).

Call surveys should be conducted during the known calling period of the Baw Baw Frog, between September and December (Hollis 1995; Littlejohn 1963; Malone 1985). Calling activity may occur at any time of the day or night, with the greatest levels of activity being recorded during relatively warm, humid conditions (Hollis 1997). Very little calling activity occurs at temperatures near freezing (Malone 1985a) or when temperatures are high with low humidity (Hollis 1997).

Egg mass surveys may be effective as this species has clearly visible eggs. The larval period of the Baw Baw Frog is from September to January (Hollis 1995; Littlejohn 1963; Malone 1985). Breeding locations for this species occur in natural cavities in or under vegetation, logs, peat, soil and rocks (Hollis 1995, 1997). Tadpoles have been recorded usually at oviposition sites or in nearby pools (Hollis 1997).

Extensive surveying conducted by Hollis (1997) and Malone (1985a, b) employed pitfall traps as a means of trapping gravid females in sub-alpine woodland habitats. Both surveyors also note the use of radio tracking as an effective means to monitor the Baw Baw Frog's seasonal movement patterns.

The lack of information available on the population dynamics and demography of the Baw Baw Frog makes it is very difficult to interpret the observed decline in the adult male population (Hollis 1997). This decline however coincides with a recent global phenomenon of declining amphibians (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein & Wake 1990; Tyler 1991), and perhaps of more concern, with the reported decline of species restricted to mountain-top and alpine environments in Australia (e.g. Osborne 1990; Richards et al. 1993) and overseas (Crump et al. 1992; La Marca & Reinthaler 1991).

Numerous hypotheses have been generated to explain these declines, but few as yet have been investigated thoroughly (Hollis 1997). Those that have, or are currently being investigated, include climate (Osborne 1990; Richards et al. 1993), ultraviolet radiation (Blaustein et al. 1994), atmospheric pollution (Bradford et al. 1994) and pathogens (Blaustein et al. 1994; Trenerry et al. 1994). No thorough investigation of these hypotheses has been undertaken for the Baw Baw Frog, or for any other Australian "mountain-top" species. Recent studies of amphibian disease have identified a chytrid fungus as a cause of frog mortality and as the cause of death of frogs collected during declines (Berger et al. 1998;1999). The role of chytrid fungus in the decline of the Baw Baw Frog is not known.

Chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease affecting amphibians worldwide. The disease has been recorded in four regions of Australia, namely the east coast, south-west Western Australia, Adelaide, and more recently Tasmania. This highly virulent fungal pathogen of amphibians is capable at the minimum of causing sporadic deaths in some populations, and 100 per cent mortality in other populations (AGDEH 2006o).

Forestry operations may also pose a threat to the species where it occurs in State Forests (Osborne 2001 pers. comm.).

The Department of the Environment and Heritage has developed a threat abatement plan which aims to :

  • Prevent amphibian populations or regions that are currently chytridiomycosis-free from becoming infected by preventing further spread of the amphibian chytrid within Australia,
  • Decrease the impact of infection with the amphibian chytrid fungus on populations that are currently infected.

The Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis can be found at http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/chytrid/index.html

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Fertiliser application Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Personal Communication (Hollis, G., 2001) [Personal Communication].
Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements Acidic deposition as an unlikely cause for amphibian population declines in the Sierra Nevada, California. Conservation Biology. 69:155-161. (Bradford, D.F., M.S. Gordon, D.F. Johnson, R.D. Andrews & W.B. Jennings, 1994) [Journal].
Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Reduced rainfall caused by climate change Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Declining frog populations and extinctions in the Canberra region. Bogong. 11:4-7. (Osborne, W.S., 1990) [Journal].
Declines in populations of Australia's endemic tropical rainforest frogs. Pacific Conservation Biology. 1:66-77. (Richards, S.J., K.R. McDonald & R.A. Alford, 1993) [Journal].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Personal Communication (Hollis, G., 2001) [Personal Communication].
Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Salix spp. except S.babylonica, S.x calodendron & S.x reichardtii (Willows except Weeping Willow, Pussy Willow and Sterile Pussy Willow) Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Personal Communication (Hollis, G., 2001) [Personal Communication].
Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Personal Communication (Hollis, G., 2001) [Personal Communication].
Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Personal Communication (Hollis, G., 2001) [Personal Communication].
Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Cervus unicolor (Sambar) Personal Communication (Hollis, G., 2001) [Personal Communication].
National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Chytrid fungi and amphibian declines: overview, implications and future directions. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 23-33. (Berger, L., R. Speare & A. Hyatt, 1999) [Book].
Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by mammals National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Predation by reptiles National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Pollutants: National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti (Hollis, G.J., 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Personal Communication (Hollis, G., 2001) [Personal Communication].
Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) - 1997-2001 (Hollis, G.J., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].

Barinaga, P.H. (1990). Where have all the froggies gone?. Science. 247:1033-1034.

Barker, J., G.C. Grigg. & M.J. Tyler (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Berger, L., R. Speare & A. Hyatt (1999). Chytrid fungi and amphibian declines: overview, implications and future directions. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 23-33. [Online]. Canberra: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/frogs.html.

Berger, L., R. Speare, P. Daszak, D.E. Green, A.A. Cunningham, C.L. Goggin, R. Slocombe, M.A. Ragan, A.D. Hyatt, K.R. McDonald, H.B. Hines, K.R. Lips, G. Marrantelli & H. Parkes (1998). Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rainforest of Australia and Central America. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 95:9031-9036.

Blaustein, A.R. & D.B. Wake (1990). Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon?. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 5:203-204.

Blaustein, A.R., P.D. Hoffman, D.G. Hokit, J.M. Kiesecker, S.C. Walls & J.B. Hays (1994). UV repair and resistance to solar UV-B in amphibian eggs: A link to population declines?. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 91:1791-1795.

Bradford, D.F., M.S. Gordon, D.F. Johnson, R.D. Andrews & W.B. Jennings (1994). Acidic deposition as an unlikely cause for amphibian population declines in the Sierra Nevada, California. Conservation Biology. 69:155-161.

Cogger, H.G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia - 6th edition. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006o). Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/chytrid.html.

Crump, M.L., F.R. Hensley & Clark, K.L. (1992). Apparent decline of the golden toad: Underground or extinct?. Copeia. 1992:413-420.

Hollis, G. (2001). Personal Communication.

Hollis, G.J. (1995). Reassessment of the distribution, abundance and habitat of the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti Spencer: Preliminary Findings. Victorian Naturalist. 112:190-201.

Hollis, G.J. (2011). National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog Philoria frosti. [Online]. Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/philoria-frosti.html.

La Marca, E. & H.P. Reinthaler (1991). Population changes in Atelopus species of the Cordeillera de Merida, Venezuela. Herpetological Review. 22:125-128.

Littlejohn, M.J. (1963). The Breeding Biology of the Baw Baw Frog. In: Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 88:273-276.

Malone, B.S. (1985a). Status, distribution and ecology of the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti). Arthur Rylah Institute Technical Report No. 36. Arthur Rylah I., Dept Cons., Forests & Lands, Vic.

Malone, B.S. (1985b). Mortality during the early life history stages of the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti). In: G. Grigg, R. Shine & H. Ehmann, eds. Biology of Australasian Frogs and Reptiles. Page(s) 1-5. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney.

Osborne, W. (2001). Personal Communication.

Osborne, W., D. Hunter & G. Hollis (1999). Population declines and range contraction in Australian alpine frogs. In: A. Campbell, ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 145-157. Canberra: Environment Australia.

Osborne, W.S. (1990). Declining frog populations and extinctions in the Canberra region. Bogong. 11:4-7.

Richards, S.J., K.R. McDonald & R.A. Alford (1993). Declines in populations of Australia's endemic tropical rainforest frogs. Pacific Conservation Biology. 1:66-77.

Trenerry, M.P., W.F. Laurance & K.R. McDonald (1994). Further evidence for the precipitous decline of endemic rainforest frogs in tropical Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology. 1:150-153.

Tyler, M.J. (1991). Declining amphibians - a global phenomenon? An Australian perspective. Alytes. 9:43-45.

Tyler, M.J. (1992). Encyclopedia of Australian Animals: Frogs. Sydney, NSW: Angus and Robertson.

University of Canberra (UC) (2003). Survey Standards for Australian Frogs. Canberra, Australia: Applied Ecology Research Group, UC.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Philoria frosti in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 14 Jul 2014 13:18:18 +1000.