In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Symplocos baeuerlenii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008afk) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Symplocos baeuerlenii (Small-leaved Hazelwood) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012aw) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010o) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Symplocos baeuerlenii |
|Reference||Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 27: 594, t. xxviii (Apr. 1903).|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
The Small-leaved Hazelwood is a tall shrub or small tree that grows to 7 m tall. The bark is smooth and dark-brown, with vertical fissures. The buds and branchlets are finely hairy. The leaves are thin, 2.5-7 cm long, 0.7-2 cm wide, lance-shaped and have a fine tip. The leaf margins are toothed, with 4-8 pairs of irregular teeth. Small cream flowers are clustered in racemes, and grow to red, fleshy and oval-shaped fruits (drupes) (Harden 1993a).
The Small-leaved Hazelwood is restricted to the Mount Warning caldera from Springbrook in Queensland, to the Nightcap Range in north-east New South Wales and within 40 km of the coast (Queensland Herbarium 2009c).
In New South Wales it is known from the Nightcap National Park, Mount Jerusalem National Park, Wollumbin National Park, Numinbah Nature reserve, Whian Whian State Conservation Area, Duroby Nature reserve and the Tweed and Brunswick Valleys. In Queensland it occurs in the Gold Coast Local Government Area, Mount Cougal National Park and Natural Arch National Park (Briggs & Leigh 1995).
The extent of occurence is estimated to be 600km². The area of occupancy is unknown (Queensland Herbarium 2009c).
The Small-leaved Hazelwood is known from approximately ten populations (Floyd 2008; Queensland Herbarium 2009c). There is limited information available on population numbers and the total population size is unknown. Labels of herbarium records include abundance measures of "very common", "infrequent", "occasional" and "rare at site", while one label says "only 1 or 2 plants seen" (Queensland Herbarium 2009c).
This species grows in subtropical and warm temperate rainforests on less fertile soils derived from rhyolite (Harden 1993a; NSW OEH 2012p) and occasionally in wet sclerophyll forest adjacent to rainforest. The altitude of known sites ranges from 140 m to 1000 m above sea level (Queensland Herbarium 2009c).
Associated species include, at higher elevations, the Soft Corkwood (Caldcluvia paniculosa), Silky Oak (Orites excelsa) and Sassafras (Doryphora sassafras), and at lower elevations characteristic canopy species include the Blue Quandong (Elaeocarpus grandis), Red Carabeen (Geissois benthamii), Grey Possumwood (Quintinia verdonii) and Yellow Carabeen (Sloanea woollsii) (Barry & Thomas 1994; Quinn et al. 1995; Queensland Herbarium 2009c). Patches of tall Antarctic Beech (Nothofagus moorei) closed forest are also present (Barry & Thomas 1994; Queensland Herbarium 2009c).
Flowering has been recorded from August to September and fruiting has been recorded in December and February (Queensland Herbarium 2009c). It is unknown whether the species can reproduces vegetatively. Pollinating mechanisms and disturbance response are unknown.
Threats to the Small-leaved Hazelwood include (NSW OEH 2012p):
- Localised extinction due to the small population size
- Timber harvesting activities
- Inappropriate fire regimes
- Clearing of warm temperate rainforest for agriculture and other development
- Accidental disturbance through road maintenance.
The following regional and local priority recovery and threat abatement actions have been identified to support the recovery of the Small-leaved Hazelwood:
- Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
- Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
- Identify populations of high conservation priority.
- Ensure road widening and maintenance activities (or other infrastructure or development activities) involving substrate or vegetation disturbance in areas where the Small-leaved Hazelwood occurs do not adversely impact on known populations.
- Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreeements and convenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
- Minimise adverse impacts such as timber harvesting, clearing and development from land use at known sites.
- Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for the Small-leaved Hazelwood.
- Provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk managment plans, risk register and/or operation maps.
- Raise awareness of the Small-leaved Hazelwood within the local community by encouraging people to identify new locations and participate in rehabilitation projects.
- Undertake seed collection and storage.
- Investigate options for expanding and reconnecting warm temperate rainforest remnants and linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
- Implement national translocation protocols if establishment of additonal populations is considered necessary and feasible (TSSC 2008afk; NSW OEH 2012p).
Existing plans and managment prescriptions relevant to the Small-leaved Hazelwood:
- Parks and Reserves of the Tweed Caldera – Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 2004a).
- Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW and Queensland (NSW DECCW 2010n).
- Tweed Vegetation Management Strategy - August 2004 (Kingston, Turnbull & Hall 2004a).
Other documents relevant to the management of the species can be found at the beginning of this profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Symplocos cochinchinensis var. montana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vn) [Conservation Advice].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Symplocos cochinchinensis var. montana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vn) [Conservation Advice].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Symplocos cochinchinensis var. montana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vn) [Conservation Advice].
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development||Symplocos baeuerlenii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vd) [Internet].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Symplocos cochinchinensis var. montana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vn) [Conservation Advice].|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads||Symplocos baeuerlenii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vd) [Internet].|
Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.
Briggs, J.D. & Leigh, J.H. (1995). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. Revised edition. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Floyd, A.G. (2008). Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. The Channon, Lismore: Terania Rainforest Publishing.
Harden, G.J. (ed) (1993a). Symplocos. In: In: Flora of New South Wales, Volume. 3. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
Kingston, M.B., J.W. Turnbull & P.W. Hall (2004a). Tweed Vegetation Management Strategy - Technical Reports August 2004 for Tweed Shire Council. [Online]. Available from: http://www.tweed.nsw.gov.au/stpuweb/VMS2004/TweedVMS_04_Vol2_Technical%20reports.pdf.
NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2010n). Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland. [Online]. Sydney South, New South Wales: Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/border-ranges/pubs/brrb-management-plan.pdf.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2004a). Parks & Reserves of the Tweed Caldera, Plan of Management. [Online]. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/parkmanagement/MountWarningNPMgmtplan.htm. [Accessed: 19-Jun-2008].
NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2012p). Small-leaved Hazelwood - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspeciesapp/profile.aspx?id=10790.
Queensland Herbarium (2009c). Symplocos baeuerlenii . Specimen label information.
Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008afk). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Symplocos baeuerlenii. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/51253-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Symplocos baeuerlenii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 17 Apr 2014 03:02:17 +1000.