Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Flora Recovery Plan: Threatened Tasmanian Forest Epacrids (Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE), 2011) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004 (Keith, D., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
TAS:Threatened Species Notesheet - Epacris grandis (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE), 2008f) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Epacris grandis (Grand Heath, Tall Heath): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014ck) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
Scientific name Epacris grandis [18719]
Family Epacridaceae:Ericales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Crowden
Infraspecies author  
Reference Crowden, R.K. (1986) Two new species of genus Epacris (Epacridaceae) from Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 120: 19, fig. 1d-e [tax. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The Grand Heath is a robust, erect, single-stemmed shrub, rarely branching at the base, growing to 3 m. Its branches bear thin, slightly concave and distinctively long leaves. The flowers are white and densely clustered along the terminal branches (Kirkpatrick 2000).

The Grand Heath is highly localised and endemic to Tas., occurring mainly in the Douglas-Apsley NP in NE Tasmania (CoA 1999d), and restricted to a small area in the foothills near Bicheno (Keith 1997). It is also found in the Hardings Falls Forest Reserve extension (Tasmanian Public Land Use Commission 1997).

Five populations are known, encompassing a total population size of 943 plants, with 657 plants in the largest population and 5 plants in the smallest. Of the total population, 78% are mature plants (Keith 1997). It is very well reserved in the Douglas-Apsley NP and Harding's Falls Forest Reserve (CoA 1999d).

A new population was found in 2001on private property at Bicheno, adjacent to the Douglas Apsley NP (P.G. Black 2001 pers. comm.).

This species grows on sheltered upper and mid slopes and river banks in dry sclerophyll forest on dolerite derived soils (Keith 1997).

It is restricted to lower altitudes - reported higher altitude records of this species are probably Epacris lanuginosa (R. Schahinger, N. Lawrence, W. Potts & S. Harris, Tasmanian DPIWE 2000, pers. comm.).

Peak flowering is in spring and seed release in late summer, with floral initiation beginning immediately afterwards (Keith 1997).

The known pollinators of Epacris species include a variety of large adult carrion flies from the Tabanidae, Muscidae and Calliphoridae families. Species of flies directly observed pollinating Epacris taxa include: Dasybasis spp., Halina sp., Calliphora sp. and Calliphora hilli (P.B.McQuillan, pers. comm. in Keith 1997). It seems likely that other species of large flies would also function as pollinators (Keith 1997).

Although the first seed crop is likely to be produced in the fourth fruiting season after fire, it may be six to eight years before a seedbank of sufficient size has accumulated to ensure sufficient seedling recruitment after a subsequent fire. Fruit production may be reduced for several years after fire (Keith 1997).

The maximum life span of individual shrubs is probably in the order of 30 to 40 years (Keith 1997).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004 (Keith, D., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004 (Keith, D., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004 (Keith, D., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004 (Keith, D., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004 (Keith, D., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004 (Keith, D., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004 (Keith, D., 1997) [State Recovery Plan].

Barker, P.C.J. (1994). Phytophthora cinnamoni: The susceptibility and management of selected Tasmanian rare species. Hobart, Tasmania: Forestry Tasmania.

Black, P.G. (2001). Personal Communication. DPIWE.

Commonwealth of Australia (CoA) (1999d). Tasmania-Commonwealth Regional Forest Agreement: Summary of Life history and population dynamics for vascular forest flora. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rfa.gov.au/rfa/tas/raa/envher/volumes1-4/fl_index.html.

Keith, D. (1997). Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004. [Online]. Hobart: Tasmanian Parks & Wildlife. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/tas-forest/index.html.

Kirkpatrick, J. (2000). Threatened Flora -plants listed as extinct, endangered or vulnerable. [Online]. Created by Bushcare Technical Extension (Tasmania). Available from: http://www.bushcare.tas.gov.au/info/.

Tasmanian DPIWE (2000). Personal communication.

Tasmanian Public Land Use Commission (1997). Inquiry into areas to be reserved under the Tasmania-Commonwealth Regional Forest Agreement Inquiry Proposed Recommendations Report. Regional Forest Agreements Tasmania. Tasmanian Public Land Use Commission, Hobart.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Epacris grandis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 2 Aug 2014 20:11:59 +1000.